Green Island, Taiwan
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Green Island, also known by
other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horror novel by Tom Tryon * The Other (short story ...
, is a small
volcanic island Geologically, a high island or volcanic island is an island of volcano, volcanic origin. The term can be used to distinguish such islands from low islands, which are formed from sedimentation or the Tectonic uplift, uplifting of coral reefs (w ...
in the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. T ...

Pacific Ocean
about off the eastern coast of
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
. It is at high tide and at low tide, making it the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...

Republic of China
's seventh-largest island. The island is administered as , a rural township of
Taitung County Taitung County (; Mandarin pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used to te ...

Taitung County
and one of the county's two offshore areas (the other being
Orchid Island Orchid Island, also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horr ...
). The island once served as a
penal colony A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer to ...
for political prisoners during Taiwan's period of martial law, although today it is primarily known as a tourist hotspot.


Names

The island was known as Sama-Sana, Samasana and as in the 19th and early 20th century, a transcription of its Amis name ''Sanasai''. The name "Green Island" is a
calque In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...

calque
of the island's
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
name, written in
traditional characters Traditional Chinese characters are one type of standard Chinese character Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural lan ...
and in simplified characters. It is also known as Lyudao, Lüdao or from the
pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of la ...

pinyin
romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign lan ...
of the name's
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
pronunciation; as from its Wade-Giles romanization; and as from its
Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucr ...
pronunciation. The name was adopted by the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...

Republic of China
on August 1, 1949, at the behest of Huang Shih-hung , the magistrate of
Taitung
Taitung
. Before that, it was usually known as (or Huoshao), a calque of its original Chinese name ''Huǒshāo Dǎo''


History

The island was originally inhabited by the
aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australians ****Australian Aboriginal identity ...
Amis people. In March 1864 the United Kingdom, British brig ''Susan Douglas'' was swept off course and wrecked on the island. Her captain then sailed by Junk (ship), junk from the island to Kaohsiung, and the Royal Navy gunboat HMS ''Bustard'' found and rescued the remainder of the survivors. In the early 1870s, William Campbell (missionary), William Campbell saw the island from aboard the ''Daphne'', and wrote: On 11 December 1937 the Dollar Steamship Company luxury ocean liner ran aground in a typhoon on a reef at Zhongliao Bay. All 503 passengers and 330 crew survived and were safely brought ashore. Over the next few days the cargo liners USS J. Franklin Bell (APA-16), SS ''President McKinley'' and USS Hugh L. Scott (AP-43), SS ''President Pierce'' took the survivors off the island, helped by boats provided by the and an Imperial Japanese Navy destroyer. Dollar Lines sold ''President Hoover''s wreck to a Japanese salvage company, which spent the next three years breaking her up ''in situ''. In response to the wreck, members of the US public gave money through the American Red Cross for a lighthouse to be built near Zhongliao village. Lyudao or Lüdao Lighthouse was designed by Japanese engineers, built by local islanders in 1938 and is high. A shipwreck of Dutch origin dating to the 19th century was found in June 2013.


Prisons

Green Island first served as an isolated spot and place of exile for political prisoners during the martial law period during the Kuomintang government, and especially in the White Terror (Taiwan), White Terror. After their release, many of the prisoners jailed between the late 1940s and the late 1980s went on to establish the Democratic Progressive Party, most notably Shih Ming-teh. Writer and political dissident Bo Yang served his prison terms there. The place where most of the political prisoners (such as Shih Ming-teh) were held was "Green Island Lodge" (''Lǜ Dǎo Shānzhuāng''). "Oasis Village" was the main penal colony. The prison was later closed, and its interior is now open to the public. "Green Island Prison" (''Lǜdǎo Jiānyù'') is also on the island and has housed prisoners considered to be among Taiwan's most dangerous criminals and gangsters. However, this has changed in recent years.


Geography

The island is formed of List of volcanoes in Taiwan, volcanic tholeiite, andesite, and volcanic explosive fragments with an area of 15 km2. The volcano erupted from the Pliocene to Pleistocene epochs and is part of the Luzon Volcanic Arc. Magma was formed by subduction of oceanic crust at a depth of about . The andesite rock contains some visible crystals of pyroxene or amphibole. The geochemistry of the rock shows it is enriched in potassium, strontium and rubidium and LREE, light rare earth elements. Chromium and nickel are depleted.


Fauna

The island is a habitat for Formosan sika deer, Reeves's muntjacs, Ryukyu flying foxes, and resident and migratory birds.


Local population

In 1995 fewer than half of the registered 2,634 residents of the island actually lived on the island. The population is dwindling due to the difficulty of finding jobs on the island. The island has two pre-schools, one kindergarten, two elementary schools and one middle school. To pursue any education at the senior high school level or above, islanders must move to the main island of Taiwan. Public service centres include one seniors' home, one library, and one community centre. The villages and the settlements (聚落) they administer are: * Zhongliao Village (中寮村) ** Zhongliao * Nanliao Village (南寮村) ** Nanliao (南寮) ** Yugang (漁港) * Gongguan Village (公館村) ** Gongguan (公館) ** Chaikou (柴口) ** Liumagou (流麻溝) ** Dahu (大湖) ** Zuoping (左坪) The following abandoned aboriginal tribal settlements also belong to Gongguan Village: * Youzihu (柚子湖) * Nanzihu (楠子湖) * Haishenping (海參坪) * Dabaisha (大白沙)


Power generation

The island is powered by its only Fossil-fuel power station, diesel-fired power plant with a capacity of 29.1 MW, consisting of 28 units of generation.


Tourist attractions

* Green Island Human Rights Culture Park * Lüdao Lighthouse * Green Island Dive Sites Recreational diving is popular for visitors. There are many dive sites that are established with walkways down to ocean About 150 meter Off Shilang, lies the biggest reef attraction 'Big Mushroom Coral' its height about 12m, width around 31m. * Sika Deer Ecological Park * Sleeping Beauty Rock * Zhaori Hot Spring Sea water heated from the volcanic action and raise to surface next to coral reefs at 53℃ and pH7.5.


Transportation

Lüdao Airport provides flights to Taitung Airport in Taitung City. There are also Ferry, ferries travelling from Green Island Nanliao Harbor, Nanliao Harbor to Fugang Fishery Harbor in Taitung City.


Books

Green island is a subject in the following book: *
Green Island, a novel (Knopf 2016)
' by Shawna Yang Ryan.


See also

* List of islands of Taiwan * List of islands in the East China Sea


References


Citations


Bibliography

* .


External links


Tourism
(Chinese)
Scuba Diving off Green Island
(English)
Book Trips to Green Island here!
(English) {{Authority control Islands of Taiwan Townships in Taitung County Landforms of Taitung County