A GREEN BELT or GREENBELT is a policy and land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas. Similar concepts are GREENWAYS or GREEN WEDGES which have a linear character and may run through an urban area instead of around it. In essence, a green belt is an invisible line designating a border around a certain area, preventing development of the area and allowing wildlife to return and be established.
* 1 Purposes * 2 History
* 3 Criticism
* 3.1 House prices
* 3.2 Increasing urban sprawl
* 4 Notable examples
* 4.1 Australia
* 4.2 Brazil
* 5 See also * 6 References
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In those countries which have them, the stated objectives of green belt policy are to:
* Protect natural or semi-natural environments ; * Improve air quality within urban areas; * Ensure that urban dwellers have access to countryside, with consequent educational and recreational opportunities; and * Protect the unique character of rural communities that might otherwise be absorbed by expanding suburbs .
The green belt has many benefits for people:
* Walking, camping, and biking areas close to the cities and towns. * Contiguous habitat network for wild plants , animals and wildlife . * Cleaner air and water * Better land use of areas within the bordering cities.
The effectiveness of green belts differs depending on location and country. They can often be eroded by urban rural fringe uses and sometimes, development 'jumps' over the green belt area, resulting in the creation of "satellite towns" which, although separated from the city by green belt, function more like suburbs than independent communities.
In modern times, the term emerged from continental Europe where broad
boulevards were increasingly used to separate new development from the
centre of historic towns; most notably the
There are fourteen green belt areas, in the UK covering 16,716 km²,
or 13% of England, and 164 km² of
The concept of "green belt" has evolved in recent years to encompass
not only "Greenspace" but also "Greenstructure", taking into account
all urban greenspaces, an important aspect of sustainable development
in the 21st century. The
An act of the Swedish parliament from 1994 has declared a series of
The difference/contrarian interpretation of the green belt's effects/motivation (for example, suggested by economist Tim Harford ) is that a green belt is created by residents to preserve the bourgeois status quo of those already living within the zone, and especially the advantage of landlords who profit from a scarcity of housing (see above, "preserving the character of rural communities"). The stated motivation and benefits of the green belt might be well-intentioned (public health, environment), but these benefits do not accrue as intentioned or claimed (for example, critics such as Mark Pennington claim that only a small fraction of the population ever sets foot on the green belt for leisure purposes, and they claim that a green belt is not strongly causally linked to clean air and water). Rather, the ultimate result of the decision to green-belt a city is to prevent housing demand within the zone to be met with supply, thus exacerbating high housing prices and stifling competitive forces in general.
INCREASING URBAN SPRAWL
Another area of criticism comes from the fact that, since a greenbelt
does not extend indefinitely outside a city, it spurs the growth of
areas much further away from the city core than if it had not existed,
thereby actually increasing urban sprawl. Examples commonly cited are
There are many examples whereby the actual effect of green belts is to act as a land reserve for future freeways and other highways. Examples include sections of the 407 highway north of Toronto and the Hunt Club Rd./Richmond Rd. south of Ottawa. Whether they are originally planned as such, or the result of a newer administration taking advantage of land that was left available by its predecessors is debatable.
Main article: Green belt (United Kingdom)
In the UK, greenbelt barriers to urban expansion have been criticized as one of several protectionist political-economic barriers to housebuilding with negative effects on the supply, cost/prices, and quality of new homes. Critics argue that the greenbelts defeat their own stated objective of saving the countryside and open spaces. By preventing existing towns and cities from extending normally and organically, they result in more land-extensive housing developments further out – i.e., the establishment beyond the greenbelts of new communities with lower building densities, their own built infrastructure and other facilities, and greater dependence on cars and commuting, etc. Meanwhile, valuable urban green space and brownfield sites best suited to industry and commerce are lost in existing conurbations as more and more new housing is crammed into them.
* The São Paulo City Green Belt Biosphere Reserve – GBBR, an integral part of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve , was created in 1994 stemming from a people's movement that collected 150 thousand signatures. It extends throughout 73 municipalities including São Paulo metro and the Santos area. With approximately 17,000 km², it is inhabited by about 23 million people, corresponding to more than 10% of the country's total population in an area equivalent to 2 thousandth of the Brazilian territory. There are over 6,000 km² of forests and other Atlantic Forest ecosystems at the Reserve, one of the planet's most threatened biomes. In addition to a spectacular biological diversity, the GBBR's ecosystems render valuable ecosystem Services.
Greater Santo Domingo has a Greenbelt (Santo Domingo Greenbelt
) project surrounding the whole
European Green Belt
Banjica Forest , Belgrade
* Royal National City
* Makati City 's green belt is very green yet full of malls and modern structures.
Designated areas of green belt in England; the Metropolitan Green Belt outlined in red
Main article: Green belt (United Kingdom)
* The Metropolitan Green Belt (5,133 km²) * The North West Green Belt (2,578 km²) * South and West Yorkshire Green Belt (2,556 km²) * West Midlands Green Belt (2,315 km²)
* The U.S. states of
* Environment portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to GREEN BELT .
* ^ Numbers 35:1–5 * ^ Mishna Torah, Zeraim, Shmittah & Yovel 13:4–5 * ^ Iqbal, Munawwar (2005). Islamic Perspectives on Sustainable Development. p. 27. Published jointly by Palgrave Macmillan, University of Bahrain, and Islamic Research and Training Institute. * ^ Halliday, Stephen (2004). Underground to Everywhere. Sutton Publishing Limited. p. 118. ISBN 0-7509-3843-9 . * ^ * ^ National Capital Commission. " National Capital Commission :: The National Capital Greenbelt :: History and Culture." National Capital Commission – Commission De La Capitale Nationale (NCC-CCN). 07 Dec. 2007. NCC-CCN. Accessed 28 June 2008, unavailable February, 2013. * ^ The Undercover Economist by Tim Harford – Book. Random House (2007-01-30). Retrieved on 2013-12-06. * ^ A B Liberating the Land: The Case for Private Land-Use Planning Institute of Economic Affairs. Iea.org.uk (2002-03-18). Retrieved on 2013-12-06. * ^ How Much Open Space is Enough?" St. Paul Pioneer Press (MN) – April 22, 2007 – A1 MAIN * ^ Political Barriers To Housebuilding In Britain: A Critical Case Study Of Protectionism ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v
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