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Ancient Greek philosophy
Ancient Greek philosophy
arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire. Philosophy
Philosophy
was used to make sense out of the world in a non-religious way. It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logic, biology, rhetoric and aesthetics.[citation needed] Many philosophers around the world agree that Greek philosophy has influenced much of Western culture
Western culture
since its inception. Alfred North Whitehead once noted: "The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato".[1] Clear, unbroken lines of influence lead from ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophers to Early Islamic philosophy, the European Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Enlightenment.[2] Some claim that Greek philosophy was in turn influenced by the older wisdom literature and mythological cosmogonies of the ancient Near East, though this is debated. Martin Litchfield West
Martin Litchfield West
gives qualified assent to this view by stating that "contact with oriental cosmology and theology helped to liberate the early Greek philosophers' imagination; it certainly gave them many suggestive ideas. But they taught themselves to reason. Philosophy
Philosophy
as we understand it is a Greek creation".[3] Subsequent philosophic tradition was so influenced by Socrates
Socrates
as presented by Plato
Plato
that it is conventional to refer to philosophy developed prior to Socrates
Socrates
as pre-Socratic philosophy. The periods following this, up to and after the wars of Alexander the Great, are those of "classical Greek" and "Hellenistic" philosophy.

Contents

1 Pre-Socratic philosophy

1.1 Milesian school 1.2 Xenophanes 1.3 Pythagoreanism 1.4 Heraclitus 1.5 Eleatic philosophy 1.6 Pluralism and atomism 1.7 Sophistry

2 Classical Greek philosophy

2.1 Socrates 2.2 Plato 2.3 Aristotle

3 Hellenistic philosophy 4 Transmission of Greek philosophy under Byzantium and Islam 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Pre-Socratic philosophy[edit] Main article: Pre-Socratic philosophy The convention of terming those philosophers who were active prior to Socrates
Socrates
the pre-Socratics gained currency with the 1903 publication of Hermann Diels' Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, although the term did not originate with him.[4] The term is considered philosophically useful because what came to be known as the "Athenian school" (composed of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle) signaled a profound shift in the subject matter and methods of philosophy; Friedrich Nietzsche's thesis that this shift began with Plato
Plato
rather than with Socrates (hence his nomenclature of "pre-Platonic philosophy") has not prevented the predominance of the "pre-Socratic" distinction.[5] The pre-Socratics were primarily concerned with cosmology, ontology and mathematics. They were distinguished from "non-philosophers" insofar as they rejected mythological explanations in favor of reasoned discourse.[6] Milesian school[edit] Main article: Milesian school Thales
Thales
of Miletus, regarded by Aristotle
Aristotle
as the first philosopher,[7] held that all things arise from a single material substance, water.[8] It is not because he gave a cosmogony that John Burnet calls him the "first man of science," but because he gave a naturalistic explanation of the cosmos and supported it with reasons.[9] According to tradition, Thales
Thales
was able to predict an eclipse and taught the Egyptians how to measure the height of the pyramids.[10] Thales
Thales
inspired the Milesian school
Milesian school
of philosophy and was followed by Anaximander, who argued that the substratum or arche could not be water or any of the classical elements but was instead something "unlimited" or "indefinite" (in Greek, the apeiron). He began from the observation that the world seems to consist of opposites (e.g., hot and cold), yet a thing can become its opposite (e.g., a hot thing cold). Therefore, they cannot truly be opposites but rather must both be manifestations of some underlying unity that is neither. This underlying unity (substratum, arche) could not be any of the classical elements, since they were one extreme or another. For example, water is wet, the opposite of dry, while fire is dry, the opposite of wet.[11] This initial state is ageless and imperishable, and everything returns to it according to necessity [12]Anaximenes in turn held that the arche was air, although John Burnet argues that by this he meant that it was a transparent mist, the aether.[13] Despite their varied answers, the Milesian school
Milesian school
was searching for a natural substance that would remain unchanged despite appearing in different forms, and thus represents one of the first scientific attempts to answer the question that would lead to the development of modern atomic theory; "the Milesians," says Burnet, "asked for the φύσις of all things."[14] Xenophanes[edit] Main article: Xenophanes Xenophanes
Xenophanes
was born in Ionia, where the Milesian school
Milesian school
was at its most powerful, and may have picked up some of the Milesians' cosmological theories as a result.[15] What is known is that he argued that each of the phenomena had a natural rather than divine explanation in a manner reminiscent of Anaximander's theories and that there was only one god, the world as a whole, and that he ridiculed the anthropomorphism of the Greek religion by claiming that cattle would claim that the gods looked like cattle, horses like horses, and lions like lions, just as the Ethiopians claimed that the gods were snubnosed and black and the Thracians claimed they were pale and red-haired.[16] Burnet says that Xenophanes
Xenophanes
was not, however, a scientific man, with many of his "naturalistic" explanations having no further support than that they render the Homeric gods superfluous or foolish.[17] He has been claimed as an influence on Eleatic philosophy, although that is disputed, and a precursor to Epicurus, a representative of a total break between science and religion.[18] Pythagoreanism[edit] Main article: Pythagoreanism Pythagoras
Pythagoras
lived at roughly the same time that Xenophanes
Xenophanes
did and, in contrast to the latter, the school that he founded sought to reconcile religious belief and reason. Little is known about his life with any reliability, however, and no writings of his survive, so it is possible that he was simply a mystic whose successors introduced rationalism into Pythagoreanism, that he was simply a rationalist whose successors are responsible for the mysticism in Pythagoreanism, or that he was actually the author of the doctrine; there is no way to know for certain.[19] Pythagoras
Pythagoras
is said to have been a disciple of Anaximander
Anaximander
and to have imbibed the cosmological concerns of the Ionians, including the idea that the cosmos is constructed of spheres, the importance of the infinite, and that air or aether is the arche of everything.[20] Pythagoreanism
Pythagoreanism
also incorporated ascetic ideals, emphasizing purgation, metempsychosis, and consequently a respect for all animal life; much was made of the correspondence between mathematics and the cosmos in a musical harmony.[21] Pythagoras
Pythagoras
believed that behind the appearance of things, there was the permanent principle of mathematics, and that the forms were based on a transcendental mathematical relation.[22] Heraclitus[edit] Main article: Heraclitus Heraclitus
Heraclitus
must have lived after Xenophanes
Xenophanes
and Pythagoras, as he condemns them along with Homer
Homer
as proving that much learning cannot teach a man to think; since Parmenides
Parmenides
refers to him in the past tense, this would place him in the 5th century BCE.[23] Contrary to the Milesian school, which posits one stable element as the arche, Heraclitus
Heraclitus
taught that panta rhei ("everything flows"), the closest element to this eternal flux being fire. All things come to pass in accordance with Logos,[24] which must be considered as "plan" or "formula",[25] and "the Logos
Logos
is common".[26] He also posited a unity of opposites, expressed through dialectic, which structured this flux, such as that seeming opposites in fact are manifestations of a common substrate to good and evil itself.[27] Heraclitus
Heraclitus
called the oppositional processes ἔρις (eris), "strife", and hypothesized that the apparently stable state of δίκη (dikê), or "justice", is the harmonic unity of these opposites.[28] Eleatic philosophy[edit] Main article: Eleatics Parmenides
Parmenides
of Elea cast his philosophy against those who held "it is and is not the same, and all things travel in opposite directions,"—presumably referring to Heraclitus
Heraclitus
and those who followed him.[29] Whereas the doctrines of the Milesian school, in suggesting that the substratum could appear in a variety of different guises, implied that everything that exists is corpuscular, Parmenides argued that the first principle of being was One, indivisible, and unchanging.[30] Being, he argued, by definition implies eternality, while only that which is can be thought; a thing which is, moreover, cannot be more or less, and so the rarefaction and condensation of the Milesians is impossible regarding Being; lastly, as movement requires that something exist apart from the thing moving (viz. the space into which it moves), the One or Being
Being
cannot move, since this would require that "space" both exist and not exist.[31] While this doctrine is at odds with ordinary sensory experience, where things do indeed change and move, the Eleatic school followed Parmenides
Parmenides
in denying that sense phenomena revealed the world as it actually was; instead, the only thing with Being
Being
was thought, or the question of whether something exists or not is one of whether it can be thought.[32] In support of this, Parmenides' pupil Zeno of Elea
Zeno of Elea
attempted to prove that the concept of motion was absurd and as such motion did not exist. He also attacked the subsequent development of pluralism, arguing that it was incompatible with Being.[33] His arguments are known as Zeno's paradoxes. Pluralism and atomism[edit] The power of Parmenides' logic was such that some subsequent philosophers abandoned the monism of the Milesians, Xenophanes, Heraclitus, and Parmenides, where one thing was the arche, and adopted pluralism, such as Empedocles
Empedocles
and Anaxagoras.[34] There were, they said, multiple elements which were not reducible to one another and these were set in motion by love and strife (as in Empedocles) or by Mind (as in Anaxagoras). Agreeing with Parmenides
Parmenides
that there is no coming into being or passing away, genesis or decay, they said that things appear to come into being and pass away because the elements out of which they are composed assemble or disassemble while themselves being unchanging.[35] Leucippus
Leucippus
also proposed an ontological pluralism with a cosmogony based on two main elements: the vacuum and atoms. These, by means of their inherent movement, are crossing the void and creating the real material bodies. His theories were not well known by the time of Plato, however, and they were ultimately incorporated into the work of his student, Democritus.[36] Sophistry[edit] Main article: Sophists Sophistry arose from the juxtaposition of physis (nature) and nomos (law). John Burnet posits its origin in the scientific progress of the previous centuries which suggested that Being
Being
was radically different from what was experienced by the senses and, if comprehensible at all, was not comprehensible in terms of order; the world in which men lived, on the other hand, was one of law and order, albeit of humankind's own making.[37] At the same time, nature was constant, while what was by law differed from one place to another and could be changed. The first man to call himself a sophist, according to Plato, was Protagoras, whom he presents as teaching that all virtue is conventional. It was Protagoras
Protagoras
who claimed that "man is the measure of all things, of the things that are, that they are, and of the things that are not, that they are not," which Plato
Plato
interprets as a radical perspectivism, where some things seem to be one way for one person (and so actually are that way) and another way for another person (and so actually are that way as well); the conclusion being that one cannot look to nature for guidance regarding how to live one's life.[38] Protagoras
Protagoras
and subsequent sophists tended to teach rhetoric as their primary vocation. Prodicus, Gorgias, Hippias, and Thrasymachus appear in various dialogues, sometimes explicitly teaching that while nature provides no ethical guidance, the guidance that the laws provide is worthless, or that nature favors those who act against the laws. Classical Greek philosophy[edit] Socrates[edit] Main article: Socrates

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Socrates, born in Athens in the 5th century BCE, marks a watershed in ancient Greek philosophy. Athens was a center of learning, with sophists and philosophers traveling from across Greece to teach rhetoric, astronomy, cosmology, geometry, and the like. The great statesman Pericles
Pericles
was closely associated with this new learning and a friend of Anaxagoras, however, and his political opponents struck at him by taking advantage of a conservative reaction against the philosophers; it became a crime to investigate the things above the heavens or below the earth, subjects considered impious. Anaxagoras
Anaxagoras
is said to have been charged and to have fled into exile when Socrates was about twenty years of age.[39] There is a story that Protagoras, too, was forced to flee and that the Athenians burned his books.[40] Socrates, however, is the only subject recorded as charged under this law, convicted, and sentenced to death in 399 BCE (see Trial of Socrates). In the version of his defense speech presented by Plato, he claims that it is the envy he arouses on account of his being a philosopher that will convict him. While philosophy was an established pursuit prior to Socrates, Cicero credits him as "the first who brought philosophy down from the heavens, placed it in cities, introduced it into families, and obliged it to examine into life and morals, and good and evil."[41] By this account he would be considered the founder of political philosophy.[42] The reasons for this turn toward political and ethical subjects remain the object of much study.[43][44] The fact that many conversations involving Socrates
Socrates
(as recounted by Plato
Plato
and Xenophon) end without having reached a firm conclusion, or aporetically,[45] has stimulated debate over the meaning of the Socratic method.[46] Socrates
Socrates
is said to have pursued this probing question-and-answer style of examination on a number of topics, usually attempting to arrive at a defensible and attractive definition of a virtue. While Socrates' recorded conversations rarely provide a definite answer to the question under examination, several maxims or paradoxes for which he has become known recur. Socrates
Socrates
taught that no one desires what is bad, and so if anyone does something that truly is bad, it must be unwillingly or out of ignorance; consequently, all virtue is knowledge.[47][48] He frequently remarks on his own ignorance (claiming that he does not know what courage is, for example). Plato
Plato
presents him as distinguishing himself from the common run of mankind by the fact that, while they know nothing noble and good, they do not know that they do not know, whereas Socrates
Socrates
knows and acknowledges that he knows nothing noble and good.[49] Numerous subsequent philosophical movements were inspired by Socrates or his younger associates. Plato
Plato
casts Socrates
Socrates
as the main interlocutor in his dialogues, deriving from them the basis of Platonism
Platonism
(and by extension, Neoplatonism). Plato's student Aristotle in turn criticized and built upon the doctrines he ascribed to Socrates
Socrates
and Plato, forming the foundation of Aristotelianism. Antisthenes
Antisthenes
founded the school that would come to be known as Cynicism and accused Plato
Plato
of distorting Socrates' teachings. Zeno of Citium
Zeno of Citium
in turn adapted the ethics of Cynicism to articulate Stoicism. Epicurus studied with Platonic and Stoic teachers before renouncing all previous philosophers (including Democritus, on whose atomism the Epicurean
Epicurean
philosophy relies). The philosophic movements that were to dominate the intellectual life of the Roman empire
Roman empire
were thus born in this febrile period following Socrates' activity, and either directly or indirectly influenced by him. They were also absorbed by the expanding Muslim world in the 7th through 10th centuries AD, from which they returned to the West as foundations of Medieval philosophy and the Renaissance, as discussed below. Plato[edit] Main article: Plato Plato
Plato
was an Athenian of the generation after Socrates. Ancient tradition ascribes thirty-six dialogues and thirteen letters to him, although of these only twenty-four of the dialogues are now universally recognized as authentic; most modern scholars believe that at least twenty-eight dialogues and two of the letters were in fact written by Plato, although all of the thirty-six dialogues have some defenders.[50] A further nine dialogues are ascribed to Plato
Plato
but were considered spurious even in antiquity.[51] Plato's dialogues feature Socrates, although not always as the leader of the conversation. (One dialogue, the Laws, instead contains an "Athenian Stranger.") Along with Xenophon, Plato
Plato
is the primary source of information about Socrates' life and beliefs and it is not always easy to distinguish between the two. While the Socrates
Socrates
presented in the dialogues is often taken to be Plato's mouthpiece, Socrates' reputation for irony, his caginess regarding his own opinions in the dialogues, and his occasional absence from or minor role in the conversation serve to conceal Plato's doctrines.[52] Much of what is said about his doctrines is derived from what Aristotle
Aristotle
reports about them. The political doctrine ascribed to Plato
Plato
is derived from the Republic, the Laws, and the Statesman. The first of these contains the suggestion that there will not be justice in cities unless they are ruled by philosopher kings; those responsible for enforcing the laws are compelled to hold their women, children, and property in common; and the individual is taught to pursue the common good through noble lies; the Republic says that such a city is likely impossible, however, generally assuming that philosophers would refuse to rule and the people would refuse to compel them to do so.[53] Whereas the Republic is premised on a distinction between the sort of knowledge possessed by the philosopher and that possessed by the king or political man, Socrates
Socrates
explores only the character of the philosopher; in the Statesman, on the other hand, a participant referred to as the Eleatic Stranger discusses the sort of knowledge possessed by the political man, while Socrates
Socrates
listens quietly.[53] Although rule by a wise man would be preferable to rule by law, the wise cannot help but be judged by the unwise, and so in practice, rule by law is deemed necessary. Both the Republic and the Statesman reveal the limitations of politics, raising the question of what political order would be best given those constraints; that question is addressed in the Laws, a dialogue that does not take place in Athens and from which Socrates
Socrates
is absent.[53] The character of the society described there is eminently conservative, a corrected or liberalized timocracy on the Spartan or Cretan model or that of pre-democratic Athens.[53] Plato's dialogues also have metaphysical themes, the most famous of which is his theory of forms. It holds that non-material abstract (but substantial) forms (or ideas), and not the material world of change known to us through our physical senses, possess the highest and most fundamental kind of reality. Plato
Plato
often uses long-form analogies (usually allegories) to explain his ideas; the most famous is perhaps the Allegory of the Cave. It likens most humans to people tied up in a cave, who look only at shadows on the walls and have no other conception of reality.[54] If they turned around, they would see what is casting the shadows (and thereby gain a further dimension to their reality). If some left the cave, they would see the outside world illuminated by the sun (representing the ultimate form of goodness and truth). If these travelers then re-entered the cave, the people inside (who are still only familiar with the shadows) would not be equipped to believe reports of this 'outside world'.[55] This story explains the theory of forms with their different levels of reality, and advances the view that philosopher-kings are wisest while most humans are ignorant.[56] One student of Plato
Plato
(who would become another of the most influential philosophers of all time) stressed the implication that understanding relies upon first-hand observation. Aristotle[edit] Main article: Aristotle Aristotle
Aristotle
moved to Athens from his native Stageira
Stageira
in 367 BCE and began to study philosophy (perhaps even rhetoric, under Isocrates), eventually enrolling at Plato's Academy.[57] He left Athens approximately twenty years later to study botany and zoology, became a tutor of Alexander the Great, and ultimately returned to Athens a decade later to establish his own school: the Lyceum.[58] At least twenty-nine of his treatises have survived, known as the corpus Aristotelicum, and address a variety of subjects including logic, physics, optics, metaphysics, ethics, rhetoric, politics, poetry, botany, and zoology. Aristotle
Aristotle
is often portrayed as disagreeing with his teacher Plato (e.g., in Raphael's School of Athens). He criticizes the regimes described in Plato's Republic and Laws,[59] and refers to the theory of forms as "empty words and poetic metaphors."[60] He is generally presented as giving greater weight to empirical observation and practical concerns. Aristotle's fame was not great during the Hellenistic period, when Stoic logic was in vogue, but later peripatetic commentators popularized his work, which eventually contributed heavily to Islamic, Jewish, and medieval Christian philosophy.[61] His influence was such that Avicenna
Avicenna
referred to him simply as "the Master"; Maimonides, Alfarabi, Averroes, and Aquinas
Aquinas
as "the Philosopher." Hellenistic philosophy[edit]

The philosopher Pyrrho
Pyrrho
from Elis, in an anecdote taken from Sextus Empiricus' Pyrrhonic Sketches

(upper) PIRRHO • HELIENSIS • PLISTARCHI • FILIVS translation (from Latin): Phyrrho . Greek . Son of Plistarchus

(middle) OPORTERE • SAPIENTEM HANC ILLIVS IMITARI SECVRITATEM translation (from Latin): It is right wisdom then that all imitate this security (Phyrrho pointing at a peaceful pig munching his food)

(lower) Whoever wants to apply the real wisdom, shall not mind trepidation and misery

Main article: Hellenistic philosophy During the Hellenistic and Roman periods, many different schools of thought developed in the Hellenistic world and then the Greco-Roman world. There were Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Syrians and Arabs who contributed to the development of Hellenistic philosophy. Elements of Persian philosophy and Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
also had an influence. The most notable schools of Hellenistic philosophy
Hellenistic philosophy
were:

Neoplatonism: Plotinus
Plotinus
(Egyptian), Ammonius Saccas, Porphyry (Syrian), Zethos (Arab), Iamblichus (Syrian), Proclus Academic Skepticism: Arcesilaus, Carneades, Cicero
Cicero
(Roman) Pyrrhonian Skepticism: Pyrrho, Sextus Empiricus Cynicism: Antisthenes, Diogenes
Diogenes
of Sinope, Crates of Thebes
Crates of Thebes
(taught Zeno of Citium, founder of Stoicism) Stoicism: Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, Chrysippus, Crates of Mallus (brought Stoicism
Stoicism
to Rome c. 170 BCE), Panaetius, Posidonius, Seneca (Roman), Epictetus
Epictetus
(Greek/Roman), Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
(Roman) Epicureanism: Epicurus
Epicurus
(Greek) and Lucretius
Lucretius
(Roman) Eclecticism: Cicero
Cicero
(Roman)

The spread of Christianity
Christianity
throughout the Roman world, followed by the spread of Islam, ushered in the end of Hellenistic philosophy
Hellenistic philosophy
and the beginnings of Medieval philosophy, which was dominated by the three Abrahamic traditions: Jewish philosophy, Christian philosophy, and early Islamic philosophy. Transmission of Greek philosophy under Byzantium and Islam[edit] Main article: Arab
Arab
transmission of the Classics to the West See also: Early Islamic philosophy
Early Islamic philosophy
and Latin translations of the 12th century During the Middle Ages, Greek ideas were largely forgotten in Western Europe
Europe
due to the Migration Period, which resulted into decline in literacy. In the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
Greek ideas were preserved and studied, and not long after the first major expansion of Islam, however, the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs authorized the gathering of Greek manuscripts and hired translators to increase their prestige. Islamic philosophers such as Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
(Alkindus), Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
(Alpharabius), Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes) reinterpreted these works, and during the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
Greek philosophy re-entered the West through translations from Arabic to Latin and also from the Byzantine Empire.[62] The re-introduction of these philosophies, accompanied by the new Arabic commentaries, had a great influence on Medieval philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas. Although we are fortunate to have some figures who preserved these valuable texts, the general trend in Islam
Islam
was to dispose of books that conflicted with the teachings of Mohammad. This can be seen in events such as the burning of the Al-hakam II library in Córdoba by Al-Mansur Ibn and Abi Aamir in 976. [63][64] See also[edit]

Ancient philosophy Byzantine philosophy Dehellenization English words of Greek origin International scientific vocabulary List of ancient Greek philosophers Translingualism Transliteration of Greek into English

Notes[edit]

^ Alfred North Whitehead
Alfred North Whitehead
(1929), Process and Reality, Part II, Chap. I, Sect. I. ^ Kevin Scharp (Department of Philosophy, Ohio State University) – Diagrams Archived 2014-10-31 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Griffin, Jasper; Boardman, John; Murray, Oswyn (2001). The Oxford history of Greece and the Hellenistic world. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 140. ISBN 0-19-280137-6.  ^ Greg Whitlock, preface to The Pre-Platonic Philosophers, by Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
(Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001), xiv–xvi. ^ Greg Whitlock, preface to The Pre-Platonic Philosophers, by Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
(Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001), xiii–xix. ^ John Burnet, Greek Philosophy: Thales
Thales
to Plato, 3rd ed. (London: A & C Black Ltd., 1920), 3–16. Scanned version from Internet Archive ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics
Metaphysics
Alpha, 983b18. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics
Metaphysics
Alpha, 983 b6 8–11. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 3–4, 18. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 18–20; Herodotus, Histories, I.74. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 22–24. ^ Guthrie, p.83 ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 21. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 27. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 35. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 35; Diels-Kranz, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, Xenophanes, frs. 15–16. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 36. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 33, 36. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 37–38. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 38–39. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 40–49. ^ C. M. Bowra 1957 The Greek experience p. 166" ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 57. ^ DK B1. ^ pp. 419ff., W. K. C. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, 1962. ^ DK B2. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 57–63. ^ DK B80 ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 64. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 66–67. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 68. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 67. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 82. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 69. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 70. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 94. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 105–10. ^ Burnet, Greek Philosophy, 113–17. ^ Debra Nails, The People of Plato
Plato
(Indianapolis: Hackett, 2002), 24. ^ Nails, People of Plato, 256. ^ Marcus Tullius Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, V 10–11 (or V IV). ^ Leo Strauss, Natural Right and History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953), 120. ^ Seth Benardete, The Argument of the Action (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 277–96. ^ Laurence Lampert, How Philosophy
Philosophy
Became Socratic (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010). ^ Cf. Plato, Republic 336c & 337a, Theaetetus 150c, Apology of Socrates
Socrates
23a; Xenophon, Memorabilia 4.4.9; Aristotle, Sophistical Refutations 183b7. ^ W. K. C. Guthrie, The Greek Philosophers
Philosophers
(London: Methuen, 1950), 73–75. ^ Terence Irwin, The Development of Ethics, vol. 1 (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2007), 14 ^ Gerasimos Santas, "The Socratic Paradoxes", Philosophical Review 73 (1964): 147–64, 147. ^ Apology of Socrates
Socrates
21d. ^ John M. Cooper, ed., Complete Works, by Plato
Plato
(Indianapolis: Hackett, 1997), v–vi, viii–xii, 1634–35. ^ Cooper, ed., Complete Works, by Plato, v–vi, viii–xii. ^ Leo Strauss, The City and Man (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), 50–51. ^ a b c d Leo Strauss, "Plato", in History of Political Philosophy, ed. Leo Strauss
Leo Strauss
and Joseph Cropsey, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1987): 33–89. ^ " Plato
Plato
- Allegory of the cave" (PDF). classicalastrologer.files.wordpress.com.  ^ "Allegory of the Cave". washington.edu.  ^ Garth Kemerling. "Plato: The Republic 5-10". philosophypages.com.  ^ Carnes Lord, Introduction to The Politics, by Aristotle
Aristotle
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984): 1–29. ^ Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy
Philosophy
(New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972). ^ Aristotle, Politics, bk. 2, ch. 1–6. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics, 991a20–22. ^ Robin Smith, "Aristotle's Logic," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Philosophy
(2007). ^ Lindberg, David. (1992) The Beginnings of Western Science. University of Chicago Press. p. 162. ^ Ann Christy, Christians in Al-Andalus:711–1000, (Curzon Press, 2002), 142. ^ Libraries, Claude Gilliot, Medieval Islamic Civilization: L-Z, Index, ed. Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach, (Routledge, 2006), 451.

References[edit]

Baird, Forrest E.; Walter Kaufmann (2008). From Plato
Plato
to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-158591-6.  Nikolaos Bakalis (2005). Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales
Thales
to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing ISBN 1-4120-4843-5 John Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy, 1930. Charles Freeman (1996). Egypt, Greece and Rome. Oxford University Press.  William Keith Chambers Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy: Volume 1, The Earlier Presocratics and the Pythagoreans, 1962. Søren Kierkegaard, On the Concept of Irony
Irony
with Continual Reference to Socrates, 1841. A. A. Long. Hellenistic Philosophy. University of California, 1992. (2nd Ed.) Martin Litchfield West, Early Greek Philosophy
Philosophy
and the Orient, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1971. Martin Litchfield West, The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry
Poetry
and Myth, Oxford [England] ; New York: Clarendon Press, 1997.

Further reading[edit]

Clark, Stephen (2013). "Chapter 2: Influence from outside". Ancient Mediterranean Philosophy: An Introduction. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-4411-2359-6.  Hughes, Bettany (2010). The Hemlock Cup: Socrates, Athens and the Search for the Good Life, ISBN 0-224-07178-5. Loudovikos, Nikolaos (2003). Protopresbyter, Theological History of the Ancient Hellenic Philosophy
Philosophy
– Presocratics, Socrates, Plato
Plato
(in Greek), Pournaras Publishing, Athens, , ISBN 960-242-296-3. Luchte, James (2011). Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn, in series, Bloomsbury Studies in Ancient Philosophy, Bloomsbury Publishing, London. ISBN 978-0567353313. Nightingale, Andrea Wilson (2004). Spectacles of Truth in Classical Greek Philosophy: Theoria in Its Cultural Context, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-83825-8.

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Ancient Greek Philosophy, entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Ancient Greek Philosophers, Worldhistorycharts.com The Impact of Greek Culture on Normative Judaism from the Hellenistic Period through the Middle Ages
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