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The name Greek Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
(Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía, IPA: [elinorˈθoðoksi ekliˈsia]), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches[5][6][7] within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek,[8] the original language of the New Testament,[9][10] and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers
Church Fathers
and the culture of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire. Greek Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
has also traditionally placed heavy emphasis and awarded high prestige to traditions of Christian monasticism and asceticism, with origins in Early Christianity
Christianity
in the Near East
Near East
and in Byzantine
Byzantine
Anatolia. Today, the most important centres of Christian Orthodox monasticism are Saint Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
(Egypt), Meteora
Meteora
at Thessaly
Thessaly
in Greece, Mount Athos
Mount Athos
in Greek Macedonia, Mar Saba
Mar Saba
in the Bethlehem Governorate
Bethlehem Governorate
of the West Bank, and the Monastery of Saint John the Theologian on the island of Patmos
Patmos
in Greece. Historically, the term "Greek Orthodox" has also been used to describe all Eastern Orthodox Churches in general, since "Greek" in "Greek Orthodox" can refer to the heritage of the Byzantine Empire.[11][12][13] During the first eight centuries of Christian history, most major intellectual, cultural, and social developments in the Christian Church
Christian Church
took place within the Empire or in the sphere of its influence,[13][14][15] where the Greek language
Greek language
was widely spoken and used for most theological writings. Over time, most parts of the liturgy, traditions, and practices of the church of Constantinople were adopted by all, and still provide the basic patterns of contemporary Orthodoxy.[16][17][18] Thus, the Eastern Church came to be called "Greek" Orthodox in the same way that the Western Church is called "Roman" Catholic. However, the appellation "Greek" was abandoned by the Slavic and other Eastern Orthodox churches in connection with their peoples' national awakenings, from as early as the 10th century A.D.[a] Thus, today it is generally only those churches that are most closely tied to Greek or Byzantine
Byzantine
culture that are called "Greek Orthodox".

Contents

1 Overview 2 Churches 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Overview[edit]

Our Lady of Tinos

The Greek Orthodox churches are descended from churches which the Apostles founded in the Balkans
Balkans
and the Middle East
Middle East
during the first century A.D.,[b] and they maintain many traditions practiced in the ancient Church.[28] Orthodox Churches, unlike the Catholic Church, have no Bishopric head, such as a Pope, and hold the belief that Christ is the head of the Church. However, they are each governed by a committee of Bishops, called the Holy Synod, with one central Bishop holding the honorary title of "first among equals." Greek Orthodox Churches are united in communion with each other, as well as with the other Orthodox Churches (such as the Russian Orthodox Church). The Orthodox hold a common doctrine and a common form of worship, and they see themselves not as separate Churches but as administrative units of one single Church. They are notable for their extensive tradition of iconography (see also: Byzantine
Byzantine
art), for their veneration of the Mother of God
Mother of God
and the Saints, and for their use of the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
on Sundays, which is a standardized worship service dating back to the fourth century A.D. in its current form. The most commonly used Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
of the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
was written by Saint John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
(347–407 A.D.). Others are attributed to St. Basil the Great, St. James, the Brother of God and St. Gregory the Dialogist. The current territory of the Greek Orthodox Churches more or less covers the areas in the Balkans, Anatolia, and the Eastern Mediterranean that used to be a part of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire. The majority of Greek Orthodox Christians live within Greece
Greece
and elsewhere in the southern Balkans
Balkans
(especially in Albania), but also in Jordan, the Occupied Palestinian territories, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Cyprus, Anatolia, European Turkey, and the South Caucasus. In addition, due to the large Greek diaspora, there are many Greek Orthodox Christians who live in North America and Australia. Orthodox Christians in Finland, who compose about 1% of the population, are also under the jurisdiction of a Greek Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
(the Ecumenical Patriarchate). There are also many Greek Orthodox Christians, with origins dating back to the Byzantine
Byzantine
and Ottoman periods, who are of Arabic-speaking or mixed Greek and Arabic-speaking ancestry and live in southern Turkey, Israel, Palestine, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Egypt. They attend churches which conduct their services in Arabic, the common language of most Greek Orthodox believers in the Levant, while at the same time maintaining elements of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Greek cultural tradition. Ethnic Greeks in Russia
Greeks in Russia
and Greeks
Greeks
in Ukraine, as well as Pontic Greeks
Greeks
and Caucasus Greeks
Caucasus Greeks
from the former Russian Transcaucasus, often consider themselves both Greek Orthodox and Russian Orthodox, which is consistent with the Orthodox faith (since Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
is the same across ethnic boundaries). Thus, they may attend services held in Old Russian
Old Russian
and Old Church Slavonic, without this in any way undermining their Orthodox faith or distinct Greek ethnic identity. Over the centuries, these Pontic Greek-speaking Greek Orthodox communities have mixed through intermarriage in varying degrees with ethnic Russians and other Orthodox Christians from mainly Southern Russia, where most of them settled between the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and early 19th century. Churches[edit]

A religious procession in Corfu

Saint Therapon (Mytilene)

The churches where the Greek Orthodox term is applicable are:

The four ancient Patriarchates:

The Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople,[29] headed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the "first among equals" of the Eastern Orthodox Communion

Semi-autonomous Archdiocese of Crete The four eparchies of the Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople:

The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain[30] The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy
and Malta[31] The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America[32] The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia[33]

The Greek Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
of Alexandria[34] The Greek Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
of Antioch[35] The Greek Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
of Jerusalem[36]

The Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
of Mount Sinai[37]

Three autocephalous churches:

The Church of Greece[38] The Church of Cyprus[39][40][41] The Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania[42] also known as "Greek Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
of Albania" or "Church of Albania"[43][44] led since the collapse of the former Stalinist régime by Archbishop Anastasios, a Greek national. The Church conducts its liturgy in Koine Greek
Koine Greek
in the areas of Albania
Albania
populated by the ethnic Greek minority, alongside the use of Albanian throughout the country.[45]

Gallery[edit]

Seal of the Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople

View of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem

Cathedral of Evangelismos
Cathedral of Evangelismos
in Alexandria

St Andrew's Cathedral, Patras

Hagia Sophia, Thessaloniki

Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens

Saint Dionysios Cathedral, Zakynthos

Agios Minas Cathedral, Heraklion

Agios Nikolaos church, Athens

Kykkos Monastery, Cyprus

Chiesa di St Giorgio dei Greci in Venice
Venice
(1548)

Holy Trinity
Holy Trinity
Greek Orthodox Church, Vienna, designed by Theophil Hansen (1856)

The building (1881) of the Phanar Greek Orthodox College
Phanar Greek Orthodox College
(Phanari), established in 1454

Cathedral of St Sophia (1925), Sydney, Australia

Church of the Annunciation in Wauwatosa, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright

Allerheiligenkirche in Munich
Munich
(1995)

Saint Nicholas Cathedral, Seoul

See also[edit]

Eastern Christianity
Christianity
portal

East–West Schism Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople            Orthodox Church History of the Orthodox Church Russian Orthodoxy Slavic Orthodox Armenian Apostolic Church

Name days in Greece Pentarchy Ecumenism Greeks

References[edit]

^ See:[19][19][20][20][21] ^ See:[22][23][24][25][26][27][28]

^ Tore Tvarnø Lind (2012). The Past is Always Present: The Revival of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Musical Tradition at Mount Athos. Scarecrow Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8108-8147-1. The yellow/black flag that can be seen on Mount Athos
Mount Athos
and elsewhere in Greece
Greece
today is the modern flag of the Greek Orthodox Church.  ^ The Flag Bulletin. 27. Flag Research Center. 1988. p. 105. It is not surprising that all symbols of Mount Athos, especially the Byzantine
Byzantine
double-eagle and the Holy Virgin, who is the patron of the Holy Mount, represent old Byzantine
Byzantine
traditions. [...] The flag of Mount Athos
Mount Athos
(Fig. 1)bearing the black Byzantine
Byzantine
double-headed eagle with an imperial crown. The eagle holds on its claws an orb of black with golden bands and a black...  ^ Vitali Vitaliev (1 September 1995). Little is the light: nostalgic travels in the mini-states of Europe. Touchstone Books. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-671-71925-8. The state flag of Mount Athos
Mount Athos
- a black two-headed eagle...  ^ William G. Crampton (1990). The Complete Guide to Flags. Gallery Books. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8317-1605-9. Greek Yellow with a 2-headed Orthodox black eagle (also for Mount Church Athos)  ^ Demetrios J. Constantelos, Understanding the Greek Orthodox Church, Holy Cross Orthodox Press 3rd edition (March 28, 2005) ^ L. Rushton, Doves and magpies: village women in the Greek Orthodox Church Women's religious experience, Croom Helm, 1983 ^ Paul Yuzyk, The Ukrainian Greek Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
of Canada, 1918–1951, University of Ottawa Press, 1981 ^ Demetrios J. Constantelos, The Greek Orthodox Church: faith, history, and practice, Seabury Press, 1967 ^ Daniel B. Wallace: Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament, page 12,.  Zondervan, 1997. ^ Robert H. Stein: The method and message of Jesus' teachings, page 4,.  Westminster John Knox Press, 1994. ^ Byzantium in Encyclopedia of historians and historical writing Vol. 1, Kelly Boyd (ed.), Fitzroy Dearborn publishers, 1999 ISBN 978-1-884964-33-6 ^ Edwin Pears, The destruction of the Greek Empire and the story of the capture of Constantinople
Constantinople
by the Turks, Haskell House, 1968 ^ a b Millar, Fergus (2006). A Greek Roman Empire : power and belief under Theodosius II (408–450). University of California Press. p. 279 pages. ISBN 0-520-24703-5.  ^ Tanner, Norman P. The Councils of the Church, ISBN 0-8245-1904-3 ^ The Byzantine
Byzantine
legacy in the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
by John Meyendorff – 1982 ^ Hugh Wybrew, The Orthodox liturgy: the development of the eucharistic liturgy in the Byzantine
Byzantine
rite – 1990 ^ The Christian Churches of the East, Vol. II: Churches Not in Communion with Rome by Donald Attwater – 1962 ^ J Meyendorff, Byzantine
Byzantine
Theology: Historical Trends and Doctrinal Themes (1987) ^ a b Joan Mervyn Hussey, The Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
in the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, 1990 ^ a b A. P. Vlasto, Entry of Slavs Christendom – 1970 ^ Andreĭ Lazarov Pantev, Bŭlgarska istorii︠a︡ v evropeĭski kontekst – 2000 ^ Janet Saltzman Chafetz; Helen Rose Ebaugh (18 October 2000). Religion and the New Immigrants: Continuities and Adaptations in Immigrant Congregations. AltaMira Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-7591-1712-9. Retrieved 2 September 2013. The distinctive characteristics of the Greek Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
are its sense of continuity with the ancient Church of Christ and the Apostles and its changelessness. The Orthodox church traces its existence, through the ordinatinon of Bishops. directly back to the Apostles and through them to Jesus.  ^ Sally Bruyneel; Alan G. Padgett (2003). Introducing Christianity. Orbis Books. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-60833-134-5. Retrieved 2 September 2013. The Eastern Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Churches are the oldest with roots going back to the earliest Christian groups.  ^ Benjamin Jerome Hubbard; John T. Hatfield; James A. Santucci (2007). An Educator's Classroom Guide to America's Religious Beliefs and Practices. Libraries Unlimited. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-59158-409-4. Retrieved 2 September 2013. The Orthodox Church traces its origins to the churches founded by the apostles in the Middle East
Middle East
and the Balkans
Balkans
in the first century.  ^ Robert L. Plummer (6 March 2012). Journeys of Faith: Evangelicalism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism and Anglicanism. Zondervan. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-310-41671-5. Retrieved 2 September 2013. Catholicism holds that if a Church claims to be Christian, then it must be able to show that its leaders-its bishops and its presbyters (or priests)- are successors of the apostles. That is why the Catholic Church accepts Eastern Orthodox ordinations and sacraments as valid, even though Eastern Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
is not in full communion with Rome.  ^ William A. Dyrness; Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen (25 September 2009). Global Dictionary of Theology: A Resource for the Worldwide Church. InterVarsity Press. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-8308-7811-6. Retrieved 2 September 2013. This connection is apparent through the historical succession of bishops of churches in a particular geographic locale and by fidelity to the teachings of the apostles (cf. Acts 2:42) and life as it developed in the patristic tradition and was articulated by the seven ecumenical councils.  ^ Heidi Campbell (22 March 2010). When Religion Meets New Media. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-203-69537-1. Retrieved 2 September 2013. There are three branches within Christianity: Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant. ... The Christian church draws its lineage and roots from the time of Jesus Christ and the apostles in CE 25–30 and the birth of the Church at Pentecost in ...  ^ a b Wendy Doniger (January 1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0. Retrieved 2 September 2013. EASTERN ORTHODOXY, one of the major branches of CHRISTIANITY, characterized by its continuity with the apostolic church, its liturgy, and its territorial churches.  ^ "Ecumenical Patriarchate". Retrieved 2009-03-09.  ^ "Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain – Home". Retrieved 2009-03-11.  ^ "The Holy Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy and Malta". Archived from the original on 2012-04-05. Retrieved 2009-03-11.  ^ The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
should not be confused with the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
in America, whose autocephaly – granted by the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
– is not recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople
Constantinople
and many other churches of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ^ "Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia". Retrieved 2010-01-14.  ^ "The official web site of Greek Orthodox Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Alexandria and All Africa". Retrieved 2009-03-09.  ^ "Greek Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
Of Antioch And All The East". Retrieved 2009-03-09.  ^ " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Patriarchate". Archived from the original on 2012-04-05. Retrieved 2009-03-09.  ^ "The Holy Monastery of the God-trodden Mount Sinai, Saint Catherine's Monastery". Retrieved 2009-03-09.  ^ "Ecclesia – The Web Site of the Church of Greece". Retrieved 2009-03-09.  ^ "Church of Cyprus" (in Greek). Retrieved 2009-03-09.  ^ "About Cyprus
Cyprus
– Towns and Population". Government Web Portal
Portal
– Areas of Interest. Government of Cyprus. Retrieved 19 January 2010.  ^ "Cyprus". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 19 January 2010.  ^ Roudometof, Victor (2002). Collective memory, national identity, and ethnic conflict. Greenwood Press. p. 179. the only remaining issues between the two sides concern the extent to which minority members should have equal rights with the rest of the Albanian citizens as well as issues of property and ecclesiastical autonomy for the Greek Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
of Albania.  ^ Thornberry, Patrick (1987). Minorities and human rights law (1. publ. ed.). London: Minority Rights Group. p. 36. ISBN 9780946690480.  ^ "Albanian church attack 'act of religious hatred'". WorldWide Religious News. Retrieved 12 June 2012.  ^ "Archbishop Anastasios - Medical Diagnostical Centre - ZoomInfo.com". ZoomInfo. 

Further reading[edit]

Aderny, Walter F. The Greek and Eastern Churches (1908) online Constantelos, Demetrios J. Understanding the Greek Orthodox church: its faith, history, and practice (Seabury Press, 19820 Fortesque, Adrian. The Orthodox Eastern Church (1929) Hussey, Joan Mervyn. The orthodox church in the Byzantine
Byzantine
empire (Oxford University Press, 2010) online Kephala, Euphrosyne. The Church of the Greek People Past and Present (1930) Latourette, Kenneth Scott. ' Christianity
Christianity
in a Revolutionary Age, II: The Nineteenth Century in Europe: The Protestant and Eastern Churches. (1959) 2: 479-484; Christianity
Christianity
in a Revolutionary Age, IV: The Twentieth Century in Europe: The Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Churches (1958) McGuckin, John Anthony (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. 2 vols. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011). 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Greek Orthodox Church.

v t e

Byzantine
Byzantine
Greece

Provinces and regions

Achaea Province Theme of the Aegean Crete Theme of Hellas Theme of Samos Macedonia Province Theme of Macedonia Theme of Strymon Theme of Thessalonica Theme of the Peloponnese Theme of Cephallenia Theme of Nicopolis Sclaviniae

Melingoi
Melingoi
and Ezeritai

Tsakonia Great Vlachia

People

Justinian I Heraclius Justinian II Irene of Athens Nikephoros I Basil I Nikephoros II Phokas Basil II Nikephoros Melissenos Michael Choniates Leo Sgouros Leo Gabalas Michael I Komnenos Doukas Theodore Komnenos Doukas Demetrios Chomatenos John Apokaukos Michael II Komnenos Doukas Michael VIII Palaiologos John I Doukas of Thessaly Nikephoros I
Nikephoros I
Komnenos Doukas Thomas I Komnenos Doukas Gregory Palamas Demetrios Kydones Catalan Company Nicholas Orsini Andronikos Asen John II Orsini Andronikos III Palaiologos Michael Monomachos John Angelos Stephen Gabrielopoulos Nikephoros II Orsini Manuel Kantakouzenos Simeon Uroš Thomas Preljubović Esau de' Buondelmonti Alexios Angelos Philanthropenos Theodore II Palaiologos Gemistus Pletho Constantine XI Palaiologos Demetrios Palaiologos Thomas Palaiologos Byzantine
Byzantine
bureaucracy and aristocracy Byzantine
Byzantine
scholars in Renaissance Historians: Niketas Choniates George Akropolites Nicephorus Gregoras John Scylitzes Eustathius of Thessalonica Michael Glykas Anna Komnene Joannes Zonaras George Kodinos George Sphrantzes

Major centres

Thessaloniki Athens Corinth Mystras Patras Thebes Arta Ioannina

Greek states after 1204

Despotate of Epirus Empire of Nicaea Empire of Thessalonica Despotate of the Morea Thessaly

History

Persecution of paganism Byzantine
Byzantine
Iconoclasm Arab– Byzantine
Byzantine
wars

Muslim conquest of Crete Byzantine
Byzantine
reconquest of Crete

Byzantine
Byzantine
conquest of Bulgaria Siege of Patras
Patras
(805 or 807) Macedonian Renaissance East-West Schism Seljuq campaigns in the Aegean Byzantine–Norman wars

Sack of Thessalonica (1185)

Fourth Crusade

Battle of the Olive Grove of Kountouras

Under the Palaiologos dynasty

Battle of Prinitza Battle of Makryplagi Battle of Neopatras Battle of Pharsalus (1277) Battle of Demetrias Byzantine
Byzantine
civil war of 1321–28 Hesychast controversy
Hesychast controversy
(Palamism) Byzantine–Genoese War (1348–49) Zealots of Thessalonica Byzantine
Byzantine
civil war of 1341–47

Byzantine–Ottoman Wars

Siege of Thessalonica (1422–1430) Battle of the Echinades (1427) Morea revolt of 1453–54

Culture

Byzantine art
Byzantine art
(Macedonian art) Byzantine
Byzantine
music Byzantine
Byzantine
literature

Alexander romance Miracles of Saint Demetrius Suda Greek Anthology Acritic songs

Byzantine
Byzantine
architecture Byzantine
Byzantine
dress Byzantine
Byzantine
cuisine Eastern Orthodox Christianity Byzantine
Byzantine
law

Hexabiblos

Monuments

Acrocorinth Agios Eleftherios Church, Athens Angelokastro (Corfu) Church of the Holy Apostles, Athens Church of the Parigoritissa Daphni Monastery Gardiki Castle Hexamilion wall Hosios Loukas Kassiopi Castle Meteora Mount Athos Monastery of Saint John the Theologian Monemvasia Mystras Nea Moni of Chios Panagia Episkopi Paleochristian and Byzantine
Byzantine
monuments of Thessaloniki Panagia Ekatontapiliani Patras
Patras
Castle Trikala Castle

v t e

Greek Orthodox Church

Patriarchates

Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Alexandria Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Antioch Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Jerusalem

Autocephalous churches

Church of Greece Church of Cyprus Church of Albania

Autonomous churches

Church of Crete Church of Sinai

History

33–717 AD 717–1204 AD 1204–1453 AD 1453–1821 AD 1821–1924 AD 1924–1974 AD 1974-2008 AD Since 2008 AD

Eastern Christianity
Christianity
portal

v t e

Religion in Greece

Greek Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
(Church of Greece, Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople) Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(Greek Catholicism) Protestantism

Islam (Muslim minority) Judaism Hellenism Hinduism Sikhism

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 149459

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