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The GRECO-ROMAN WORLD, GRECO-ROMAN CULTURE, or the term GRECO-ROMAN (/ˌɡrɛkoʊˈroʊmən/ or /ˌɡrɛkəˈroʊmən/ ; spelled GRAECO-ROMAN in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the Commonwealth ), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans (including the Byzantine and Western Roman Empires). In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world ", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant.

This process was aided by the seemingly universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and at least Eastern commerce, and of Latin
Latin
as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the West (from the perspective of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
).

Though these languages never became the native idioms of the rural peasants (the great majority of the population), they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and at the very least intelligible (see lingua franca ), if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside of the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. Certainly, all men of note and accomplishment, whatever their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin. Thus, the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian was Phoenician, the Greco-Egyptian mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy
was a Roman citizen and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine were part Syrian and part Berber , respectively. The historian Josephus Flavius was Jewish but he also wrote and spoke in Greek and was a Roman citizen.

CONTENTS

* 1 Cores/Domains of the Greco-Roman world * 2 Culture * 3 Architecture * 4 Politics * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources

CORES/DOMAINS OF THE GRECO-ROMAN WORLD

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A map of the ancient world, centred on Greece.

Based on the above definition, it can be confidently asserted that the "cores" of the Greco-Roman world were Greece
Greece
, Cyprus
Cyprus
, Italy
Italy
, the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
, Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(roughly corresponds to modern Turkey
Turkey
), Gaul
Gaul
(modern France), Syria
Syria
, Egypt
Egypt
and Africa
Africa
Proper ( Tunisia
Tunisia
and Libya
Libya
). Occupying the periphery of this world were "Roman Germany" (the Alpine countries and the so-called Agri Decumates , the territory between the Main , the Rhine
Rhine
and the Danube
Danube
), Illyria and Pannonia
Pannonia
(the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
, Albania
Albania
, and Hungary
Hungary
), and Moesia
Moesia
(roughly corresponds to modern Bulgaria
Bulgaria
). Europe´s Cultural Fields

Also included was Dacia (roughly corresponds to modern Romania
Romania
), Nubia
Nubia
(roughly corresponds to modern northern Sudan
Sudan
), Mauretania (modern Morocco
Morocco
and western Algeria
Algeria
), Arabia Petraea
Arabia Petraea
(the Hejaz and Jordan
Jordan
, with modern Egypt's Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
), the Tauric Chersonesus (modern Crimea
Crimea
in Ukraine
Ukraine
).

The above seems to ignore the major rivalry between the Greco-Romans, during their period of ascendancy, and the great empire to the east, the Persians. See Xenophon,The Anabasis, or, the March Up Country, the Greco-Persian wars, the famous battles of Marathon and Salamis, the Greek tragedy "The Persians" by Aeschylus, Alexander the Great's defeat of the Persian emperor Darius and conquest of the Persian empire, or, the later Roman generals' difficulties with the Persian armies, such as Pompey the Great, and of Marcus Licinius Crassus (conqueror of the slave general Spartacus), who was defeated in the field by a Persian force, and was beheaded by them. (Ref: Appian, The Civil Wars).

CULTURE

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In the schools of art , philosophy and rhetoric , the foundations of education were transmitted throughout the lands of Greek and Roman rule. Within its educated class spanning all of the "Greco-Roman" era, the testimony of literary borrowings and influences is overwhelming proof of a mantle of mutual knowledge. For example, several hundred papyrus volumes found in a Roman villa at Herculaneum
Herculaneum
are in Greek. From the lives of Cicero
Cicero
and Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
, it is known that Romans frequented the schools in Greece.

The installation, both in Greek and Latin
Latin
, of Augustus
Augustus
's monumental eulogy, the Res Gestae , is a proof of official recognition for the dual vehicles of the common culture. The familiarity of figures from Roman legend and history in the "Parallel Lives" composed by Plutarch is one example of the extent to which "universal history " was then synonymous with the accomplishments of famous Latins and Hellenes . Most educated Romans were likely bilingual in Greek and Latin.

ARCHITECTURE

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"Greco-Roman" architecture is architecture of the Roman world that followed the principles and style established in ancient Greece. The most representative building of that era was the temple. Other prominent structures that represented the style included government buildings, like the Roman Senate, and cultural structures, like the Colosseum. The three primary styles of column design used in temples in classical Greece
Greece
were Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. Some examples of Doric architecture are the Parthenon
Parthenon
and the Temple of Hephaestus
Temple of Hephaestus
in Athens, while the Erechtheum, which is located right next to the Parthenon
Parthenon
is Ionic. Ionic Greco-Roman architecture tend to be more decorative than the formal Doric style.

POLITICS

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The Romans made it possible for individuals from subject peoples to acquire Roman citizenship
Roman citizenship
and would sometimes confer citizenship on whole communities; thus, "Roman" became less and less an ethnic and more and more a political designation.

By AD 211, with Caracalla
Caracalla
's edict known as the Constitutio Antoniniana , all free inhabitants of the Empire became citizens. As a result, even after the Fall of Rome
Rome
, the people of the empire that remained (later referred to by many historians as the Byzantine Empire ) continued to call themselves Romans even though Greek became the main language of the Empire. Rhomaioi is what they continued to call themselves (Hellenes referring to pagan Greeks) through the Ottoman era and even into modern times.

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to GRECO-ROMAN WORLD .

* Classical Antiquity
Classical Antiquity
* Classical mythology
Classical mythology
* Legacy of the Roman Empire * Greco-Roman mysteries
Greco-Roman mysteries
* Hellenistic Greece
Greece
* Magic in the Greco-Roman world
Magic in the Greco-Roman world
* List of Greco-Roman geographers

REFERENCES

SOURCES

* Sir William Smith (ed). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: Spottiswoode and Co, 1873. * Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth (ed). Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2003.

* v * t * e

Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece

* Outline * Timeline

* History * Geography

PERIODS

* Cycladic civilization * Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
* Mycenaean civilization * Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
* Archaic period * Classical Greece
Greece
* Hellenistic Greece
Greece
* Roman Greece
Greece

GEOGRAPHY

* Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
* Aeolis
Aeolis
* Alexandria
Alexandria
* Antioch
Antioch
* Cappadocia
Cappadocia
* Crete
Crete
* Cyprus
Cyprus
* Doris * Ephesus * Epirus * Hellespont * Ionia
Ionia
* Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Macedonia * Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
* Miletus * Peloponnesus * Pergamon
Pergamon
* Pontus * Taurica * Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
colonies

* City states * Politics * Military

CITY STATES

* Argos
Argos
* Athens
Athens
* Byzantion * Chalcis
Chalcis
* Corinth * Eretria
Eretria
* Kerkyra * Larissa
Larissa
* Megalopolis * Megara
Megara
* Rhodes
Rhodes
* Samos
Samos
* Sparta
Sparta
* Syracuse * Thebes

POLITICS

* Boeotarch * Boule * Koinon
Koinon
* Proxeny * Strategos * Tagus * Tyrant * Amphictyonic League

ATHENIAN

* Agora
Agora
* Areopagus
Areopagus
* Ecclesia * Graphē paranómōn * Heliaia * Ostracism
Ostracism

SPARTAN

* Apella * Ephor * Gerousia * Harmost

MACEDON

* Synedrion * Koinon
Koinon

MILITARY

* Wars * Athenian military * Antigonid Macedonian army
Antigonid Macedonian army
* Army of Macedon * Ballista
Ballista
* Cretan archers * Hellenistic armies * Hippeis * Hoplite
Hoplite
* Hetairoi * Macedonian phalanx * Phalanx * Peltast * Pezhetairos * Sarissa * Sacred Band of Thebes * Sciritae * Seleucid army * Spartan army * Toxotai * Xiphos * Xyston

PEOPLE

List of ancient Greeks

RULERS

* Kings of Argos
Argos
* Archons of Athens
Athens
* Kings of Athens
Athens
* Kings of Commagene * Diadochi
Diadochi
* Kings of Lydia * Kings of Macedonia * Kings of Paionia * Attalid kings of Pergamon
Pergamon
* Kings of Pontus * Kings of Sparta
Sparta
* Tyrants of Syracuse

PHILOSOPHERS

* Anaxagoras
Anaxagoras
* Anaximander
Anaximander
* Anaximenes * Antisthenes * Aristotle
Aristotle
* Democritus
Democritus
* Diogenes of Sinope * Empedocles
Empedocles
* Epicurus
Epicurus
* Gorgias
Gorgias
* Heraclitus
Heraclitus
* Hypatia * Leucippus
Leucippus
* Parmenides * Plato
Plato
* Protagoras * Pythagoras
Pythagoras
* Socrates
Socrates
* Thales
Thales
* Zeno

AUTHORS

* Aeschylus
Aeschylus
* Aesop * Alcaeus * Archilochus * Aristophanes
Aristophanes
* Bacchylides * Euripides
Euripides
* Herodotus
Herodotus
* Hesiod
Hesiod
* Hipponax * Homer
Homer
* Ibycus * Lucian * Menander
Menander
* Mimnermus * Panyassis * Philocles * Pindar
Pindar
* Plutarch
Plutarch
* Polybius
Polybius
* Sappho
Sappho
* Simonides * Sophocles * Stesichorus
Stesichorus
* Theognis * Thucydides
Thucydides
* Timocreon * Tyrtaeus * Xenophon
Xenophon

OTHERS

* Agesilaus II * Agis II * Alcibiades
Alcibiades
* Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
* Aratus * Archimedes
Archimedes
* Aspasia * Demosthenes
Demosthenes
* Epaminondas * Euclid
Euclid
* Hipparchus
Hipparchus
* Hippocrates
Hippocrates
* Leonidas * Lycurgus * Lysander * Milo of Croton
Milo of Croton
* Miltiades
Miltiades
* Pausanias * Pericles
Pericles
* Philip of Macedon * Philopoemen * Praxiteles
Praxiteles
* Ptolemy
Ptolemy
* Pyrrhus * Solon * Themistocles

GROUPS

* Philosophers * Playwrights * Poets * Tyrants

BY CULTURE

* Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
tribes * Thracian Greeks * Ancient Macedonians

* Society * Culture

SOCIETY

* Agriculture * Calendar * Clothing * Coinage * Cuisine * Economy * Education
Education
* Festivals * Funeral and burial practices * Homosexuality * Law * Olympic Games * Pederasty * Philosophy
Philosophy
* Prostitution * Religion * Slavery * Warfare * Wedding customs * Wine

* Arts * Sciences

* Architecture ( Greek Revival architecture ) * Astronomy * Literature * Mathematics * Medicine * Music (Musical system ) * Pottery * Sculpture * Technology * Theatre

RELIGION

* Funeral and burial practices

* Mythology

* mythological figures

* Temple * Twelve Olympians * Underworld

SACRED PLACES

* Eleusis
Eleusis
* Delphi
Delphi
* Delos
Delos
* Dodona * Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
* Olympia

STRUCTURES

* Athenian Treasury
Athenian Treasury
* Lion Gate * Long Walls
Long Walls
* Philippeion
Philippeion
* Theatre of Dionysus * Tunnel of Eupalinos

TEMPLES

* Aphaea * Artemis * Athena Nike * Erechtheion
Erechtheion
* Hephaestus * Hera (Olympia) * Parthenon
Parthenon
* Samothrace * Zeus (Olympia)

LANGUAGE

* Proto-Greek * Mycenaean * Homeric

* Dialects

* Aeolic * Arcadocypriot * Attic * Doric * Ionic * Locrian * Macedonian * Pamphylian

* Koine

WRITING

* Linear A * Linear B
Linear B
* Cypriot syllabary * Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
* Greek numerals
Greek numerals
* Attic numerals
Attic numerals

LISTS

* Cities

* in Epirus

* People * Place names * Stoae * Temples * Theatres

* Category
Category
* Portal

* v * t * e

Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
topics

* Outline * Timeline

EPOCHS

* Foundation * Kingdom (overthrow ) * Republic

EMPIRE

* ( Pax Romana
Pax Romana
* Principate * Dominate ) * Western Empire (fall * historiography of the fall ) * Eastern (Byzantine) Empire (decline * fall )

CONSTITUTION

* History * Kingdom * Republic * Empire * Late Empire * Senate * Legislative assemblies (Curiate * Centuriate * Tribal * Plebeian ) * Executive magistrates * SPQR

GOVERNMENT

* Curia * Forum * Cursus honorum * Collegiality * Emperor * Legatus
Legatus
* Dux
Dux
* Officium * Praefectus * Vicarius * Vigintisexviri
Vigintisexviri
* Lictor
Lictor
* Magister militum
Magister militum
* Imperator
Imperator
* Princeps senatus
Princeps senatus
* Pontifex Maximus
Pontifex Maximus
* Augustus
Augustus
* Caesar * Tetrarch * Optimates * Populares * Province

MAGISTRATES

ORDINARY

* Tribune
Tribune
* Quaestor
Quaestor
* Aedile * Praetor
Praetor
* Consul * Censor * Promagistrate
Promagistrate
* Governor

EXTRAORDINARY

* Dictator * Magister Equitum * Decemviri
Decemviri
* Consular Tribune
Tribune
* Triumvir * Rex * Interrex

LAW

* Twelve Tables * Mos maiorum
Mos maiorum
* Citizenship * Auctoritas * Imperium * Status * Litigation

MILITARY

* Borders * Establishment * Structure * Campaigns * Political control * Strategy * Engineering * Frontiers and fortifications (castra ) * Technology * Army (Legion * Infantry tactics * Personal equipment * Siege engines ) * Navy (fleets ) * Auxiliaries * Decorations and punishments * Hippika gymnasia

ECONOMY

* Agriculture * Deforestation * Commerce * Finance * Currency * Republican currency * Imperial currency

TECHNOLOGY

* Abacus * Numerals * Civil engineering * Military engineering * Military technology * Aqueducts * Bridges * Circus * Concrete * Domes * Forum * Metallurgy * Roads * Sanitation * Thermae

CULTURE

* Architecture * Art
Art
* Bathing * Calendar * Clothing * Cosmetics * Cuisine * Hairstyles * Education
Education
* Literature * Music * Mythology * Religion * Romanization * Sexuality * Theatre * Wine

SOCIETY

* Patricians * Plebs * Conflict of the Orders
Conflict of the Orders
* Secessio plebis * Equites * Gens * Tribes * Naming conventions * Demography * Women * Marriage * Adoption * Slavery * Bagaudae

LANGUAGE (LATIN)

* History * Alphabet * Versions (Old * Classical * Vulgar * Late * Medieval * Renaissance * New * Contemporary * Ecclesiastical ) * Romance languages
Romance languages

WRITERS

* Apuleius * Caesar * Catullus
Catullus
* Cicero
Cicero
* Ennius * Horace
Horace
* Juvenal
Juvenal
* Livy
Livy
* Lucan
Lucan
* Lucretius
Lucretius
* Martial
Martial
* Ovid
Ovid
* Petronius * Phaedrus * Plautus
Plautus
* Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
* Pliny the Younger
Pliny the Younger
* Propertius
Propertius
* Quintilian * Quintus Curtius Rufus * Sallust
Sallust
* Seneca * Statius
Statius
* Suetonius
Suetonius
* Tacitus
Tacitus
* Terence
Terence
* Tibullus
Tibullus
* Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
* Virgil
Virgil
* Vitruvius
Vitruvius

MAJOR CITIES

* Alexandria
Alexandria
* Antioch
Antioch
* Aquileia
Aquileia
* Berytus
Berytus
* Bononia * Carthage
Carthage
* Constantinopolis * Eboracum
Eboracum
* Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna
* Londinium
Londinium
* Lutetia
Lutetia
* Mediolanum * Pompeii
Pompeii
* Ravenna
Ravenna
* Roma * Smyrna
Smyrna
* Vindobona * Volubilis