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Greater Somalia ( so, Soomaaliweyn ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’“๐’—๐’•๐’’, ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„ ุงู„ูƒุจุฑู‰ ''As-Sลซmal al-Kubra'') is a concept to unite all ethnic Somalis comprising the regions in or near the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland fro ...

Horn of Africa
in which
ethnic Somalis The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’†๐’–, ar, ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠูˆู†) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cushitic ethnic group native to the Horn of Africa who share a common ancestry, culture and history. The Somali language is the ...

ethnic Somalis
live and have historically inhabited. The territory historically encompassed
British Somaliland British Somaliland, officially the Somaliland Protectorate ( so, Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka), was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the c ...
(now
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุงู†ุฏ ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, ุฌู…ู‡ูˆุฑูŠุฉ ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุงู†ุฏ ''Jumhลซrฤซyat แนขลซmฤlฤซlฤnd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
),
Italian Somaliland Italian Somaliland ( it, Somala italiana; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„ ุงู„ุฅูŠุทุงู„ูŠ, Al-Sumal Al-Italiy; so, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaalida), was a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state which ...

Italian Somaliland
(now
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script The Osmanya script ( so, Farta Cismaanya ๐’๐’–๐’‡๐’‚๐’– ๐’‹๐’˜๐’ˆ๐’‘๐’›๐’’๐’•๐’–), also known as Far Soomaali (๐’๐’–๐’‡ ๐’˜๐’๐’ˆ๐’‘๐’›๐’˜, "Somali writing") and, in Arabic, as al-kitฤbah ...

Somalia
),
French Somaliland French Somaliland (french: Cรดte franรงaise des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis" so, Dhulka Soomaaliyeed ee Faransiiska) was a French colonial empire, French colony in the Horn of Africa. It existed between 1884 and 1967. Djibouti is i ...
(now
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, ุฌูŠุจูˆุชูŠ ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Somaliland in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest, Eritrea in the no ...

Djibouti
), the
Somali Region The Somali Region ( so, Dawlad Deegaanka Soomaalida, am, แˆฑแˆ›แˆŒ แŠญแˆแˆ, ar, ุงู„ู…ู†ุทู‚ุฉ ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠุฉ), also known as Soomaali Galbeed (''Somali West'') is a Regions of Ethiopia, regional state in eastern Ethiopia. Its territor ...

Somali Region
in
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a in the . It shares borders with and to the north, to the northeast, to the east, to the south, to the west and to the . Ethiopia has a total area of and over ...

Ethiopia
and the
Northern Frontier District The North Eastern Province ( so, Gobolka Woqooyi Bari) is one of the former Provinces of Kenya, provinces in Kenya. It has a land area of 127,358.5 km2, with its capital at Garissa. Previously known as the Northern Frontier District (NFD), ...
in
Kenya ) , national_anthem = "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (, ) is the national anthem of Kenya. History "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"'s lyrics were originally written in Swahili language, Kiswahili, the national language of Kenya ...

Kenya
. At the present, it encompasses
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script The Osmanya script ( so, Farta Cismaanya ๐’๐’–๐’‡๐’‚๐’– ๐’‹๐’˜๐’ˆ๐’‘๐’›๐’’๐’•๐’–), also known as Far Soomaali (๐’๐’–๐’‡ ๐’˜๐’๐’ˆ๐’‘๐’›๐’˜, "Somali writing") and, in Arabic, as al-kitฤbah ...

Somalia
,
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุงู†ุฏ ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, ุฌู…ู‡ูˆุฑูŠุฉ ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุงู†ุฏ ''Jumhลซrฤซyat แนขลซmฤlฤซlฤnd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
, southern
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, ุฌูŠุจูˆุชูŠ ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Somaliland in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest, Eritrea in the no ...

Djibouti
, the
Somali Region The Somali Region ( so, Dawlad Deegaanka Soomaalida, am, แˆฑแˆ›แˆŒ แŠญแˆแˆ, ar, ุงู„ู…ู†ุทู‚ุฉ ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠุฉ), also known as Soomaali Galbeed (''Somali West'') is a Regions of Ethiopia, regional state in eastern Ethiopia. Its territor ...

Somali Region
and
Dire Dawa Dire Dawa ( am, แ‹ตแˆฌแ‹ณแ‹‹, om, Dirre Dhawaa, lit. "Place of Remedy", so, Diridhaba, Diridhabe, meaning "where Dir Dir, dir, or DIR may refer to: Acronyms * ''De Imperatoribus Romanis'', an online biographical encyclopedia of the ...
in
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a in the . It shares borders with and to the north, to the northeast, to the east, to the south, to the west and to the . Ethiopia has a total area of and over ...

Ethiopia
, and the
Garissa Garissa ( so, Gaarisa) is the capital of Garissa County, Kenya Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya ( sw, Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Eastern Africa. At , Kenya is the world's 48th largest country by total area. With a population ...
,
Wajir Wajir ( so, Wajeer) is the capital of the Wajir County of Kenya. It is situated in the former North Eastern Province (Kenya), North Eastern Province. History A cluster of cairns near Wajir are generally ascribed by the local inhabitants to the M ...
and Mandera Counties in
Kenya ) , national_anthem = "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (, ) is the national anthem of Kenya. History "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"'s lyrics were originally written in Swahili language, Kiswahili, the national language of Kenya ...

Kenya
(all of which were part of the former North Eastern Province which was abolished in 2013).


History

Since the beginning of the 20th century the concept of Greater Somalia started to be developed with the birth of the nation of Somalia, as a united country inhabited by all the Somalis in their "Horn of Africa" areas. '' Pan-Somalism'' refers to the vision of reunifying these areas to form a single Somali nation. The pursuit of this goal has led to conflict: Somalia engaged after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved โ€”including all of the great powersโ€”forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
in the
Ogaden War The Ogaden War, or the Ethio-Somali War (), was a military conflict fought between Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’•๐’–; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„, aแนฃ-แนขลซmฤl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''F ...
with Ethiopia over the
Somali Region The Somali Region ( so, Dawlad Deegaanka Soomaalida, am, แˆฑแˆ›แˆŒ แŠญแˆแˆ, ar, ุงู„ู…ู†ุทู‚ุฉ ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠุฉ), also known as Soomaali Galbeed (''Somali West'') is a Regions of Ethiopia, regional state in eastern Ethiopia. Its territor ...

Somali Region
, and supported Somali
insurgents An insurgency is a violent, armed rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority. A rebellion originates from a sentiment ...
against Kenya. In 1946 the Somali Youth League selected Harar as the future capital of Greater Somalia and subsequently sent delegates to the United Nations office in Mogadishu to reveal this proposal.


Italian Somalia

Italians occupied the Benadir in 1890 and soon started to enlarge their ''Somalia italiana'' (
Italian Somaliland Italian Somaliland ( it, Somala italiana; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„ ุงู„ุฅูŠุทุงู„ูŠ, Al-Sumal Al-Italiy; so, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaalida), was a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state which ...

Italian Somaliland
): they created their colony in the first years of the 20th century. During World War I, Britain secretly reached an agreement with Italy to transfer to the Italians 94,050 square kilometers of the Jubaland protectorate, which was situated in present-day southwestern Somalia. This was Italy's reward for allying itself with Britain in its war against Germany. The treaty was honored, and in 1924, Britain ceded Jubaland. In 1926, the northern half of Jubaland was incorporated into Italian Somaliland, and was later re-dubbed ''Italian Trans-Juba, Oltre Giuba'' by the Italians. Britain retained control of the southern half of the partitioned Jubaland territory, which was later called the North Eastern Province (Kenya), Northern Frontier District (NFD). After its conquest of Ethiopia in 1936, Italy also annexed the Huwan region. In this way Italian Somaliland, with capital Mogadishu, was enlarged once more. In early
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved โ€”including all of the great powersโ€”forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
, Italian troops invaded
British Somaliland British Somaliland, officially the Somaliland Protectorate ( so, Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka), was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the c ...
and ejected the British.Federal Research Division, ''Somalia: A Country Study'', (Kessinger Publishing, LLC: 2004), p.38 Benito Mussolini annexed the conquered area to the Italian Somalia and added even the area of Moyale and Buna near the Jubaland in eastern Kenya. In August 1940 Mussolini boasted to a group of Somalis in Rome that with the conquest of British Somalia (that he annexed to Italian Somalia) nearly all the Somali people were united, fulfilling their dream of a union of all Somalis. In September 1940 he even announced to the Somali people in Italy of having created an Italian ''Grande Somalia'' inside his Italian Empire. Indeed, in early World War II, Italian troops Italian conquest of British Somaliland, invaded British Somaliland and ejected the British. However, Britain retained administration of most of the almost exclusively Somali-inhabited North Eastern Province, Kenya, Northern Frontier District. Italians even did a tentative to occupy French Somaliland in summer 1940. However the British regained control of British Somaliland in the spring of 1941, and conquered Italian Somaliland and the Somali Region. In 1945, the Potsdam conference was held, where it was decided not to return Italian Somaliland to Italy. The UN opted instead in 1949 to grant Italy trusteeship of Italian Somaliland for a period of ten years, after which time the region would be independent.Aristide R. Zolberg et al., ''Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World'', (Oxford University Press: 1992), p.106 Meanwhile, in 1948, under pressure from their World War II allies and to the dismay of Somalis, the British "returned" the ''Haud'' (an important Somali grazing area that was presumably "protected" by British treaties with the Somalis in 1884 and 1886) and the Somali Region to Ethiopia, based on a treaty they signed in 1897 in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II, Menelik in exchange for his help against raids by Somali clans. Britain included the proviso that the Somali residents would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia immediately claimed sovereignty over the area. This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in 1956 to buy back the Somali lands that it had turned over. Britain also granted administration of the almost exclusively Somali-inhabited Northern Frontier District to Kenyan nationalists despite an informal plebiscite demonstrating the overwhelming desire of the region's population to join the newly formed Somali Republic.


Somali Republic

The first armed conflict following the independence and unification of the former British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland territories, known collectively as the Somali Republic, began in 1963 in an ethnic Oromo people, Oromo and Somali district, Elekere, then part of Bale province (Ethiopia), Bale province, instigated by the Oromo founder of the United Liberation Forces of Oromia, Waqo Gutu. The Bale revolt, a peasant revolt stemming from issues involving land, taxation, class, and religion, raged in the province for several years until a number of developments took the energy out of the militants, as well as the decision of Somali Prime Minister Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal to focus his country's resources on economic development. Rebels began to surrender to the Ethiopian government at the end of 1969; Waqo Gutu, who had been the foremost of the insurgents, was surrounded with his command of barely 200 men in Arana, Ethiopia, Arana by the Ethiopian army in February 1970 and surrendered. Pacification was complete by the next year. Djibouti gained its independence in 1977, but a referendum was held in 1958 on the eve of Somalia's independence in 1960 to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France. The referendum turned out in favor of a continued association with France, largely due to a combined "yes" vote by the sizable Afar people, Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans. However, the majority of those who voted "no" were Somalis who were strongly in favor of joining a united Somalia as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later, and Hassan Gouled Aptidon, a Somali who campaigned for a yes vote in the referendum of 1958, wound up as Djibouti's first president post-independence (1977โ€“1991). Between 1977 and 1978, Somalia and Ethiopia waged a war over control of the predominantly Somali Ogaden region. In 1978 and with the help of Soviet Union, Soviet and Cuban troops, Ethiopian troops drove back the Somali army from the Ogaden, effectively marking the end of the
Ogaden War The Ogaden War, or the Ethio-Somali War (), was a military conflict fought between Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’•๐’–; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„, aแนฃ-แนขลซmฤl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''F ...
. In 1981, Siad Barre visited Nairobi, and asserted that Somalia was suspending its claim on the North Eastern Province (NFD). Improved relations with Kenya led to the signing of a pact in December 1984 agreeing to cease hostilities along the border. Following renewed hostilities in the Ogaden with an August 1982 border clash,Somalia, 1980-1996
ACIG

OnWar.com
Ethiopia and Somalia signed a peace treaty in 1988.


Somali Civil War

With the start of the Somali Civil War, the vision of uniting the various historically and predominantly Somali-inhabited areas of the Horn of Africa into a Greater Somalia was temporarily sidelined. Thousands of refugees have been granted political asylum in Kenya. Talk of pan-Somali unification movements for the moment took a backseat, as the Republic splintered into a few autonomous Consolidation of States Within Somalia (1998-2006), smaller regional or clan-based governing zones. The northern regions of the Somali Republic, which previously was a British Somaliland, British protectorate, declared independence as the Republic of
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุงู†ุฏ ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, ุฌู…ู‡ูˆุฑูŠุฉ ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุงู†ุฏ ''Jumhลซrฤซyat แนขลซmฤlฤซlฤnd''), is a de facto sovereign s ...

Somaliland
in 1991, shattering the dream of a greater Somalia now that the two regions that previously united split apart. Though there was no unified government and thus no formal policy towards irredentism, individual militia leaders clashed with Ethiopian troops between 1998 and 2000.Ethiopia
Middle East Desk


Islamic Courts Union

In late 2006, Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys, head of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) that then controlled much of southern Somalia, declared, "We will leave no stone unturned to integrate our Somali brothers in Kenya and Ethiopia and restore their freedom to live with their ancestors in Somalia." These aims were sidelined after the decisive defeat of the ICU in the Battle of Baidoa and the subsequent actions of the Somalia War (2006โ€“2009), War in Somalia by the allied forces of the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG), the autonomous governing zones of Puntland, Southwestern Somalia, Jubaland, and Galmudug and their military backer,
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a in the . It shares borders with and to the north, to the northeast, to the east, to the south, to the west and to the . Ethiopia has a total area of and over ...

Ethiopia
. The Islamic Courts split into two factions. One faction wanted to sign a peace deal and merge with the TFG, while the other sought to defeat the Ethiopian troops and expel the African Union soldiers before any peace agreements.


See also

* North Eastern Province, Kenya, North Eastern Province * Pan-nationalism * Irredentism * Ethnic nationalism


References


Further reading

* Pierre Petrides, ''The Boundary Question between Ethiopia and Somalia''. New Delhi, 1983.


External links

*
Somalia-Ethiopia, Kenya Conflict

Somalia Online
News and Discussions {{Pan-nationalist concepts Historical regions Horn of Africa Foreign relations of Ethiopia Geography of Somalia Irredentism, Somalia Politics of Somalia Somali nationalism Divided regions, Somalia