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The Greater London
Greater London
Authority (GLA) is a top-tier administrative body for Greater London, England. It consists of a directly elected executive Mayor of London, currently Sadiq Khan, and an elected 25-member London Assembly
London Assembly
with scrutiny powers. The authority was established in 2000, following a local referendum, and derives most of its powers from the Greater London
Greater London
Authority Act 1999 and the Greater London
London
Authority Act 2007. It is a strategic regional authority, with powers over transport, policing, economic development, and fire and emergency planning. Three functional bodies — Transport for London, the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime, and the London
London
Fire Commissioner — are responsible for delivery of services in these areas. The planning policies of the Mayor of London
Mayor of London
are detailed in a statutory London Plan that is regularly updated and published. The Greater London
Greater London
Authority is mostly funded by direct government grant and it is also a precepting authority, with some money collected with local Council Tax. The GLA is unique in the British local government system, in terms of structure, elections and selection of powers. The authority was established to replace a range of joint boards and quangos and provided an elected upper tier of local government in London
London
for the first time since the abolition of the Greater London Council
Greater London Council
in 1986.

Contents

1 Purpose 2 Background 3 Creation 4 Powers and functions

4.1 Functional bodies 4.2 Planning 4.3 Energy policy

5 Political control 6 Elections 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Purpose[edit] The GLA is responsible for the strategic administration of the 1579 km² (610 sq. miles) of Greater London. It shares local government powers with the councils of 32 London
London
boroughs and the City of London
London
Corporation. It was created to improve the co-ordination between the local authorities in Greater London, and the Mayor of London's role is to give London
London
a single person to represent it. The Mayor proposes policy and the GLA's budget, and makes appointments to the capital's strategic executive such as Transport for London. The primary purpose of the London Assembly
London Assembly
is to hold the Mayor of London to account by scrutiny of his or her actions and decisions. The assembly must also accept or amend the Mayor's budget on an annual basis.[1] The GLA is based at City Hall, a new building on the south bank of the River Thames, next to Tower Bridge. The GLA is different from the Corporation of the City of London
London
with its largely ceremonial Lord Mayors, which controls only the Square Mile of the City, London's chief financial centre. Background[edit] Main articles: History of local government in London
London
and Greater London
London
Council In 1986, the Greater London Council
Greater London Council
was abolished by the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher. Many people have surmised that the decision to abolish the GLC was made because of the existence of a high-spending left-wing Labour administration under Ken Livingstone, although pressure for the abolition of the GLC had arisen before Mr Livingstone took over, and was largely driven by the belief among the outer London
London
Borough councils that they could perform the functions of the GLC just as well. On abolition, the strategic functions of the GLC were transferred to bodies controlled by central government or joint boards nominated by the London
London
Borough councils. Some of the service delivery functions were transferred down to the councils themselves. For the next 14 years there was no single elected body for the whole of London. The Labour Party never supported the abolition of the GLC and made it a policy to re-establish some form of citywide elected authority. Creation[edit] The Labour party adopted a policy of a single, directly elected Mayor (a policy first suggested by Tony Banks in 1990), together with an elected Assembly watching over the Mayor; this model, based on American cities, was partly aimed at making sure the new body resembles the erstwhile GLC as little as possible. After the Labour party won the 1997 general election, the policy was outlined in a White paper entitled A Mayor and Assembly for London
London
(March 1998). Simultaneously with the elections to the London
London
Borough councils, a referendum was held on the establishment of the GLA in May 1998, which was approved with 72% of the vote. The Greater London
Greater London
Authority Act 1999 passed through Parliament, receiving the Royal Assent
Royal Assent
in October 1999. In a controversial election campaign, the then Prime Minister, Tony Blair, attempted to block Livingstone's nomination and imposed his own candidate. In reaction, Livingstone stood as an independent candidate, resulting in his expulsion from the Labour Party and in March 2000, was elected as Mayor of London. Following an interim period in which the Mayor and Assembly had been elected but had no powers, the GLA was formally established on 3 July 2000. Powers and functions[edit] Functional bodies[edit] Areas which the GLA has responsibility for include transport, policing, fire and rescue, development and strategic planning. The GLA does not directly provide any services itself. Instead, its work is carried out by four functional bodies which come under the GLA umbrella and work under the policy direction of the Mayor and Assembly. These functional bodies are:

Transport for London
London
(TfL) – Responsible for managing most aspects of London's transport system, including public transport, main roads, and traffic management, and administering the London
London
congestion charge. Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime
Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime
– Responsible for overseeing the Metropolitan Police Service, which provides policing throughout Greater London. Replaced the Metropolitan Police Authority in January 2012 under the provisions of the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011.[2] The London
London
Fire Commissioner – Administers the London
London
Fire Brigade and co-ordinates emergency planning. Until April 2017 this was the responsibility of the London
London
Fire and Emergency Planning Authority (LFEPA). GLA Land and Property (GLAP) – Before April 2012 the London Development Agency (LDA) was responsible for development across London but was wound up and replaced by a subsidiary corporation following the Localism Act 2011. The London
London
Legacy Development Corporation and Old Oak and Park Royal Development Corporation were set up using powers in the Localism Act to create mayoral development corporations.

In November 2005, the government published a consultation document reviewing the powers of the GLA, making proposals for additional powers, including waste management, planning, housing, and learning and skills.[3][4] The result of the consultation and final proposals were published by the Department for Communities and Local Government on 13 July 2006.[5] Planning[edit] The GLA is responsible for co-ordinating land use planning in Greater London. The mayor produces a strategic plan, the " London
London
Plan". The individual London
London
Borough councils are legally bound to comply with the plan. The mayor has the power to over-ride planning decisions made by the London
London
Boroughs if they are believed to be against the interests of London
London
as a whole.[citation needed] Energy policy[edit] As of 2006, London
London
generates 42 million tonnes of carbon emissions per year, 7% of the UK's total. 44% of this comes from housing, 28% from commercial premises, 21% from transport, and 7% from industry.[6] The Mayor's energy strategy[7] planned to cut carbon emission levels by 20% by 2010 and 60% by 2050 (although achieving the first of these targets is unlikely).[needs update] Measures taken to achieve this have included the creation of the London
London
Climate Change Agency, the London
London
Energy Partnership[8] and the founding of the international Large Cities Climate Leadership Group. The London
London
Sustainable Development Commission[9] has calculated that for housing to meet the 60% target, all new developments would have to be constructed to be carbon-neutral with immediate effect (using zero energy building techniques), in addition to cutting energy used in existing housing by 40%.

Service Greater London
Greater London
Authority London
London
borough councils

Education

Y

Housing Y Y

Planning applications

Y

Strategic planning Y Y

Transport planning Y Y

Passenger transport Y

Highways Y Y

Police Y

Fire Y

Social services

Y

Libraries

Y

Leisure and recreation

Y

Waste collection

Y

Waste disposal

Y

Environmental health

Y

Revenue collection

Y

Political control[edit] After the 2016 elections, Labour has the largest representation on the GLA with the mayor as well as twelve assembly members, followed by eight from the Conservatives, two Greens, two UKIP, and one from the Liberal Democrats.[10] Elections[edit]

London Assembly
London Assembly
election, 2000

London
London
mayoral election, 2000

London Assembly
London Assembly
election, 2004

London
London
mayoral election, 2004

London Assembly
London Assembly
election, 2008

London
London
mayoral election, 2008

London Assembly
London Assembly
election, 2012

London
London
mayoral election, 2012

London Assembly
London Assembly
election, 2016

London
London
mayoral election, 2016

See also[edit]

Scotland Yard Lord Mayor of the City of London City of London
London
Corporation London
London
boroughs Foreign relations of the Mayor of London Boundary map

References[edit]

^ Zimmerman, Joseph (28 August 2003). "The Greater London
Greater London
Authority: Devolution or Administrative Decentralization?". Washington, DC: American Political Science Association: 6.  ^ " Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011
Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011
(Section 1)". UK Legislation. Retrieved 28 September 2011.  ^ Toynbee, Polly (8 December 2005). "We can't allow these tin-pot dictators to ruin our capital". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-08-15.  ^ Greater London
Greater London
Authority may get a lot more power: ODPM opens consultation Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Communities and Local Government – The Greater London
Greater London
Authority: The Government's Final Proposals for Additional Powers and Responsibilities for the Mayor and Assembly Archived 23 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " London
London
– planning for climate change", London
London
Climate Change Agency. URL accessed 20 August 2006. ^ "Mayor's Energy Strategy", Mayor of London. URL accessed 20 August 2006. ^ " London
London
planning for climate change". London
London
Climate Change Agency Ltd. July 2006. Retrieved 2017-08-15.  ^ London
London
Sustainable Development Commission. URL accessed 20 August 2006. Archived 25 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Results 2016". London
London
Elects. Retrieved 2017-08-15. 

External links[edit]

The GLA's website About the GLA – Website detailing the powers of the GLA Greater London
Greater London
Authority Review, 2005–06 – House of Commons Library Standard Note Wikisource – Referendum Results

v t e

Governance of Greater London

City of London London

Regional

Greater London
Greater London
Authority London
London
Assembly Mayor of London London
London
Councils

Boroughs

Barking and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth Westminster

Ceremonial

Lord Mayor of the City of London Lord Lieutenant of Greater London High Sheriff of Greater London

Historical

Metropolitan Board of Works
Metropolitan Board of Works
(MBW) 1855–1889 London
London
County Council (LCC) 1889–1965 Greater London Council
Greater London Council
(GLC) 1965–1986 Leaders Sheriffs of the City of London

v t e

Local authorities in London

Regional

Greater London
Greater London
Authority

City of London

Corporation of London Inner Temple Middle Temple

London
London
borough councils

Barking and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wand

.