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GREATER LONDON, or LONDON, is a region of England
England
which forms the administrative boundaries of London
London
, as well as a county for the purposes of the lieutenancies . It is organised into 33 local government districts : the 32 London
London
boroughs (which make up the county of Greater London) and the City of London
City of London
(which is a separate county, but still part of the region). The Greater London Authority , based in Southwark
Southwark
, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London
London
and the London Assembly . The City of London
City of London
Corporation is responsible for the local government of only the City of London.

The county of Greater London
London
was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963 . Administratively, Greater London
London
was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London
London
Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000.

The region covers 1,572 km2 (607 sq mi) and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. The Greater London
London
county covers the same territory as the London
London
region, save for the City of London
City of London
which is a separate county. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
at £37,232. The Greater London
London
Built-up Area —used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside the administrative region.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Proposals to expand the County of London
London
* 1.2 Greater London
London
is formally created

* 2 Geography

* 3 Governance

* 3.1 Mayor of London
London
* 3.2 London
London
Assembly * 3.3 UK Parliament * 3.4 European Parliament * 3.5 Status * 3.6 Strategic local government * 3.7 Local government

* 4 Demography

* 4.1 Ethnic groups * 4.2 Population

* 5 Economy * 6 Religion

* 7 Education

* 7.1 Universities

* 8 Twin cities * 9 Postal district

* 10 See also

* 10.1 Geographical * 10.2 Political * 10.3 Historical * 10.4 Other

* 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 External links

HISTORY

The term Greater London
London
has been and still is used to describe different areas in governance, statistics, history and common parlance.

In terms of ceremonial counties, London
London
is divided into the small City of London
City of London
and the much wider Greater London. This arrangement has come about because as the area of London
London
grew and absorbed neighbouring settlements, a series of administrative reforms did not amalgamate the City of London
City of London
with the surrounding metropolitan area, and its unique political structure was retained. Outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London
London
administrative area in 1965.

The term Greater London
London
was used well before 1965, particularly to refer to the Metropolitan Police District (such as in the 1901 census), the area of the Metropolitan Water Board (favoured by the London
London
County Council for statistics), the London
London
Passenger Transport Area and the area defined by the Registrar General as the Greater London
London
Conurbation. The Greater London
London
Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916. One of the larger early forms was the Greater London
London
Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles (4,810 km2) and included 9 million people.

PROPOSALS TO EXPAND THE COUNTY OF LONDON

Although the London
London
County Council (LCC) was created covering the County of London
London
in 1889, the county did not cover all the built-up area, particularly West Ham and East Ham , and many of the LCC housing projects, including the vast Becontree
Becontree
Estates , were outside its boundaries. The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War
First World War
, noting that within the Metropolitan and City Police Districts there were 122 housing authorities. A Royal Commission on London
London
Government was set up to consider the issue. The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties . Protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor , Slough
Slough
and Eton in the authority. The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCC's scheme. Two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London
London
Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission. Reform of local government in the County of London
London
and its environs was next considered by the Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London
London
, chaired by Sir Edwin Herbert , which issued the 'Herbert Report' after three years of work in 1960. The commission applied three tests to decide if a community should form part of Greater London: how strong is the area as an independent centre in its own right; how strong are its ties to London; and how strongly is it drawn outwards towards the country rather than inwards towards London.

GREATER LONDON IS FORMALLY CREATED

Arms of the former Greater London
London
Council

Greater London
London
was formally created by the London
London
Government Act 1963 , which came into force on 1 April 1965, replacing the administrative counties of Middlesex
Middlesex
and London
London
, including the City of London
City of London
, where the London
London
County Council had limited powers, and absorbing parts of Essex
Essex
, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
, Kent
Kent
and Surrey
Surrey
. Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London
London
Council (GLC) sharing power with the City of London
City of London
Corporation (governing the small City of London) and the 32 London
London
Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985 . Its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London
London
Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards.

Greater London
London
was used to form the London
London
region of England
England
in 1994. A referendum held in 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority , London
London
Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999 . In 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London
London
boundary. The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone
Ken Livingstone
(L ), who had been the final leader of the GLC. The 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson (C ). The 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan
Sadiq Khan
(L ).

GEOGRAPHY

Greater London
London
Urban Area with administrative borders

Greater London
London
continues to include the most closely associated parts of the Greater London
London
Urban Area and their historic buffers . Thus it includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a similar way to the city's parks. The closest and furthest boundaries are with Essex
Essex
: between Sewardstonebury next to Epping Forest
Epping Forest
and Chingford and with the Mar Dyke between Bulphan and North Ockendon , overall it borders London
London
to the north east. Greater London
London
is bounded by the other home counties : Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
to the north, Berkshire
Berkshire
and Buckinghamshire to the west, Kent
Kent
to the south east and Surrey
Surrey
to the south and south west. The highest point is Westerham Heights, in the North Downs and on the boundary with Kent, at 245 metres (804 ft).

Central government has implemented small boundary changes . The greatest were the 1969 transfers of Farleigh to Surrey
Surrey
and Knockholt to Kent. Others have included exchange of two Thames islands with Surrey
Surrey
and adjustments during the 1990s to parts of the boundaries of three boroughs near the M25 motorway
M25 motorway
. The only part of Greater London
London
outside this motorway ring is North Ockendon, the furthest land unit from its centre.

The majority of Greater London
London
forms the London
London
low emission zone , effective from 4 February 2008. CROYDON BRIXTON ROMFORD KINGSTON UPON THAMES HARROW BROMLEY BECKENHAM WIMBLEDON GREENWICH ENFIELD WESTMINSTER SOUTH BANK ILFORD CHINGFORD CAMDEN STRATFORD DALSTON RICHMOND WEMBLEY HAYES UXBRIDGE TOTTENHAM CITY BEXLEYHEATH EDGWARE UPMINSTER WOOLWICH SUTTON EALING HOUNSLOW BARNET BARKING WALTHAMSTOW LEWISHAM Notable places in Greater London
London

GOVERNANCE

LONDON

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of London
London

Greater London Authority

* Mayor : Sadiq Khan
Sadiq Khan
Mayoral elections * Deputy Mayor : Joanne McCartney * Deputy Mayor for Business Rajesh Agrawal * Deputy Mayor for Planning, Regeneration and Skills Jules Pipe
Jules Pipe
* London
London
Assembly : Constituencies London
London
Assembly election, 2016 * 1998 referendum ; 1999 Act ; * 2007 Act

City of London
City of London
Corporation

* Lord Mayor : Jeffrey Evans, Lord Mountevans * Court of Aldermen
Court of Aldermen
: Wards * Sheriffs

* Parliamentary constituencies in London
London

* European Parliament constituency European Parliament election, 2014

* London
London
boroughs : London
London
local elections, 2014

British politics portal

* v * t * e

The Greater London Authority is based in City Hall Logo of the Greater London Authority

Greater London's governance is summarised on the right.

MAYOR OF LONDON

The Mayor of London
London
is a directly elected politician who, along with the London
London
Assembly, is responsible for the strategic government of Greater London.

LONDON ASSEMBLY

Further information: List of London
London
Assembly constituencies

For elections to the London
London
Assembly , London
London
is divided into 14 constituencies, each formed from two or three boroughs. The City of London
London
forms part of the City and East constituency.

UK PARLIAMENT

Further information: List of Parliamentary constituencies in London

London
London
is divided into 73 Parliamentary borough constituencies , formed from the combined area of several wards from one or more boroughs. Typically a borough is covered by two or three constituencies.

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT

London
London
is covered by a single Parliamentary constituency in the European Parliament.

STATUS

Greater London
London
is a region of England
England
, and does not have city status granted by the Crown. The Cities of London
London
and Westminster within it have received formal city status. Despite this, Greater London
London
is commonly regarded as a city in the general senses of a conurbation and a municipality. A Lord Lieutenant of Greater London is appointed for its area, excluding the City of London. For the purposes of the Lieutenancies Act 1997 , this area is defined as a county .

The term "London" usually refers to Greater London
London
or to the conurbation, but not often to the ancient, tiny City of London. That small area is often referred to as "the City" or "the Square Mile" and it forms the main financial district. Archaically, the urbanised area of London
London
was known as the Metropolis
Metropolis
. In common usage, the terms "London" and "Greater London" are usually used interchangeably. Greater London
London
is officially divided for some purposes, with varying definitions, into Inner London
London
and Outer London
London
. For some strategic planning purposes it is divided into five sub regions .

STRATEGIC LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Greater London
London
is under the strategic local governance of the Greater London
London
Authority (GLA). It consists of an elected assembly, the London
London
Assembly , and an executive head, the Mayor of London
London
.

The current Mayor (not to be confused with the Lord Mayor of London
London
) is Sadiq Khan
Sadiq Khan
. He is scrutinised by the elected London
London
Assembly , which may amend his annual budget (by two-thirds majority) but otherwise lacks the power to block his directives. The headquarters of the GLA is at City Hall in Southwark
Southwark
. The Mayor is responsible for Greater London's strategic planning and is required to produce or amend the London
London
Plan each electoral cycle.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Further information: London
London
boroughs

Greater London
London
is divided into 32 London
London
Boroughs, each governed by a London
London
Borough council, and the City of London
City of London
, which has a unique government dating back to the 12th century.

All London
London
Borough councils belong to the London
London
Councils association. Three London
London
Boroughs carry the honorific title of Royal Borough : Kensington and Chelsea , Kingston , and Greenwich
Greenwich
. Within the City of London
City of London
are the liberties of Middle Temple
Middle Temple
and Inner Temple .

* City of London
City of London
* City of Westminster * Kensington and Chelsea * Hammersmith and Fulham * Wandsworth * Lambeth * Southwark
Southwark
* Tower Hamlets * Hackney * Islington * Camden * Brent * Ealing
Ealing
* Hounslow
Hounslow
* Richmond * Kingston * Merton

* Sutton * Croydon
Croydon
* Bromley
Bromley
* Lewisham * Greenwich
Greenwich
* Bexley * Havering * Barking
Barking
and Dagenham * Redbridge * Newham * Waltham Forest * Haringey * Enfield * Barnet * Harrow * Hillingdon

DEMOGRAPHY

Main article: Demography of London
London

2011 UNITED KINGDOM CENSUS

COUNTRY OF BIRTH POPULATION

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
5,175,677

India
India
262,247

Poland
Poland
158,300

Ireland 129,807

Nigeria
Nigeria
114,718

Pakistan
Pakistan
112,457

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
109,948

Jamaica
Jamaica
87,467

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
84,542

France
France
66,654

Somalia
Somalia
65,333

Kenya
Kenya
64,212

United States
United States
63,920

Ghana
Ghana
62,896

Italy
Italy
62,050

Turkey
Turkey
59,596

South Africa
South Africa
57,765

Germany
Germany
55,476

Australia
Australia
53,959

Romania
Romania
44,848

Philippines
Philippines
44,199

Cyprus
Cyprus
43,428

Portugal
Portugal
41,041

Lithuania
Lithuania
39,817

China
China
39,452

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
37,680

Iran
Iran
37,339

Spain
Spain
35,880

Uganda
Uganda
32,136

Brazil
Brazil
31,357

High resolution view from the top of Tolworth Tower in South West London
London
over the sprawling suburban housing that is typical in some areas of Greater London
London

With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was the most populated city in the world until overtaken by New York in 1925. Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939. There were an estimated 7,753,600 official residents in mid-2009.

London's continuous urban area extends beyond the borders of Greater London
London
and was home to an estimated 9,332,000 people in 2005, while its wider metropolitan area has a population of between 12 and 14 million depending on the definition of that area. According to Eurostat, London
London
has been the most populous city and metropolitan area of the European Union.

The region covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres. The population density is 4,761 people per square kilometre, more than ten times that of any other British region. In terms of population, London
London
is the 25th largest city and the 17th largest metropolitan region in the world. It is ranked 4th in the world in the number of US dollar billionaires residing in the city. It ranks as one of the most expensive cities in the world, alongside Tokyo
Tokyo
and Moscow.

ETHNIC GROUPS

In the 2001 census, 71.15% of the population classed their ethnic group as white, including White British (59.79%), White Irish (3.07%) or "Other White" (8.29%, mostly Greek-Cypriot, Italian, Polish and Portuguese). 12.09% classed themselves as British Asian, including Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and "Other Asian" (mostly Sri Lankan, Arab and other Southern Asian ethnicities). 10.91% classed themselves as Black British (around 6% as Black African, 4% as Black Caribbean, 0.84% as "Other Black"). 3.15% were of mixed race; 1.12% as Chinese; and 1.58% as other (mostly Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other "British Orientals"). 21.8% of inhabitants were born outside the European Union. The Irish, from both the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
and Northern Ireland, number about 200,000, as do the Scots and Welsh combined.

In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken and more than 50 non-indigenous communities with a population of more than 10,000. Figures from the Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
show that in 2006 London's foreign-born population was 2,288,000 (31%), up from 1,630,000 in 1997. The 2001 census showed that 27.1% of the population were born outside the UK, and a slightly higher proportion were classed as non-white.

In the 2011 census, 59.79% of the population classed their ethnic group as white, including White British (44.89%), White Irish (2.15%) or "Other White" (12.65%, mostly Greek-Cypriot, Italian, Polish, Spanish, Colombians and Portuguese). 18.49% classed themselves as British Asian, including Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and "Other Asian" (mostly Sri Lankan, Arab and other Southern Asian ethnicities). 13.32% classed themselves as Black British (7% as Black African, 4.22% as Black Caribbean, 2.08% as "Other Black"). 4.96% were of mixed race; and 3.44% as other (mostly Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other "British Orientals").

The table shows the top 21 countries of birth of residents in 2011, the date of the last UK Census. These figures do not give a fair indication of the total population of the specific ethnic groups associated with each country. For example, Londoners of Greek origin (from both Greece and Cyprus) number 300,000, since an organised Greek community has been established for nearly two centuries. The same can be said for Italian and French Londoners whose communities have been here for centuries (the French Embassy estimates there are between 300,000 and 400,000 French citizens living in the UK, with "a huge majority of them living in London"). Though a Polish community has existed in London
London
since the late Middle Ages, it was not significant in the 2001 census but has grown significantly since 2004 and by June 2010 London
London
had 122,000 Polish residents. The German-born population figure may be misleading, however, because it includes British nationals born to parents serving in the British armed forces in Germany.

London
London
has been a focus for immigration for centuries, whether as a place of safety or for economic reasons. Huguenots , eastern European Jews, Cypriots and East African Asians are examples of the former; Irish, Bangladeshis and West Indians came for new lives. The East End district around Spitalfields
Spitalfields
has been first home for several ethnic groups, which have subsequently moved elsewhere in London
London
as they gained prosperity.

ETHNIC GROUP 2001 2011

NUMBER % NUMBER %

White: British 4,287,861 59.79% 3,669,284 44.89%

White: Irish 220,488 3.07% 175,974 2.15%

White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller N/A 8,196 0.10%

White: Other 594,854 8.29% 1,033,981 12.65%

WHITE: SUBTOTAL 5,103,203 71.15% 4,887,435 59.79%

Asian or Asian British: Indian 436,993 6.09% 542,857 6.64%

Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 142,749 1.99% 223,797 2.74%

Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 153,893 2.15% 222,127 2.72%

Asian or Asian British: Chinese 80,201 1.12% 124,250 1.52%

Asian or Asian British: Other Asian 133,058 1.86% 398,515 4.88%

ASIAN OR ASIAN BRITISH: SUBTOTAL 946,894 13.20% 1,511,546 18.49%

Black or Black British: African 378,933 5.28% 573,931 7.02%

Black or Black British: Caribbean 343,567 4.79% 344,597 4.22%

Black or Black British: Other Black 60,349 0.84% 170,112 2.08%

BLACK OR BLACK BRITISH: SUBTOTAL 782,849 10.92% 1,088,640 13.32%

Mixed: White and Black Caribbean 70,928 0.99% 119,425 1.46%

Mixed: White and Black African 34,182 0.48% 65,479 0.80%

Mixed: White and Asian 59,944 0.84% 101,500 1.24%

Mixed: Other Mixed 61,057 0.85% 118,875 1.45%

MIXED: SUBTOTAL 226,111 3.15% 405,279 4.96%

Other: Arab N/A 106,020 1.30%

Other: Any other ethnic group 113,034 1.58% 175,021 2.14%

OTHER: SUBTOTAL 113,034 1.58% 281,041 3.44%

TOTAL 7,172,091 100.00% 8,173,941 100.00%

* ^ A B New category created for the 2011 census. * ^ In 2001, listed under the 'Other ethnic group' heading.

POPULATION

Main article: Demography of London
London
Population of Greater London (estimated)

The population of the current area of Greater London
London
rose from about 1.1 million in 1801 (when only about 850,000 people were in the urban area, while 250,000 were living in villages and towns not yet part of London) to an estimated 8.6 million in 1939, but declined to 6.7 million in 1988, before starting to rebound in the 1990s.

By 2006, the population had recovered to the level of 1970 (and the level of population in the 1920s). It is now approaching the 1939 peak.

Figures here are for Greater London
London
in its 2001 boundaries. Figures before 1971 have been reconstructed by the Office for National Statistics based on past censuses to fit the 2001 boundaries. Figures from 1981 onward are mid-year estimates (revised in August 2007), which are more accurate than the censuses, known to underestimate the population of London.

1891 5–6 April 5,572,012

1901 31 March – 1 April 6,506,954

1911 2–3 April 7,160,525

1921 19–20 June 7,386,848

1931 26–27 April 8,110,480

1939 Mid-year estimate 8,615,245

1951 8–9 April 8,196,978

1961 23–24 April 7,992,616

1965 Greater London
London
formally created

1971 25–26 April 7,452,520

1981 Mid-year estimate 6,805,000

1988 Mid-year estimate 6,729,300

1991 Mid-year estimate 6,829,300

2001 Mid-year estimate 7,322,400

2002 Mid-year estimate 7,361,600

2003 Mid-year estimate 7,364,100

2004 Mid-year estimate 7,389,100

2005 Mid-year estimate 7,456,100

2006 Mid-year estimate 7,512,400

2009 Mid-year estimate 7,753,600

2013 Mid-year estimate 8,416,535

2014 Mid-year estimate 8,546,761

ECONOMY

See also: Economy of London
London

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of Inner London
London
at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YEAR REGIONAL GROSS VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SERVICES

1995 64,616 7 8,147 56,461

2000 92,330 6 10,094 82,229

2003 112,090 12 10,154 101,924

Eurostat
Eurostat
data shows the GDP of Inner London
London
to be 232 billion euros in 2009 and per capita GDP of 78,000 euros.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Outer London
London
at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YEAR REGIONAL GROSS VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SERVICES

1995 44,160 51 10,801 33,307

2000 60,304 43 12,529 47,732

2003 67,582 39 13,081 54,462

Eurostat
Eurostat
data shows the GDP of Outer London
London
to be 103 billion euros in 2009 and per capita GDP of 21,460 euros.

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in London
London
See also: List of churches and cathedrals of London
London
Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
. A World Heritage Site and location of the coronation of British monarchs .

The largest religious groupings are Christian (48.4%), Muslim (12.4%), Hindu
Hindu
(5.1%), Jewish
Jewish
(1.8%), and Sikh
Sikh
(1.5%), alongside those of no religion (20.7%). The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has traditionally been Christian, and London
London
has a large number of churches, particularly in the City. St Paul\'s Cathedral in the City and Southwark
Southwark
Cathedral south of the river are Anglican
Anglican
administrative centres, while the head of the Church of England
England
and the worldwide Anglican
Anglican
Communion , the Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
, has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth .

Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
. The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby Westminster Cathedral , the largest Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
cathedral in England
England
and Wales. Religious practice in London
London
is lower than in any other part of the UK or Western Europe and is around seven times lower than American averages. Despite the prevalence of Anglican
Anglican
churches, weekly observance is low within that denomination , although in recent years church attendance , particularly at evangelical Anglican churches in London, has started to increase.

London
London
is home to sizeable Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, and Jewish communities. Many Muslims live in Tower Hamlets and Newham ; the most important Muslim
Muslim
buildings are the East London
London
Mosque in Whitechapel and the London
London
Central Mosque on the edge of Regent\'s Park . London's large Hindu
Hindu
community is in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent, the latter containing one of Europe's largest Hindu
Hindu
temples, Neasden
Neasden
Temple.

Sikh
Sikh
communities are in East and West London, particularly Southall in the western borough of Ealing, which is also home to the largest Sikh
Sikh
temple in the capital. The majority of British Jews live in London, with significant communities in Stamford Hill
Stamford Hill
(the most Orthodox Jewish
Jewish
area outside New York City
New York City
and Israel) and St. John\'s Wood , Golders Green , and Edgware in North London.

EDUCATION

University College London
London
, a founding constituent of the University of London
London
. King\'s College London
London
, a founding constituent of the University of London
London
.

Publicly funded education has been administered through 33 LEAs , which correspond to the City of London
City of London
and the 32 London
London
boroughs, since the 1990 enactment of the Education Reform Act 1988 . From 1965 to 1990, 12 Inner London
London
boroughs and the City of London
City of London
were served by the Inner London
London
Education Authority .

The introduction of comprehensive schools , directed by Circular 10/65 in 1965, was mostly followed in Greater London; however, 19 grammar schools have been retained in some Outer London
London
boroughs, with Sutton having the most with five, followed by Bexley with four and others in five other boroughs. In these boroughs the state schools outperform the (relatively few) independent schools. In inner London, private schools always get the best results and are larger in number. At GCSE and A level , Outer London
London
boroughs have broadly better results than Inner London
London
boroughs.

At GCSE, the best borough is Kingston upon Thames, closely followed by Sutton. Both boroughs have selective schools, and get the top two average GCSE results in England
England
for LEAs. Next is Kensington and Chelsea, the third best in England, then Redbridge, Hammersmith and Fulham, Bromley, Barnet and Harrow. Only ten boroughs have GCSE results under the England
England
average, and some inner- London
London
boroughs have surprisingly good results considering where they lie on the scale of deprivation, e.g. Lambeth. Overall at GCSE in 2009, Greater London
London
had the best results for regions of England. Greater London
London
is generally a prosperous region, and prosperous areas generally have good GCSE results. The City of London
City of London
has no state schools, just two independent schools. Haringey and Kensington and Chelsea have the most people that pass no GCSEs.

At A-level, the average results for LEAs are disappointing compared to their good GCSE results. Although Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames
gets the best GCSE results in England, at A-level it is not even above average. Sutton gets the best A-level results in London
London
and in England. Three of the schools in the top four at A-level in London
London
are in Sutton. It has only one independent school. The few other boroughs with above-average A-level results are Havering, Barnet, Bexley, Redbridge, and Ealing. The poor A-level results in many London
London
boroughs is explained by the quantity of independent schools getting good A-level results. The state school system is often bypassed at age 16 by the more able pupils. Some London
London
boroughs need more good sixth form colleges.

The region's 34 further education colleges are funded through the Skills Funding Agency and the Young People\'s Learning Agency . Large colleges include Kingston College , Havering College of Further and Higher Education , and Croydon
Croydon
College .

UNIVERSITIES

See also: List of universities and higher education colleges in London
London

The University of London
London
has 20 federated colleges and schools. The main two higher education institutions (HEIs) are (in order of total funding) University College London
London
(UCL) and King\'s College London (KCL). KCL and UCL are part of the University of London, and Imperial College was part of this university until 2007, and is now an independent university. UCL and Imperial have very large research grants – some of the largest in England
England
after Cambridge and Oxford . KCL also has a large research grant, and one of the largest in England. The next largest institution by funding is Queen Mary University of London
London
, followed by Goldsmiths, University of London
London
. The top three institutions get more than twice as much total income than any other institution in the region, with UCL and Imperial around £600 million each. The region has many medical schools, and one vet school, the Royal Veterinary College (which also has a main site at North Mymms
North Mymms
in Hertfordshire) in Camden . The RVC has the lowest drop-out rate in the region.

By student numbers, the top five universities are: London Metropolitan University , the University of Westminster
University of Westminster
, Middlesex University , the University of Greenwich
Greenwich
, and City University London .

50% of students come from the region, and around 30% from other regions. Most students from other regions come from South East England , the East of England
England
, and, to a lesser degree, South West England
England
; the vast majority are from the south of England
England
. Over 50% students native to the region stay in the region, with 15% going to South East England, 30% to either Scotland, Wales
Wales
or the North East and around 5% go elsewhere. London
London
is a draw for UK graduates from all over the UK.

Over 70% of UK students to graduate from the University of London remain in London; just under 15% go to the South-East, and just over 5% go to the East of England
England
and 10% elsewhere.

TWIN CITIES

The GLA has twin and sister city agreements with the following cities.

CHINA SHANGHAI SHANGHAI MUNICIPALITY 2009

CHINA BEIJING BEIJING MUNICIPALITY 2006

FRANCE PARIS ÎLE-DE-FRANCE

GERMANY BERLIN BERLIN 2000

RUSSIA MOSCOW CENTRAL FEDERAL DISTRICT

UNITED STATES NEW YORK CITY NEW YORK 2001

JAPAN TOKYO TOKYO 2005

For Borough twinning, see List of twin towns and sister cities in England# London
London
.

POSTAL DISTRICT

The London
London
postal district in red in contrast to Greater London
London

The London
London
postal district does not cover all of Greater London. Areas around the outskirts of Greater London
London
have addresses based on postal towns outside Greater London.

SEE ALSO

* London
London
portal

* Book: London
London

GEOGRAPHICAL

* Central London
London
* Inner London
London
* Outer London
London
* London
London
boroughs * Greater London
London
Urban Area * London commuter belt * Metropolitan Police District * M25 motorway
M25 motorway

POLITICAL

* Mayor of London
London
* List of Lord Lieutenants of Greater London
London
* List of High Sheriffs of Greater London
London
* London
London
Plan * City of London
City of London

HISTORICAL

* Metropolitan Board of Works * County of London
London
* Greater London
London
Council

OTHER

* Global city
Global city
* Greater London
London
Area War Risk Study * Megacity * Metropolis
Metropolis

NOTES

* ^ Croydon
Croydon
and Southwark
Southwark
have made several failed applications for city status

REFERENCES

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