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Greater Boston
Boston
is the metropolitan region of New England
New England
encompassing the municipality of Boston, the capital of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Massachusetts, and the most populous city in New England, as well as its surrounding areas. The region forms the northern arc of the US northeast megalopolis and as such, Greater Boston
Boston
can be described as either a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), or as a broader combined statistical area (CSA). The MSA consists of most of the eastern third of Massachusetts, excluding the South Coast region and Cape Cod; while the CSA additionally includes the municipalities of Manchester (the largest city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of New Hampshire), Providence (the capital and largest city of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Rhode Island), Worcester, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(the second largest city in New England), as well as the South Coast region and Cape Cod
Cape Cod
in Massachusetts. Some of Greater Boston's most well-known contributions to human civilization involve the region's higher education and medical institutions. Greater Boston
Boston
has been influential upon American history and industry. The region and the state of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
are global leaders in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.[1] Over 80% of Massachusetts' population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan region. Greater Boston
Boston
is ranked tenth in population among US metropolitan statistical areas, home to 4,732,161 people as of the 2014 US Census estimate, and sixth among combined statistical areas, with a population of 8,099,575.[2] The area has hosted many people and sites significant to American culture and history, particularly American literature,[3] politics, and the American Revolution. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials.[4] In the late 18th century, Boston
Boston
became known as the "Cradle of Liberty"[5] for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The Greater Boston
Boston
region has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, the region was a center for the abolitionist, temperance,[6] and transcendentalist[7] movements.[8] In 2004, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
became the first U.S. state
U.S. state
to legally recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in Boston.[9] Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the Boston
Boston
region, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University
Harvard University
in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States,[10] with the largest financial endowment of any university,[11] and whose Law School has spawned a contemporaneous majority of United States
United States
Supreme Court Justices.[12] Kendall Square
Kendall Square
in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010.[13][14] Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, also in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world.[15]

Contents

1 Definitions

1.1 Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC) 1.2 New England
New England
City and Town Area (NECTA) 1.3 Metropolitan Statistical Area
Metropolitan Statistical Area
(MSA) 1.4 Combined Statistical Area (CSA)

2 Principal cities and towns

2.1 Boston
Boston
metropolitan area 2.2 Largest cities and towns

3 Demographics

3.1 Population density 3.2 Race and ethnicity 3.3 Other

4 Higher education 5 Selected statistics 6 Major companies 7 Sports 8 Transportation

8.1 Interstates 8.2 U.S. Routes 8.3 State Highways 8.4 Bridges and tunnels 8.5 Airports 8.6 Rail and bus 8.7 Ocean transportation

9 Geography

9.1 Climate

10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading

Definitions[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Last update: population figures (August 2012)

Light Blue represents the area in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
known as Greater Boston, while Dark Blue represents the Metro-Boston area[specify][citation needed] and Red represents the City of Boston.

Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC)[edit]

The most restrictive definition of the Greater Boston
Boston
area is the region administered by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC).[16] The MAPC is a regional planning organization created by the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
legislature to oversee transportation infrastructure and economic development concerns in the Boston
Boston
area. The MAPC includes 101 cities and towns that are grouped into eight subregions. These include most of the area within the region's outer circumferential highway, I-495. In 2013, the population of the MAPC district was 3.2 million, which was 48% of the total population of Massachusetts,[17] in an area of 1,422 square miles (3,680 km2),[16] of which 39% is forested and an additional 11% is water, wetland, or other open space.[18] The eight subregions and their principal towns are: Inner Core (Boston), Minuteman (Route 2 corridor), MetroWest
MetroWest
(Framingham), North Shore (Lynn), North Suburban (Woburn), South Shore (Route 3 corridor), SouthWest (Franklin), and Three Rivers (Norwood). Notably excluded from the MAPC and its partner planning body, the Boston
Boston
Region Metropolitan Planning Organization, are the Merrimack Valley cities of Lowell, Lawrence, and Haverhill, much of Plymouth County, and all of Bristol County; these areas have their own regional planning bodies. Bristol County is part of the Greater Boston
Boston
CSA, as part of the Providence MSA. New England
New England
City and Town Area (NECTA)[edit]

Cambridge and Boston; MIT
MIT
and Kendall Square
Kendall Square
in the foreground, and Boston's Financial District in the background

The urbanized area surrounding Boston
Boston
serves as the core of a definition used by the US Census Bureau
US Census Bureau
known as the New England
New England
city and town area (NECTA). The set of towns containing the core urbanized area plus surrounding towns with strong social and economic ties to the core area is defined as the Boston–Cambridge–Nashua, MA–NH Metropolitan NECTA.[19] The Boston
Boston
NECTA is further subdivided into several NECTA divisions, which are listed below. The Boston, Framingham, and Peabody NECTA divisions together correspond roughly to the MAPC area. The total population of the Boston
Boston
NECTA was 4,540,941 (as of 2000).

Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA NECTA Division (92 towns) Framingham, MA NECTA Division (12 towns) Peabody–Salem–Beverly, MA NECTA Division (4 towns) Brockton–Bridgewater–Easton, MA NECTA Division (Old Colony region) (8 towns) Haverhill–Newburyport–Amesbury, MA–NH NECTA Division (Merrimack Valley region) (21 towns) Lawrence–Methuen–Salem, MA–NH NECTA Division (part of Merrimack Valley region) (4 towns) Lowell–Billerica–Chelmsford, MA–NH NECTA Division (Northern Middlesex region) (15 towns) Nashua, NH–MA NECTA Division (21 towns) Taunton–Middleborough–Norton, MA NECTA Division (part of Southeastern region) (9 towns) Lynn–Saugus–Marblehead, MA NECTA Division (5 towns)

Metropolitan Statistical Area
Metropolitan Statistical Area
(MSA)[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1850 650,357

1860 830,998

27.8%

1870 978,346

17.7%

1880 1,205,439

23.2%

1890 1,515,684

25.7%

1900 1,890,122

24.7%

1910 2,260,762

19.6%

1920 2,563,123

13.4%

1930 2,866,567

11.8%

1940 2,926,650

2.1%

1950 3,186,970

8.9%

1960 3,516,435

10.3%

1970 3,918,092

11.4%

1980 3,938,585

0.5%

1990 4,133,895

5.0%

2000 4,391,344

6.2%

2010 4,552,402

3.7%

Est. 2014 4,732,161

3.9%

US Decennial Census

An alternative definition defined by the United States
United States
Office of Management and Budget, using counties as building blocks instead of towns, is the Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA–NH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is further subdivided into four metropolitan divisions. The metropolitan statistical area had a total population of approximately 4,732,161 as of 2014 and is the tenth-largest in the United States. The components of the metropolitan area with their estimated 2012 populations are listed below.

Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA–NH Metropolitan Statistical Area (4,640,802)

Boston, MA Metropolitan Division (1,926,030)

Norfolk County, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(681,845) Plymouth County, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(499,759) Suffolk County, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(744,426)

Cambridge–Newton–Framingham, MA Metropolitan Division (2,292,833)

Middlesex County, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(1,537,215) Essex County, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(755,618)

Rockingham County–Strafford County, NH Metropolitan Division (421,939)

Rockingham County, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
(297,820) Strafford County, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
(124,119)

Combined Statistical Area (CSA)[edit]

Providence, Rhode Island

A wider functional metropolitan area based on commuting patterns is also defined by the Office of Management and Budget
Office of Management and Budget
as the Boston–Worcester–Providence combined statistical area. This area consists of the metropolitan areas of Manchester, Worcester, Providence, as well as Cape Cod, in addition to greater Boston. The total population as of 2014 for the extended region was estimated at 8,099,575. The following areas, along with the above MSA, are included in the combined statistical area, with their estimated 2012 populations:

Worcester, Massachusetts–Connecticut, metropolitan statistical area (923,762)

Worcester County, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(806,163) Windham County, Connecticut
Connecticut
(117,599)

Providence–Warwick, Rhode Island–Massachusetts, metropolitan statistical area (1,601,374)

Bristol County, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(551,082) Bristol County, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
(49,144) Kent County, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
(164,843) Newport County, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
(82,036) Providence County, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
(628,323) Washington County, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
(125,946)

Concord, New Hampshire, micropolitan statistical area (146,761)

Merrimack County, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
(146,761)

Laconia, New Hampshire, micropolitan statistical area (60,327)

Belknap County, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
(60,327)

Manchester–Nashua, New Hampshire, metropolitan statistical area (402,922)

Hillsborough County, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
(402,922)

Barnstable Town, Massachusetts, metropolitan statistical area (215,423)

Barnstable County, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(215,423)

Principal cities and towns[edit]

Winthrop, MA

Cities and towns

Arlington Bedford Belmont Boston Braintree Brockton Brookline Burlington Cambridge Chelsea Dedham Everett Framingham Lexington Lynn Lynnfield Malden Medford Melrose Milton Nahant Natick Needham Newton North Reading Norwood Peabody Quincy Randolph Reading Revere Salem Saugus Somerville Stoneham Swampscott Wakefield Waltham Watertown Wellesley Weymouth Wilmington Winchester Winthrop Woburn

Boston
Boston
metropolitan area[edit] The Census Bureau defines the following as principal cities in the Boston
Boston
NECTA[19] using criteria developed for what the Office of Management and Budget calls a Core Based Statistical Area:[20]

Boston Cambridge Lowell Providence Quincy Worcester

Largest cities and towns[edit] Cities and towns in the Boston
Boston
CSA with at least 50,000 residents:

Rank City 2000 population 2010 population 2014 population[21] % change (2010 to 2014)

1 Boston 589,141 617,594 655,884 7000619986593134000♠+6.20%

2 Worcester 172,648 181,045 183,016 7000108867961004170♠+1.09%

3 Providence 173,618 178,042 179,154 6999624571730265890♠+0.62%

4 Manchester 107,006 109,565 110,448 6999805914297449010♠+0.81%

5 Lowell 105,167 106,519 109,945 7000321632760352610♠+3.22%

6 Cambridge 101,355 105,162 109,694 7000430954146935210♠+4.31%

7 New Bedford 93,768 95,072 94,845 3000761233591383370♠−0.24%

8 Brockton 94,304 93,810 94,779 7000103293891909179♠+1.03%

9 Quincy 88,025 92,271 93,397 7000122031840990130♠+1.22%

10 Lynn 89,050 90,329 92,137 7000200157203113059♠+2.00%

11 Fall River 91,938 88,857 88,712 3000836816457904280♠−0.16%

12 Newton 83,829 85,146 88,287 7000368895779014870♠+3.69%

13 Nashua 86,605 86,494 87,259 6999884454413022870♠+0.88%

14 Warwick 85,808 82,672 81,963 3000142394039094249♠−0.86%

15 Cranston 79,269 80,387 81,037 6999808588453356900♠+0.81%

16 Somerville 77,478 75,754 78,901 7000415423607994300♠+4.15%

17 Lawrence 72,043 76,377 78,197 7000238291632297679♠+2.38%

18 Pawtucket 72,958 71,148 71,499 6999493337831000160♠+0.49%

19 Framingham 66,910 68,318 70,068 7000256155039667440♠+2.56%

20 Waltham 59,226 60,632 63,014 7000392861855126010♠+3.93%

21 Haverhill 58,969 60,879 62,488 7000264294748599680♠+2.64%

22 Malden 56,340 59,450 60,859 7000237005887300250♠+2.37%

23 Brookline 57,107 58,732 59,115 6999652114690458360♠+0.65%

24 Plymouth 51,701 56,468 57,463 7000176205992774670♠+1.76%

25 Medford 55,765 56,173 57,437 7000225019137307960♠+2.25%

26 Taunton 55,976 55,874 56,544 7000119912660629270♠+1.20%

27 Weymouth 53,988 53,743 55,643 7000353534413784120♠+3.54%

28 Revere 47,283 51,755 54,157 7000464109747850450♠+4.64%

29 Peabody 48,129 51,251 52,376 7000219507912040739♠+2.20%

30 Methuen 43,789 47,255 52,044 7001101343773145699♠+10.13%

Demographics[edit]

St. Patrick's Day Parade
St. Patrick's Day Parade
in Scituate, Massachusetts, in Plymouth County, the municipality with the highest percentage identifying Irish ancestry in the United States, at 47.5% in 2010.[22] Irish Americans constitute the largest ethnicity in Greater Boston.

Boston's Chinatown, with its paifang gate, is home to many Chinese and also Vietnamese restaurants.

Boston
Boston
gay pride march, held annually in June

Population density[edit] The most densely populated census tracts in the Boston
Boston
CSA (2010):[23]

Rank City or neighborhood Census tract Population Population density

/sq mi /km2

1 Fenway–Kenmore 10404 5,817 110,108 285,180

2 Fenway–Kenmore 10403 3,003 87,828 227,470

3 Fenway–Kenmore 10408 1,426 85,137 220,500

4 Beacon Hill 202 3,649 80,851 209,400

5 North End 301 1,954 66,288 171,690

6 North End 302 1,665 64,642 167,420

7 North End 304 2,451 58,435 151,350

8 Cambridge 3539 7,090 56,819 147,160

9 Back Bay 10801 2,783 56,534 146,420

10 East Boston 502 5,231 55,692 144,240

Race and ethnicity[edit] The 40 most diverse Census tracts in the Boston
Boston
CSA:[23]

Rank City or neighborhood Census tract Population % White % Black % Hispanic % Asian % multiracial or other

1 Dorchester 916 3,138 12 32 15 26 14

2 Pawtucket 161 4,607 28 24 28 1 18

3 Pawtucket 151 4,472 24 24 29 1 23

4 Pawtucket 164 4,938 29 26 21 2 20

5 Dorchester 912 3,234 30 24 22 6 18

6 Dorchester 92101 6,451 30 22 11 31 6

7 Brockton 5115 4,308 21 32 13 2 32

8 Brockton 511 3,040 28 33 15 1 24

9 New Bedford 6519 1,942 26 11 33 1 29

10 Mission Hill 80801 3,885 32 20 35 10 2

11 Pawtucket 154 2,258 35 20 35 0 11

12 Brockton 5114 3,716 24 36 14 2 23

13 Brockton 5109 2,531 24 36 16 1 24

14 Brockton 5103 3,798 23 38 15 2 24

15 Brockton 5104 3,706 19 38 15 2 25

16 Dorchester 90901 3,730 38 18 21 20 4

17 Worcester 733 3,762 38 10 37 12 4

18 Providence 26 3,098 23 22 39 10 6

19 Malden 3415 4,780 39 23 14 19 5

20 Cambridge 3524 2,126 27 39 16 12 5

21 South End 71202 3,131 39 19 24 15 3

22 Brockton 511301 5,334 39 31 11 2 17

23 Providence 15 2,994 28 13 41 14 4

24 South Boston 61 3,098 41 15 29 11 4

25 Lynn 2072 2,939 30 12 42 13 2

26 Cambridge 3549 6,058 35 30 9 20 5

27 South Boston 61101 2,232 20 21 42 14 2

28 Brockton 5116 7,211 42 29 10 2 16

29 Roxbury 801 3,350 15 43 28 1 11

30 Lowell 3114 5,986 44 11 14 26 5

31 Brockton 5108 6,339 18 44 12 2 22

32 Mission Hill 81001 4,890 45 14 19 19 2

33 Malden 3418 6,554 46 20 13 16 5

34 South Boston 607 1,893 19 20 46 10 5

35 Brockton 5107 5,656 46 31 8 4 11

36 Brockton 5112 4,849 47 26 11 1 13

37 Somerville 351404 4,289 47 7 22 13 11

38 Lynn 2071 3,513 18 11 48 19 3

39 Framingham 383101 4,923 23 10 48 1 18

40 Mission Hill 811 4,091 48 21 15 13 2

The 40 census tracts in the Boston
Boston
CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Hispanic or Latino:[23]

Rank City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % Hispanic or Latino

1 Lawrence 2525 3,810 94

2 Lawrence 2509 2,193 93

3 Lawrence 2504 3,858 90

4 Lawrence 2503 2,101 89

5 Lawrence 2513 3,721 89

6 Lawrence 2512 1,356 86

7 Lawrence 2507 4,756 86

8 Lawrence 251 1,782 85

9 Chelsea 1602 4,043 83

10 Lawrence 2506 5,599 83

11 Lawrence 2514 5,053 77

12 Chelsea 160101 7,551 76

13 Lawrence 2501 2,329 75

14 Lawrence 2516 5,977 74

15 Lawrence 2511 2,937 73

16 Lawrence 2502 5,524 72

17 Chelsea 1604 2,716 71

18 Chelsea 160501 5,604 71

19 Providence 16 8,540 70

20 Lawrence 2515 6,149 70

21 Worcester 732001 3,327 67

22 East Boston 506 2,063 67

23 East Boston 502 5,231 66

24 East Boston 507 4,504 65

25 East Boston 50901 4,165 65

26 Providence 2 6,452 64

27 Providence 4 3,761 64

28 Providence 14 6,693 63

29 Providence 5 3,040 63

30 Central Falls 11 5,534 63

31 Lawrence 2508 6,932 63

32 Chelsea 160502 4,460 62

33 Methuen 2524 4,175 62

34 Providence 17 3,744 62

35 Providence 18 7,114 61

36 Central Falls 111 4,176 61

37 East Boston 50101 5,115 61

38 Lawrence 2517 5,145 61

39 Providence 3 7,714 60

40 Central Falls 108 4,763 59

Census tracts in the Boston
Boston
CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Black American:[23]

Rank City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % Black

1 Mattapan 101101 3,115 84

2 Mattapan 101102 4,396 84

3 Mattapan 101001 5,480 83

4 Mattapan 1003 3,303 80

5 Mattapan 1002 2,787 78

6 Mattapan 101002 4,979 77

7 Dorchester 923 2,893 77

8 Roxbury 82 2,815 74

9 Roxbury 817 3,820 71

10 Hyde Park 1404 7,650 71

11 Roxbury 901 4,571 71

12 Dorchester 919 3,860 70

13 Dorchester 1004 4,865 68

14 Roxbury 819 3,115 66

15 Roxbury 924 5,277 66

16 Roxbury 818 2,898 65

17 Mattapan 1001 5,510 64

18 Roxbury 815 2,134 62

19 Roxbury 821 5,025 62

20 Roxbury 803 1,769 60

21 Roxbury 903 3,179 58

22 Dorchester 1009 4,072 58

23 Dorchester 1005 5,909 55

24 Hyde Park 1403 6,382 54

25 Dorchester 92 4,945 54

26 Roxbury 902 2,233 53

27 Dorchester 918 3,452 52

28 Roxbury 904 3,659 52

29 Roxbury 814 3,003 50

30 Roxbury 80401 2,710 50

31 Roslindale 140106 1,901 49

32 Dorchester 917 3,069 47

33 Dorchester 914 2,741 46

34 Brockton 5108 6,339 44

35 Roxbury 805 3,096 44

36 Roxbury 801 3,350 43

37 Randolph 420302 7,703 42

38 Roxbury 813 4,760 42

39 Dorchester 922 3,349 42

40 Randolph 420202 6,303 40

Census tracts in the Boston
Boston
CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Asian American:[23]

Rank City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % Asian

1 South End 70402 1,723 70

2 Chinatown 702 5,218 58

3 Lowell 3112 3,267 55

4 Lowell 3118 3,513 54

5 Lowell 3117 5,098 47

6 Quincy 417502 4,639 45

7 Quincy 4172 8,182 44

8 Malden 3413 5,439 39

9 Lowell 3113 4,057 38

10 Westborough 742402 3,026 38

11 Quincy 417501 5,004 37

12 Cambridge 353102 5,040 36

13 Quincy 417802 3,150 35

14 Lowell 3111 2,410 34

15 Lowell 3115 2,974 33

16 Dorchester 92101 6,451 31

17 Quincy 417601 5,196 30

18 Fenway–Kenmore 10103 4,569 29

19 Quincy 4180002 7,020 28

20 Quincy 417602 5,155 28

21 Chinatown/Leather District/Downtown 70101 5,902 27

22 Cambridge 3539 7,090 27

23 Lowell 3114 5,986 26

24 Lowell 3116 5,295 26

25 Lowell 3107 4,441 26

26 Quincy 4171 4,264 26

27 Dorchester 916 3,138 26

28 Malden 3412 6,857 25

29 Malden 341102 4,564 25

30 Malden 341101 3,675 25

31 Acton 363102 5,909 25

32 Dorchester 911 4,861 25

33 Allston-Brighton 703 2,791 24

34 Lexington 3583 5,526 24

35 Quincy 418004 4,280 23

36 Brookline 4009 3,865 22

37 Cambridge 3532 4,897 22

38 Cambridge 352101 1,654 22

39 Shrewsbury 7391 9,557 22

40 Westborough 7612 5,780 22

Census tracts in the Boston
Boston
CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Irish American:[24]

City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % Irish

South Boston 60101 3,106 68

Milton 416400 6,069 63

Charlestown 040401 2,439 63

Dorchester 1007 4,322 63

South Boston 608 3,964 62

South Boston 604 4,904 61

Milton 416101 5,724 58

Marshfield 506204 4,886 57

Weymouth 422100 5,293 57

Quincy 417801 5,443 55

Hull 500101 3,702 55

Scituate 505101 3,860 55

West Roxbury 130402 4,637 54

Quincy 417400 2,566 53

South Boston 60301 3,076 52

Abington 520100 6,458 52

Braintree 419200 5,002 52

Braintree 419600 6,766 52

Abington 520201 3,952 52

Pembroke 508200 6,031 52

Census tracts in the Boston
Boston
CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Italian American:[25]

City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % Italian

Johnston 012402 2,486 63

Cranston 014501 5,179 58

Johnston 012500 5,490 57

Johnston 012200 7,187 57

Providence 011902 4,780 55

Cranston 014800 5,591 55

Saugus 208102 3,343 51

Cranston 014300 4,716 49

Cranston 014600 6,991 49

Cranston 014502 4,096 48

Johnston 012300 6,656 48

Johnston 012401 6,950 48

Stoneham 337102 5,042 45

Stoneham 337202 4,849 45

Revere 170200 4,564 45

Revere 170502 2,818 43

Cranston 013900 2,992 43

Revere 170300 9,040 43

North Providence 012103 2,965 43

Census tracts in the Boston
Boston
CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Portuguese American:[26]

City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % Portuguese

New Bedford 652800 3,277 72

Fall River 640600 4,450 69

Dartmouth 653203 5,005 65

New Bedford 652400 2,664 64

New Bedford 652000 2,676 62

Fall River 640500 5,165 60

Fall River 641200 2,803 59

New Bedford 650500 3,141 58

Fall River 640901 5,071 58

New Bedford 650400 3,773 57

New Bedford 652500 2,589 56

East Providence 010400 6,661 55

New Bedford 652300 2,870 54

Fall River 641000 2,419 54

Fall River 640300 3,693 53

Westport 646101 7,356 53

Fall River 640700 2,900 53

Fall River 640400 2,682 53

New Bedford 650101 5,753 53

Fall River 640100 5,358 52

Census tracts in the Boston
Boston
CSA with French or French Canadian listed as first ancestry:[27]

City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % French

Woonsocket 018500 2,831 66

Woonsocket 017700 3,518 61

Woonsocket 017500 3,128 59

Woonsocket 017800 2,514 58

Burrillville 013001 3,479 56

North Smithfield 012802 2,391 54

North Smithfield 012803 4,776 53

Burrillville 013002 7,539 53

North Smithfield 012801 4,800 52

Manchester 002300 3,758 52

Woonsocket 017900 3,049 51

Burrillville 012900 4,937 50

Manchester 000202 2,297 49

Manchester 002100 4,782 49

Woonsocket 017600 2,560 49

Manchester 002600 5,746 48

Manchester 002200 3,232 47

Woonsocket 018400 6,527 47

Blackstone 747101 5,110 47

Woonsocket 018000 2,680 46

Other[edit] Greater Boston
Boston
has a sizable Jewish community, estimated at between 210,000 people,[28][29] and 261,000[30] or 5–6% of the Greater Boston
Boston
metro population, compared with about 2% for the nation as a whole. Contrary to national trends, the number of Jews in Greater Boston
Boston
has been growing, fueled by the fact that 60% of children in Jewish mixed-faith families are raised Jewish, compared with roughly one in three nationally.[28] The City of Boston
Boston
also has one of the largest LGBT
LGBT
populations per capita. It ranks fifth of all major cities in the country (behind San Francisco, and slightly behind Seattle, Atlanta, and Minneapolis respectively), with 12.3% of the city identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.[31]

County 2016 Estimate 2010 Census Change Area Density

Essex County, Massachusetts 779,018 743,159 7000482521237043490♠+4.83% 492.56 sq mi (1,275.7 km2) 1,582/sq mi (611/km2)

Middlesex County, Massachusetts 1,589,774 1,503,085 7000576740503697390♠+5.77% 817.82 sq mi (2,118.1 km2) 1,944/sq mi (751/km2)

Norfolk County, Massachusetts 697,181 670,850 7000392502049638520♠+3.93% 396.11 sq mi (1,025.9 km2) 1,760/sq mi (680/km2)

Plymouth County, Massachusetts 513,565 494,919 7000376748518444430♠+3.77% 659.07 sq mi (1,707.0 km2) 779/sq mi (301/km2)

Suffolk County, Massachusetts 784,230 722,023 7000861565351796270♠+8.62% 58.15 sq mi (150.6 km2) 13,486/sq mi (5,207/km2)

Rockingham County, New Hampshire 303,251 295,223 7000271930032551660♠+2.72% 694.72 sq mi (1,799.3 km2) 437/sq mi (169/km2)

Strafford County, New Hampshire 127,428 123,143 7000347969433910170♠+3.48% 368.97 sq mi (955.6 km2) 345/sq mi (133/km2)

Total 4,794,447 4,552,402 7000531686349316250♠+5.32% 3,487.40 sq mi (9,032.3 km2) 1,375/sq mi (531/km2)

Higher education[edit] See also: Boston, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
§ Education; List of colleges and universities in metropolitan Boston; and List of colleges and universities in Massachusetts

Harvard University
Harvard University
(top) and MIT
MIT
(bottom) are both widely regarded as in the top handful of universities worldwide for academic research in various disciplines.[15]

A long established center of higher education, the area includes many community colleges, two-year schools, and internationally prominent undergraduate and graduate institutions. The graduate schools include highly regarded schools of law, medicine, business, technology, international relations, public health, education, and religion. Greater Boston
Boston
contains seven R1 Research Institutions as per the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. This is, by far, the highest number of such institutions in a single Metropolitan Statistical Area
Metropolitan Statistical Area
in the United States.

v t e

Colleges and universities in metropolitan Boston

Andover Newton Theological School Bay State College Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology Bentley University Berklee College of Music Boston
Boston
Architectural College Boston
Boston
Baptist College Boston
Boston
College Boston
Boston
Conservatory Boston
Boston
Graduate School of Psychoanalysis Boston
Boston
University Brandeis University Bunker Hill Community College Cambridge College Curry College Eastern Nazarene College Emerson College Emmanuel College Episcopal Divinity School Fisher College Harvard University Hebrew College Hellenic College Hult International Business School Labouré College Lasell College Lesley University Longy School of Music Massachusetts
Massachusetts
College of Art and Design Massachusetts
Massachusetts
College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Institute of Technology MGH Institute Mount Ida College Newbury College New England
New England
College of Optometry New England
New England
Conservatory New England
New England
Institute of Art New England
New England
School of Law Northeastern University Pine Manor College Quincy College Roxbury Community College St. John's Seminary School of the Museum of Fine Arts at Tufts Simmons College Suffolk University Tufts University University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Boston Urban College of Boston Wentworth Institute of Technology Wheelock College William James College

Selected statistics[edit] Changes in house prices for the Greater Boston
Boston
area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 10-city composite index of the value of the residential real estate market. Major companies[edit] References:[32][33][34][35]

Companies along, inside or outside I-495:

Abbott Laboratories, in Worcester (pharmaceutical laboratory) Advanced Cell Technology, in Worcester (research laboratory) AMD, in Boxborough Analog Devices, in Norwood Atlantic Broadband, in Quincy Atlantic Tele-Network, in Beverly Avid Technology, Inc, in Burlington (headquarters) Azimuth Systems, in Acton Bain & Company, in Boston
Boston
(headquarters) Bain Capital, in Boston
Boston
(headquarters) Bertucci's
Bertucci's
Corporation, in Northborough (headquarters) BJ's Wholesale Club, Inc., in Westborough (headquarters) Bose Corporation, in Framingham (headquarters) Boston
Boston
Properties, Inc., in Boston
Boston
(headquarters) Boston
Boston
Scientific Corporation, in Marlborough Boston
Boston
Scientific Corporation, in Natick (headquarters) Charles River
Charles River
Laboratories, in Wilmington (headquarters) Cisco Systems, in Boxborough CommunityRoot, in Boston
Boston
(headquarters) David Clark Company, in Worcester (manufacturer of space suits) Diebold, in Marlborough (regional headquarters) EMC Corporation, in Hopkinton (headquarters) Evergreen Solar, in Marlborough (headquarters) Genzyme Corporation, in Framingham Hewlett-Packard, in Marlborough (regional headquarters) Schneider Electric, in Andover, Massachusetts HourlyNerd, in Boston Innerscope Research, in Boston
Boston
(headquarters) Intel Corporation, in Hudson Kronos Incorporated, in Chelmsford, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(headquarters) Marshalls, Inc, in Framingham (headquarters) The MathWorks, in Natick MITRE Corporation, in Bedford (headquarters) Morgan Construction Company, in Worcester (rolling steel mill technology) National Amusements, in Norwood (headquarters) Novartis, headquartered in Cambridge, with locations worldwide (a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel) Philips
Philips
Electronics North America, in Andover (regional headquarters) Philips
Philips
Healthcare, in Andover (global headquarters) and Framingham Puma, in Westford (North American headquarters)[36] Red Hat, in Westford (engineering headquarters) Reed & Barton in Taunton (factory and headquarters) Saint-Gobain, in Worcester Sepracor, Inc., in Marlborough (headquarters) Staples, Inc., in Framingham (headquarters) Stop & Shop, in Quincy (headquarters) TJX Corporation, in Framingham (headquarters) Vertex Pharmaceuticals
Vertex Pharmaceuticals
Inc., in Boston
Boston
(headquarters) UniFirst, in Wilmington (headquarters) WB Mason, in Brockton (headquarters) Wyman-Gordon, in Grafton (complex metal components and products)

Companies along or inside I-95 (Route 128), not including Boston:

Akamai Technologies, in Cambridge (headquarters) AstraZeneca, in Waltham (R&D) BBN Technologies, in Cambridge (headquarters) Biocell Center, in Medford (North American headquarters) Biogen Idec, in Weston (North American headquarters) Carl Zeiss SMT, in Peabody (North American headquarters) Constant Contact, in Walthem Dunkin' Brands, in Canton (headquarters) Facebook, in Cambridge General Electric
General Electric
Aviation, in Lynn Genzyme Corporation, in Cambridge (headquarters) Genzyme Corporation, in Waltham (R&D) Google
Google
Inc., in Cambridge Haemonetics, in Braintree IBM, in Waltham, Cambridge and Littleton InterSystems
InterSystems
Corporation, in Cambridge (headquarters) iRobot Corporation, in Burlington (headquarters) Keurig, in Reading (headquarters) Meditech, in Westwood (headquarters) Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation, in Cambridge Millennium Pharmaceuticals, in Cambridge National Amusements
National Amusements
(Parent company of CBS and Viacom), in Dedham (headquarters) National Grid, in Waltham (US headquarters) NetApp Inc, in Waltham NetBlazr, in Watertown Nokia, in Burlington Novartis
Novartis
AG, Inc, in Cambridge (research headquarters) Novell, Inc., in Waltham Nuance Communications, in Burlington Oracle Corporation
Oracle Corporation
in Burlington Osram Sylvania
Osram Sylvania
in Danvers (headquarters) Parametric Technology Corporation
Parametric Technology Corporation
in Needham (headquarters) Philips
Philips
Lighting in Burlington Progress Software
Progress Software
in Bedford (headquarters) Raytheon, in Waltham (headquarters) Reebok, in Canton (US headquarters) SunSetter Products, LP, in Malden (headquarters) Teradyne, in North Reading (headquarters) Thermo Fisher Scientific, in Waltham (headquarters) TripAdvisor, LLC, in Needham (headquarters) Twitter, in Cambridge Vistaprint, in Lexington (North American headquarters)[37]

Major companies inside Boston
Boston
proper:

American Tower (headquarters) Au Bon Pain
Au Bon Pain
(headquarters) Bain & Company (headquarters) Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(headquarters) Boston
Boston
Consulting Group (headquarters) Converse(headquarters) Fidelity Investments
Fidelity Investments
(headquarters) General Electric
General Electric
(headquarters) The Gillette Company, now owned by Procter & Gamble (headquarters) Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
(headquarters) John Hancock Financial Services, Inc, now the United States
United States
division of Canada's Manulife Financial Liberty Mutual
Liberty Mutual
(headquarters) LogMeIn
LogMeIn
(headquarters) LPL Financial
LPL Financial
(headquarters) New Balance
New Balance
Athletic Shoe, Inc. (headquarters) Putnam Investments (headquarters) Sapient Corporation
Sapient Corporation
(headquarters) Sonesta International Hotels Corp. (headquarters) State Street Corporation
State Street Corporation
(headquarters) Steward Health Care System (headquarters) Toast, Inc.
Toast, Inc.
(headquarters) Vertex Pharmaceuticals
Vertex Pharmaceuticals
(headquarters) Wayfair
Wayfair
(headquarters) Wellington Management Company
Wellington Management Company
(headquarters) Zipcar
Zipcar
(headquarters)

Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Boston

Club Sport League Stadium Established League titles

Boston
Boston
Breakers Soccer National Women's Soccer
Soccer
League Soldiers Field Soccer
Soccer
Stadium (Boston) 2008

Boston
Boston
Bruins Ice hockey National Hockey League TD Garden
TD Garden
(Boston) 1924 6 Stanley Cups 7 Eastern Conference Titles

Boston
Boston
Cannons Lacrosse Major League Lacrosse Harvard Stadium
Harvard Stadium
(Boston) 2001 1 MLL Championship

Boston
Boston
Celtics Basketball National Basketball
Basketball
Association TD Garden
TD Garden
(Boston) 1946 17 NBA Championships 21 Eastern Conference Titles

Boston
Boston
Lobsters Team tennis World TeamTennis Manchester Athletic Club (Manchester-by-the-Sea) 2005 (1974)

Boston
Boston
Pride Ice hockey National Women's Hockey League Bright Hockey Center
Bright Hockey Center
(Boston) 2015 1 Isobel Cup

Boston
Boston
Red Sox Baseball Major League Baseball
Baseball
(American League) Fenway Park
Fenway Park
(Boston) 1901 8-time MLB
MLB
World Series
World Series
Champions 13 American League
American League
Pennants

New England
New England
Patriots Football National Football League
National Football League
( American Football
American Football
Conference) Gillette Stadium
Gillette Stadium
(Foxboro) 1960 (as Boston
Boston
Patriots) 5-time Super Bowl
Super Bowl
Champions 9-time AFC Champions

New England
New England
Revolution Soccer Major League Soccer Gillette Stadium
Gillette Stadium
(Foxboro) 1995 1 US Open Cup 1 SuperLiga

Annual sporting events include:

The Boston
Boston
Marathon, which follows a course from Hopkinton to Boston The Head of the Charles Regatta The Lenox Industrial Tools 301, Sylvania 300
Sylvania 300
and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Indy 225 auto races at the New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Motor Speedway oval track.

Transportation[edit] See also: Boston
Boston
Transportation Interstates[edit]

I‑90 I‑93 I‑95 I‑190 I‑195 I‑290 I‑293 I‑295 I-395 I‑495

U.S. Routes[edit]

US 1 US 3 US 6 US 20 US 44

State Highways[edit]

Route 1A Route 2 Route 2A Route 3 Route 3A Route 4 Route 9 Route 16 Route 18 Route 24 Route 25 Route 27 Route 28 Route 30 Route 38 Route 53 Route 58 Route 60 Route 62 Route 97 Route 106 Route 109 Route 110 Route 113 Route 114 Route 115 Route 117 Route 122 Route 123 Route 125 Route 126 Route 128 Route 129 Route 133 Route 135 Route 138 Route 139 Route 140 Route 146 Route 213 Route 225

Bridges and tunnels[edit]

Callahan Tunnel, carrying Route 1A Northbound Charles M. Braga Jr. Memorial Bridge, carrying Interstate 195 Claiborne Pell Newport Bridge, carrying Route 138 Fore River Bridge, carrying Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Route 3A Sumner Tunnel, carrying Route 1A Southbound Ted Williams Tunnel, carrying I-90 Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Tunnel, carrying I-93 and Routes 1 and 3 concurrently Tobin Bridge, carrying Route 1 Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge, carrying Interstate 93, Route 1 and Route 3 concurrently

Airports[edit]

Logan International Airport
Logan International Airport
in Boston, 3 miles (4.8 km) northeast of downtown Boston, New England's largest transportation center Manchester- Boston
Boston
Regional Airport in Manchester, New Hampshire T. F. Green Airport
T. F. Green Airport
in Warwick, Rhode Island Hanscom Field
Hanscom Field
in Bedford Norwood Memorial Airport Worcester Regional Airport Beverly Regional Airport Lawrence Municipal Airport

Rail and bus[edit]

The MBTA district, with Commuter Rail lines in purple

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA, generally known as the "T") rapid transit lines:

Red Line heavy rail: Cambridge–Braintree and Boston
Boston
(Mattapan) Orange Line heavy rail: Boston
Boston
(Jamaica Plain)–Malden Blue Line heavy rail: Boston–Revere Green Line light rail/streetcar: Cambridge–Brookline and Newton Ashmont–Mattapan High Speed Line
Ashmont–Mattapan High Speed Line
streetcar: Ashmont-Milton-Mattapan Silver Line Bus Rapid Transit
Rapid Transit
South Station–Logan Airport and Downtown–Dudley Square

MBTA Commuter Rail

Old Colony Lines serving Plymouth County Providence/Stoughton Line
Providence/Stoughton Line
serving northern Bristol County, western Norfolk County, Kent County, and Washington County, connecting to Providence, Rhode Island Fairmount Line
Fairmount Line
shuttle service from South Station Franklin Line
Franklin Line
serving western Norfolk County Greenbush Line
Greenbush Line
serving Boston's South Shore Needham Line
Needham Line
serving Boston
Boston
suburbs and Needham Framingham/Worcester Line
Framingham/Worcester Line
serving southwestern Middlesex County, connecting to Worcester Fitchburg Line
Fitchburg Line
serving northwestern Middlesex County, connecting to Fitchburg Lowell Line
Lowell Line
serving northern Middlesex County Haverhill/Reading Line
Haverhill/Reading Line
and Newburyport/Rockport Line
Newburyport/Rockport Line
serving Essex County & Boston's North Shore

Amtrak
Amtrak
service to New York City
New York City
and Washington, D.C. Amtrak
Amtrak
Downeaster service to Maine
Maine
from North Station

The first railway line in the United States
United States
was in Quincy. See Neponset River. The following Regional Transit Authorities have bus service that connects with MBTA commuter rail stations:

Brockton Area Transit Authority Cape Ann
Cape Ann
Transportation Authority Greater Attleboro Taunton Regional Transit Authority Lowell Regional Transit Authority Merrimack Valley
Merrimack Valley
Regional Transit Authority MetroWest
MetroWest
Regional Transit Authority Montachusett Regional Transit Authority Rhode Island
Rhode Island
Public Transit Authority Worcester Regional Transit Authority

Ocean transportation[edit]

The Salem Ferry, 92 ft. Catamaran
Catamaran
is photographed approaching its dock off Blaney Street at the Salem Maritime National Historic Site
Salem Maritime National Historic Site
in Salem, Massachusetts, United States.

Port of Boston
Boston
(Massport) Cape Cod
Cape Cod
Canal

Geography[edit]

Rivers

Charles River Concord River Ipswich River Merrimack River Mystic River Neponset River Sudbury River Taunton River Weymouth Fore River

Hills

Bellevue Hill Great Blue Hill

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Concord Municipal Airport, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
(1981−2010 normals,[a] extremes 1903–present)[b]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 72 (22) 74 (23) 89 (32) 95 (35) 98 (37) 101 (38) 102 (39) 101 (38) 98 (37) 92 (33) 80 (27) 73 (23) 102 (39)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 50.8 (10.4) 53.7 (12.1) 66.6 (19.2) 81.5 (27.5) 88.7 (31.5) 92.0 (33.3) 93.1 (33.9) 91.8 (33.2) 87.7 (30.9) 78.5 (25.8) 68.7 (20.4) 56.0 (13.3) 95.5 (35.3)

Average high °F (°C) 30.8 (−0.7) 34.9 (1.6) 43.8 (6.6) 57.4 (14.1) 68.9 (20.5) 77.4 (25.2) 82.3 (27.9) 80.9 (27.2) 72.6 (22.6) 60.5 (15.8) 48.4 (9.1) 36.3 (2.4) 58.0 (14.4)

Average low °F (°C) 10.4 (−12) 13.8 (−10.1) 22.5 (−5.3) 32.7 (0.4) 42.6 (5.9) 52.5 (11.4) 57.7 (14.3) 56.1 (13.4) 47.4 (8.6) 35.8 (2.1) 28.2 (−2.1) 17.2 (−8.2) 34.8 (1.6)

Mean minimum °F (°C) −11.2 (−24) −8.2 (−22.3) 0.8 (−17.3) 19.4 (−7) 28.1 (−2.2) 37.9 (3.3) 45.4 (7.4) 42.0 (5.6) 31.8 (−0.1) 21.2 (−6) 11.1 (−11.6) −2.8 (−19.3) −14.6 (−25.9)

Record low °F (°C) −35 (−37) −37 (−38) −20 (−29) 4 (−16) 21 (−6) 30 (−1) 35 (2) 29 (−2) 20 (−7) 10 (−12) −17 (−27) −24 (−31) −37 (−38)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.70 (68.6) 2.62 (66.5) 3.27 (83.1) 3.41 (86.6) 3.66 (93) 3.69 (93.7) 3.74 (95) 3.18 (80.8) 3.38 (85.9) 4.04 (102.6) 3.72 (94.5) 3.20 (81.3) 40.61 (1,031.6)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 18.1 (46) 12.3 (31.2) 11.1 (28.2) 2.8 (7.1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) trace 2.6 (6.6) 14.5 (36.8) 61.4 (156)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.8 9.5 11.5 11.8 12.4 12.7 10.9 9.8 9.3 10.1 11.2 10.9 130.9

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 8.2 6.5 5.3 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.9 6.6 29.7

Average relative humidity (%) 67.9 66.0 64.8 62.0 65.0 70.9 71.8 74.5 76.3 72.8 73.3 72.3 69.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 162.8 171.8 210.5 223.2 258.4 274.3 295.8 261.9 214.7 183.4 127.8 134.8 2,519.4

Percent possible sunshine 56 58 57 56 57 60 64 61 57 54 44 48 56

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[38][39][40]

Climate data for Boston
Boston
(Logan Airport), 1981−2010 normals,[c] extremes 1872−present[d]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 72 (22) 73 (23) 89 (32) 94 (34) 97 (36) 100 (38) 104 (40) 102 (39) 102 (39) 90 (32) 83 (28) 76 (24) 104 (40)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 56.4 (13.6) 57.7 (14.3) 67.6 (19.8) 80.7 (27.1) 87.3 (30.7) 92.1 (33.4) 94.9 (34.9) 93.3 (34.1) 87.9 (31.1) 79.1 (26.2) 70.5 (21.4) 61.3 (16.3) 96.2 (35.7)

Average high °F (°C) 35.8 (2.1) 38.7 (3.7) 45.4 (7.4) 55.6 (13.1) 66.0 (18.9) 75.9 (24.4) 81.4 (27.4) 79.6 (26.4) 72.4 (22.4) 61.4 (16.3) 51.5 (10.8) 41.2 (5.1) 58.8 (14.9)

Daily mean °F (°C) 29.0 (−1.7) 31.7 (−0.2) 38.3 (3.5) 48.1 (8.9) 57.9 (14.4) 67.7 (19.8) 73.4 (23) 72.1 (22.3) 64.9 (18.3) 54.0 (12.2) 44.7 (7.1) 34.7 (1.5) 51.5 (10.8)

Average low °F (°C) 22.2 (−5.4) 24.7 (−4.1) 31.1 (−0.5) 40.6 (4.8) 49.9 (9.9) 59.5 (15.3) 65.4 (18.6) 64.6 (18.1) 57.4 (14.1) 46.5 (8.1) 38.0 (3.3) 28.2 (−2.1) 44.1 (6.7)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 4.1 (−15.5) 8.5 (−13.1) 14.7 (−9.6) 30.7 (−0.7) 40.8 (4.9) 49.6 (9.8) 57.3 (14.1) 55.4 (13) 45.8 (7.7) 34.9 (1.6) 24.2 (−4.3) 11.1 (−11.6) 2.3 (−16.5)

Record low °F (°C) −13 (−25) −18 (−28) −8 (−22) 11 (−12) 31 (−1) 41 (5) 50 (10) 46 (8) 34 (1) 25 (−4) −2 (−19) −17 (−27) −18 (−28)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.36 (85.3) 3.25 (82.6) 4.32 (109.7) 3.74 (95) 3.49 (88.6) 3.68 (93.5) 3.43 (87.1) 3.35 (85.1) 3.44 (87.4) 3.94 (100.1) 3.99 (101.3) 3.78 (96) 43.77 (1,111.8)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 12.9 (32.8) 10.9 (27.7) 7.8 (19.8) 1.9 (4.8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) trace 1.3 (3.3) 9.0 (22.9) 43.8 (111.3)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 11.3 9.8 11.6 11.2 12.0 10.9 9.6 9.4 8.6 9.4 10.6 11.6 126.0

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 6.7 5.3 4.2 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.8 4.6 22.4

Average relative humidity (%) 62.3 62.0 63.1 63.0 66.7 68.5 68.4 70.8 71.8 68.5 67.5 65.4 66.5

Mean monthly sunshine hours 163.4 168.4 213.7 227.2 267.3 286.5 300.9 277.3 237.1 206.3 143.2 142.3 2,633.6

Percent possible sunshine 56 57 58 57 59 63 65 64 63 60 49 50 59

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[42][43][44]

Climate data for Providence, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
(T. F. Green Airport), 1981–2010 normals,[e] extremes 1904–present[f]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 69 (21) 72 (22) 90 (32) 98 (37) 96 (36) 98 (37) 102 (39) 104 (40) 100 (38) 88 (31) 81 (27) 77 (25) 104 (40)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 57.2 (14) 58.3 (14.6) 68.4 (20.2) 80.3 (26.8) 86.2 (30.1) 91.3 (32.9) 94.5 (34.7) 92.3 (33.5) 87.0 (30.6) 78.1 (25.6) 70.0 (21.1) 60.8 (16) 96.2 (35.7)

Average high °F (°C) 37.4 (3) 40.3 (4.6) 47.8 (8.8) 58.6 (14.8) 68.4 (20.2) 77.5 (25.3) 82.8 (28.2) 81.4 (27.4) 74.2 (23.4) 63.3 (17.4) 53.2 (11.8) 42.3 (5.7) 60.6 (15.9)

Average low °F (°C) 21.0 (−6.1) 23.6 (−4.7) 30.0 (−1.1) 39.6 (4.2) 48.6 (9.2) 58.4 (14.7) 64.2 (17.9) 63.2 (17.3) 55.3 (12.9) 43.9 (6.6) 35.7 (2.1) 26.3 (−3.2) 42.5 (5.8)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 2.9 (−16.2) 7.7 (−13.5) 14.7 (−9.6) 28.8 (−1.8) 36.9 (2.7) 47.1 (8.4) 55.0 (12.8) 52.4 (11.3) 42.2 (5.7) 31.2 (−0.4) 21.7 (−5.7) 10.4 (−12) 0.9 (−17.3)

Record low °F (°C) −13 (−25) −17 (−27) 1 (−17) 11 (−12) 29 (−2) 39 (4) 48 (9) 40 (4) 32 (0) 20 (−7) 6 (−14) −12 (−24) −17 (−27)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.86 (98) 3.29 (83.6) 5.01 (127.3) 4.36 (110.7) 3.55 (90.2) 3.64 (92.5) 3.29 (83.6) 3.60 (91.4) 3.92 (99.6) 3.93 (99.8) 4.51 (114.6) 4.22 (107.2) 47.18 (1,198.4)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 9.0 (22.9) 8.5 (21.6) 5.5 (14) 0.6 (1.5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.5 (3.8) 8.7 (22.1) 33.8 (85.9)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.9 9.7 11.9 11.3 12.0 10.9 9.4 9.0 8.7 9.4 10.1 11.6 124.9

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 5.7 4.6 3.5 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 3.9 18.7

Average relative humidity (%) 63.9 63.0 62.9 61.4 66.6 70.1 71.0 72.5 73.0 70.2 68.9 67.0 67.5

Mean monthly sunshine hours 171.7 172.6 215.6 225.1 254.9 274.1 290.6 262.8 233.0 208.7 148.0 148.6 2,605.7

Percent possible sunshine 58 58 58 56 57 60 63 61 62 61 50 52 58

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990),[46][47][48]

See also[edit]

Boston
Boston
portal

Greater Boston
Boston
League, a high school athletic conference in Massachusetts

Notes[edit]

^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official records for Concord were kept at downtown from September 1868 to April 1941 and at Concord Municipal Airport
Concord Municipal Airport
since May 1941; snow records date from December 1942. For more information, see ThreadEx ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official records for Boston
Boston
were kept at downtown from January 1872 to December 1935, and at Logan Airport (KBOS) since January 1936.[41] ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official records for Providence kept at downtown from November 1904 to May 1932 and at T. F. Green Airport
T. F. Green Airport
since June 1932.[45]

References[edit]

^ "Housing and Economic Development:Key Industries". mass.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2016.  ^ "2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 18, 2016.  ^ Will Joyner (9 April 1999). "Where Literary Legends Took Shape Around Boston". The New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2016.  ^ "The 1692 Salem Witch Trials". SalemWitchTrialsMuseum.com. Retrieved May 9, 2016.  ^ "Faneuil Hall". Celebrateboston.com. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ "The Temperance Issue in the Election of 1840: Massachusetts". Teachushistory.org. Retrieved May 9, 2016.  ^ Packer, Barbara. The Transcendentalists. University of Georgia Press; First edition (April 25, 2007). ISBN 978-0820329581.  ^ "Images of the Antislavery Movement in Massachusetts". Masshist.org. Retrieved May 9, 2016.  ^ " Massachusetts
Massachusetts
court strikes down ban on same-sex marriage". Reuters. November 18, 2003. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ "History of Harvard University". Harvard University. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ Tamar Lewin (January 28, 2015). "Harvard's Endowment Remains Biggest of All". The New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2016.  ^ Richard Wolf (March 16, 2016). "Meet Merrick Garland, Obama's Supreme Court nominee". USA Today. Retrieved May 9, 2016.  ^ " Kendall Square
Kendall Square
Initiative". MIT. Retrieved December 1, 2016.  ^ Lelund Cheung. "When a neighborhood is crowned the most innovative square mile in the world, how do you keep it that way?". Boston
Boston
Globe Media Partners, LLC. Retrieved December 1, 2016.  ^ a b [1] Accessed May 9, 2016. ^ a b "About MAPC". Metropolitan Area Planning Council. Archived from the original on 2007-02-21. Retrieved 2007-05-14.  ^ "Metropolitan Area Planning Council Strategic Plan 2015–2020" (PDF). Metropolitan Area Planning Council. Retrieved 2017-04-22.  ^ "Transportation Plan – Overview". Boston
Boston
Region Metropolitan Planning Organization. 2009. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-27.  ^ a b "Principal cities of New England
New England
city and town areas (NECTAs)" (XLS spreadsheet). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 26, 2015.  ^ "Standards for Defining Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas" (PDF). Office of Management and Budget. December 27, 2000. Retrieved September 14, 2009.  ^ "City and Town Population for 2013". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2014.  ^ Jane Walsh (November 25, 2015). "The most Irish town in America is named using US census data". Irish Central. Retrieved May 8, 2016.  ^ a b c d e "Mapping the 2010 U.S. Census". U.S. Census Bureau.  ^ "Irish as First Ancestry Population Percentage Rank of Census Tract within 100 miles of Zip Code 02176". Usa.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ "Italian as First Ancestry Population Percentage Rank of Census Tract within 100 miles of Zip Code 02176". Usa.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ [2] ^ "French as First Ancestry Population Percentage Rank of Census Tract within 100 miles of Zip Code 02176". Usa.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ a b Michael Paulson (2006-11-10). "Jewish population in region rises". The Boston
Boston
Globe. Retrieved 2009-11-29.  ^ "Cities with the Largest Jewish Population in the Diaspora". adherents.com. Retrieved 2009-11-29.  ^ "Metro Area Membership Report". The Association of Religion Data Archives. Retrieved 2009-11-29.  ^ "12.9% in Seattle
Seattle
are gay or bisexual, second only to S.F., study says". The Seattle
Seattle
Times. The Seattle
Seattle
Times Company. 2006. Retrieved 2009-05-01.  ^ "2009 Globe 100 – Top Massachusetts-based employers". The Boston Globe. 2010-01-19. Archived from the original on May 22, 2009.  ^ [3] Archived March 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Top Companies in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
on the Inc. 5000 - Inc.com". Inc.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ [4] Archived October 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Top shoe brands, like Reebok
Reebok
and Converse, move headquarters to Boston". Omaha.com. Retrieved 2017-01-19.  ^ "Who We Are & About Us - Vistaprint". News.vistaprint.com. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2018-02-22.  ^ "Station Name: NH CONCORD MUNI AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-09-11.  ^ "WMO Climate Normals for CONCORD MUNICIPAL AP, NH 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ ThreadEx ^ "Station Name: MA BOSTON LOGAN INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-03-24.  ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2017-02-25.  ^ "WMO Climate Normals for BOSTON/LOGAN INT'L AIRPORT, MA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-11.  ^ ThreadEx ^ "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-04-17.  ^ "Station Name: RI PROVIDENCE T F GREEN AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2018-02-22.  ^ "WMO Climate Normals for PROVIDENCE/GREEN STATE, RI 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 

Further reading[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Greater Boston.

Wilson, Susan (2005). The Literary Trail of Greater Boston: A Tour of Sites in Boston, Cambridge, and Concord, Revised Edition. Commonwealth Editions. ISBN 1-889833-67-3.  An informative guidebook, with facts and data about literary figures, publishers, bookstores, libraries, and other historic sites on the newly designated Literary Trail of Greater Boston. Warner, Sam, Jr. (2001). Greater Boston: Adapting Regional Traditions to the Present. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1769-1. 

v t e

Region of Greater Boston

Counties

Belknap, NH Bristol, MA Bristol, RI Essex, MA Hillsborough, NH Kent, RI Merrimack, NH Middlesex, MA Newport, RI Norfolk, MA Plymouth, MA Providence, RI Rockingham, NH Strafford, NH Suffolk, MA Washington, RI Worcester, MA

Major cities

Boston

Cities and towns 100k-250k

Cambridge Lowell Manchester Providence Worcester

Cities and towns 25k-100k

Andover Arlington Attleboro Beverly Billerica Braintree Bridgewater Brockton Brookline Chelmsford Chelsea Concord (New Hampshire) Coventry Cranston Cumberland Danvers Dartmouth Derry Dover (New Hampshire) Dracut East Providence Everett Fall River Fitchburg Framingham Franklin Gloucester Haverhill Johnston Lawrence Leominster Lexington Lynn Malden Marlborough Marshfield Medford Melrose Merrimack (New Hampshire) Methuen Milford (Massachusetts) Milton Nashua Natick Needham New Bedford Newport Newton North Andover North Attleboro North Kingstown North Providence Norwood Pawtucket Peabody Plymouth Quincy Revere Rochester Salem (Massachusetts) Salem (New Hampshire) Saugus Shrewsbury Somerville South Kingstown Stoughton Taunton Tewksbury Wakefield Waltham Warwick Watertown Wellesley West Warwick Weymouth Woburn Woonsocket

Cities and towns 10k-25k

Abington Acton Acushnet Amesbury Amherst (New Hampshire) Ashland Athol Auburn Barrington Bedford (Massachusetts) Bedford (New Hampshire) Bellingham Belmont Beverly Bristol Burlington Burrillville Canton Carver Central Falls Charlton Clinton Concord (Massachusetts) Dedham Dudley Duxbury East Bridgewater East Greenwich Easton Exeter Fairhaven Foxborough Gardner Goffstown Grafton Groton Hampton Hanover Hanson Hingham Holbrook Holden Holliston Hooksett Hopkinton Hudson (Massachusetts) Hudson (New Hampshire) Hull Ipswich Kingston Laconia Lakeville Leicester Lincoln (Rhode Island) Londonderry Lunenburg Lynnfield Mansfield Marblehead Maynard Medfield Medway Middleborough Middletown Milford (New Hampshire) Millbury Narragansett Newburyport Norfolk Northborough Northbridge North Reading North Smithfield Norton Norwell Oxford Peabody Pelham Pembroke Pepperell Portsmouth (Rhode Island) Portsmouth (New Hampshire) Randolph Raymond Raynham Reading Rehoboth Rockland Scituate (Massachusetts) Scituate (Rhode Island) Seekonk Sharon Smithfield Somerset Somersworth Southbridge Stoneham Spencer Sudbury Swampscott Swansea Tiverton Tyngsborough Uxbridge Walpole Wareham Warren (Rhode Island) Wayland Webster Westborough Westerly Westford Weston Westport Westwood Whitman Wilmington Winchendon Winchester Windham Winthrop Wrentham

Sub-regions

Boston
Boston
Proper Central Massachusetts Merrimack Valley MetroWest North Shore Rhode Island South Coast South Shore

v t e

 Commonwealth of Massachusetts

Boston
Boston
(capital)

Topics

Index Administrative divisions Congressional districts Elections Geography Geology Government History Images Law Music People State symbols Transportation Villages Tourist attractions Windmills

Society

Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Politics Sports

Regions

The Berkshires Blackstone Valley Cape Ann Cape Cod Central Massachusetts Greater Boston Housatonic Valley The Islands Merrimack Valley MetroWest Montachusett-North County North Shore Pioneer Valley Quabbin-Swift River Valley South Coast South County South Shore Southeastern Massachusetts Western Massachusetts

Counties

Barnstable Berkshire Bristol Dukes Essex Franklin Hampden Hampshire Middlesex Nantucket Norfolk Plymouth Suffolk Worcester

Cities

Agawam Amesbury Attleboro Barnstable Beverly Boston Braintree Bridgewater Brockton Cambridge Chelsea Chicopee East Longmeadow Easthampton Everett Fall River Fitchburg Framingham Franklin Gardner Gloucester Greenfield Haverhill Holyoke Lawrence Leominster Lowell Lynn Malden Marlborough Medford Melrose Methuen New Bedford Newburyport Newton North Adams Northampton Palmer Peabody Pittsfield Quincy Randolph Revere Salem Somerville Southbridge Springfield Taunton Waltham Watertown Westfield West Springfield Weymouth Winthrop Woburn Worcester Note: Municipalities not listed have a town meeting form of government (see all municipalities)

v t e

 State of New Hampshire

Concord (capital)

Topics

Index History People Politics Government Delegations Constitution General Court Executive Council Governor Supreme Court Elections Symbols Tourist attractions

Regions

Dartmouth–Lake Sunapee Great North Woods Lakes Region Merrimack Valley Monadnock Seacoast White Mountains

Counties

Belknap Carroll Cheshire Coös Grafton Hillsborough Merrimack Rockingham Strafford Sullivan

Cities

Berlin Claremont Concord Dover Franklin Keene Laconia Lebanon Manchester Nashua Portsmouth Rochester Somersworth

Towns

Acworth Albany Alexandria Allenstown Alstead Alton Amherst Andover Antrim Ashland Atkinson Auburn Barnstead Barrington Bartlett Bath Bedford Belmont Bennington Benton Bethlehem Boscawen Bow Bradford Brentwood Bridgewater Bristol Brookfield Brookline Campton Canaan Candia Canterbury Carroll Center Harbor Charlestown Chatham Chester Chesterfield Chichester Clarksville Colebrook Columbia Conway Cornish Croydon Dalton Danbury Danville Deerfield Deering Derry Dorchester Dublin Dummer Dunbarton Durham East Kingston Easton Eaton Effingham Ellsworth Enfield Epping Epsom Errol Exeter Farmington Fitzwilliam Francestown Franconia Freedom Fremont Gilford Gilmanton Gilsum Goffstown Gorham Goshen Grafton Grantham Greenfield Greenland Greenville Groton Hampstead Hampton Hampton Falls Hancock Hanover Harrisville Hart's Location Haverhill Hebron Henniker Hill Hillsborough Hinsdale Holderness Hollis Hooksett Hopkinton Hudson Jackson Jaffrey Jefferson Kensington Kingston Lancaster Landaff Langdon Lee Lempster Lincoln Lisbon Litchfield Littleton Londonderry Loudon Lyman Lyme Lyndeborough Madbury Madison Marlborough Marlow Mason Meredith Merrimack Middleton Milan Milford Milton Monroe Mont Vernon Moultonborough Nelson New Boston Newbury New Castle New Durham Newfields New Hampton Newington New Ipswich New London Newmarket Newport Newton Northfield North Hampton Northumberland Northwood Nottingham Orange Orford Ossipee Pelham Pembroke Peterborough Piermont Pittsburg Pittsfield Plainfield Plaistow Plymouth Randolph Raymond Richmond Rindge Rollinsford Roxbury Rumney Rye Salem Salisbury Sanbornton Sandown Sandwich Seabrook Sharon Shelburne South Hampton Springfield Stark Stewartstown Stoddard Strafford Stratford Stratham Sugar Hill Sullivan Sunapee Surry Sutton Swanzey Tamworth Temple Thornton Tilton Troy Tuftonboro Unity Wakefield Walpole Warner Warren Washington Waterville Valley Weare Webster Wentworth Westmoreland Whitefield Wilmot Wilton Winchester Windham Windsor Wolfeboro Woodstock

Townships

Atkinson and Gilmanton Academy Grant Bean's Grant Bean's Purchase Cambridge Chandler's Purchase Crawford's Purchase Cutt's Grant Dix's Grant Dixville Erving's Location Green's Grant Hadley's Purchase Hale's Location Kilkenny Livermore Low and Burbank's Grant Martin's Location Millsfield Odell Pinkham's Grant Sargent's Purchase Second College Grant Success Thompson and Meserve's Purchase Wentworth's Location

v t e

 State of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
and Providence Plantations

Providence (capital)

Topics

Index Buildings and structures Colonial Colleges Communications Delegations Geography Government History Images Narragansett people People State symbols Thirteen Colonies Visitor attractions Quahog

Society

Crime Culture Demographics Economy Education Politics

Regions

Counties Bristol Kent Newport Providence Washington Geographic Blackstone Valley Block Island Historic Regions Rhode Island Providence Plantations

Cities

Central Falls Cranston East Providence Newport Pawtucket Providence Warwick Woonsocket

Towns

Barrington Bristol Burrillville Charlestown Coventry Cumberland East Greenwich Exeter Foster Glocester Hopkinton Jamestown Johnston Lincoln Little Compton Middletown Narragansett New Shoreham (Block Island) North Kingstown North Providence North Smithfield Portsmouth Richmond Scituate Smithfield South Kingstown Tiverton Warren West Greenwich West Warwick Westerly

v t e

The 100 most populous metropolitan statistical areas of the United States of America

   

New York, NY Los Angeles, CA Chicago, IL Dallas, TX Houston, TX Washington, DC Philadelphia, PA Miami, FL Atlanta, GA Boston, MA San Francisco, CA Phoenix, AZ Riverside-San Bernardino, CA Detroit, MI Seattle, WA Minneapolis, MN San Diego, CA Tampa, FL Denver, CO St. Louis, MO

Baltimore, MD Charlotte, NC San Juan, PR Orlando, FL San Antonio, TX Portland, OR Pittsburgh, PA Sacramento, CA Cincinnati, OH Las Vegas, NV Kansas City, MO Austin, TX Columbus, OH Cleveland, OH Indianapolis, IN San Jose, CA Nashville, TN Virginia Beach, VA Providence, RI Milwaukee, WI

Jacksonville, FL Memphis, TN Oklahoma City, OK Louisville, KY Richmond, VA New Orleans, LA Hartford, CT Raleigh, NC Birmingham, AL Buffalo, NY Salt Lake City, UT Rochester, NY Grand Rapids, MI Tucson, AZ Honolulu, HI Tulsa, OK Fresno, CA Bridgeport, CT Worcester, MA Albuquerque, NM

Omaha, NE Albany, NY New Haven, CT Bakersfield, CA Knoxville, TN Greenville, SC Oxnard, CA El Paso, TX Allentown, PA Baton Rouge, LA McAllen, TX Dayton, OH Columbia, SC Greensboro, NC Sarasota, FL Little Rock, AR Stockton, CA Akron, OH Charleston, SC Colorado Springs, CO

Syracuse, NY Winston-Salem, NC Cape Coral, FL Boise, ID Wichita, KS Springfield, MA Madison, WI Lakeland, FL Ogden, UT Toledo, OH Deltona, FL Des Moines, IA Jackson, MS Augusta, GA Scranton, PA Youngstown, OH Harrisburg, PA Provo, UT Palm Bay, FL Chattanooga, TN

United States
United States
Census Bureau population estimates for July 1, 2012

v t e

Northeast megalopolis

Major metropolitan areas (over 1,000,000)

New York

city

Philadelphia

city

Washington

city

Boston

city

Baltimore

city

Providence

city

Hartford

city

Other cities (over 100,000)

Newark Jersey City Yonkers Worcester Springfield Alexandria Paterson Bridgeport Elizabeth New Haven Stamford Allentown Manchester Waterbur

.