The GREAT WALL OF CHINA is a series of fortifications made of stone,
brick, tamped earth , wood, and other materials, generally built along
an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China
to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and
invasions of the various nomadic groups of the
Eurasian Steppe .
Several walls were being built as early as the 7th century BC; these,
later joined together and made bigger and stronger, are now
collectively referred to as the Great Wall. Especially famous is the
wall built 220–206 BC by
Qin Shi Huang , the first Emperor of China.
Little of that wall remains. Since then, the Great
Wall has been
rebuilt, maintained, and enhanced; the majority of the existing wall
is from the
Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).
Other purposes of the Great
Wall have included border controls ,
allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk
Road , regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of
immigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics
of the Great
Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers,
troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the
means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall
also served as a transportation corridor.
Wall stretches from
Dandong in the east to
Lop Lake in the
west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner
Mongolia . A comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced
technologies, has concluded that the Ming walls measure 8,850 km
(5,500 mi). This is made up of 6,259 km (3,889 mi) sections of actual
wall, 359 km (223 mi) of trenches and 2,232 km (1,387 mi) of natural
defensive barriers such as hills and rivers. Another archaeological
survey found that the entire wall with all of its branches measure out
to be 21,196 km (13,171 mi).
* 1 Names
* 2 History
* 2.1 Early walls
* 2.2 Ming era
* 2.3 Foreign accounts
* 3 Course
* 4 Characteristics
* 5 Condition
* 6 Visibility from space
* 6.1 From the
* 6.2 From low Earth orbit
* 7 Gallery
* 8 See also
* 9 Notes
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
The collection of fortifications now known as "The Great
China" has historically had a number of different names in both
Chinese and English.
In Chinese histories , the term "Long Wall(s)" (長城, changcheng)
Sima Qian 's
Records of the Grand Historian
Records of the Grand Historian , where it
referred to both the separate great walls built between and north of
Warring States and to the more unified construction of the First
Emperor . The
Chinese character 城 is a phono-semantic compound of
the "place" or "earth" radical 土 and 成, whose Old Chinese
pronunciation has been reconstructed as *deŋ. It originally referred
to the rampart which surrounded traditional Chinese cities and was
used by extension for these walls around their respective states ;
today, however, it is much more often simply the Chinese word for
The longer Chinese name "Ten-Thousand-Mile Long Wall" (萬里長城,
Wanli Changcheng) came from Sima Qian's description of it in the
Records, though he did not name the walls as such. The AD 493 Book of
Song quotes the frontier general
Tan Daoji referring to "the long wall
of 10,000 miles", closer to the modern name, but the name rarely
features in pre-modern times otherwise. The traditional Chinese mile
(里, lǐ) was an often irregular distance that was intended to show
the length of a standard village and varied with terrain but was
usually standardized at distances around a third of an English mile
(540 m). Since China's metrication in 1930, it has been exactly
equivalent to 500 metres or 1,600 feet, which would make the wall's
name describe a distance of 5,000 km (3,100 mi). However, this use of
"ten-thousand" (wàn) is figurative in a similar manner to the Greek
and English myriad and simply means "innumerable" or "immeasurable".
Because of the wall's association with the First Emperor's supposed
tyranny , the Chinese dynasties after Qin usually avoided referring to
their own additions to the wall by the name "Long Wall". Instead,
various terms were used in medieval records, including "frontier(s)"
(塞, sāi), "rampart(s)" (垣, yuán), "barrier(s)" (障, zhàng),
"the outer fortresses" (外堡, wàibǎo), and "the border wall(s)"
(t 邊牆, s 边墙, biānqiáng). Poetic and informal names for
the wall included "the Purple Frontier" (紫塞, Zǐsāi) and "the
Earth Dragon" (t 土龍, s 土龙, Tǔlóng). Only during the Qing
period did "Long Wall" become the catch-all term to refer to the many
border walls regardless of their location or dynastic origin,
equivalent to the English "Great Wall".
The current English name evolved from accounts of "the Chinese wall"
from early modern European travelers. By the 19th century, "The
Wall of China" had become standard in English, French, and
German, although other European languages continued to refer to it as
"the Chinese wall".
History of the Great Wall of China
Wall of the Qin The Great
Wall of the Han
The Chinese were already familiar with the techniques of
wall-building by the time of the
Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period between the
8th and 5th centuries BC. During this time and the subsequent Warring
States period , the states of Qin , Wei , Zhao , Qi , Yan , and
Zhongshan all constructed extensive fortifications to defend their
own borders. Built to withstand the attack of small arms such as
swords and spears, these walls were made mostly by stamping earth and
gravel between board frames.
King Zheng of Qin conquered the last of his opponents and unified
China as the
First Emperor of the
Qin dynasty ("Qin Shi Huang") in 221
BC. Intending to impose centralized rule and prevent the resurgence of
feudal lords, he ordered the destruction of the sections of the walls
that divided his empire among the former states. To position the
empire against the
Xiongnu people from the north, however, he ordered
the building of new walls to connect the remaining fortifications
along the empire's northern frontier. Transporting the large quantity
of materials required for construction was difficult, so builders
always tried to use local resources. Stones from the mountains were
used over mountain ranges, while rammed earth was used for
construction in the plains. There are no surviving historical records
indicating the exact length and course of the Qin walls. Most of the
ancient walls have eroded away over the centuries, and very few
sections remain today. The human cost of the construction is unknown,
but it has been estimated by some authors that hundreds of thousands,
if not up to a million, workers died building the Qin wall. Later,
the Han , the Sui , and the
Northern dynasties all repaired, rebuilt,
or expanded sections of the Great
Wall at great cost to defend
themselves against northern invaders. The Tang and Song dynasties did
not undertake any significant effort in the region. The Liao , Jin ,
and Yuan dynasties, who ruled Northern China throughout most of the
10th–13th centuries, constructed defensive walls in the 12th century
but those were located much to the north of the Great
Wall as we know
it, within China's province of
Inner Mongolia and in
The extent of the Ming Empire and its walls Main article: Ming
Wall concept was revived again under the Ming in the 14th
century, and following the Ming army's defeat by the
Oirats in the
Battle of Tumu . The Ming had failed to gain a clear upper hand over
the Mongolian tribes after successive battles, and the long-drawn
conflict was taking a toll on the empire. The Ming adopted a new
strategy to keep the nomadic tribes out by constructing walls along
the northern border of China. Acknowledging the
established in the
Ordos Desert , the wall followed the desert's
southern edge instead of incorporating the bend of the
Yellow River .
Unlike the earlier fortifications, the Ming construction was stronger
and more elaborate due to the use of bricks and stone instead of
rammed earth. Up to 25,000 watchtowers are estimated to have been
constructed on the wall. As
Mongol raids continued periodically over
the years, the Ming devoted considerable resources to repair and
reinforce the walls. Sections near the Ming capital of Beijing were
Qi Jiguang between 1567 and 1570 also repaired and
reinforced the wall, faced sections of the ram-earth wall with bricks
and constructed 1,200 watchtowers from Shanhaiguan Pass to Changping
to warn of approaching
Mongol raiders. During the 1440s–1460s, the
Ming also built a so-called "
Liaodong Wall". Similar in function to
Wall (whose extension, in a sense, it was), but more basic
in construction, the
Wall enclosed the agricultural heartland
Liaodong province, protecting it against potential incursions
Mongol Oriyanghan from the northwest and the Jianzhou
Jurchens from the north. While stones and tiles were used in some
parts of the
Liaodong Wall, most of it was in fact simply an earth
dike with moats on both sides.
Towards the end of the Ming, the Great
Wall helped defend the empire
Manchu invasions that began around 1600. Even after the
loss of all of
Liaodong , the Ming army held the heavily fortified
Shanhai Pass , preventing the Manchus from conquering the Chinese
heartland. The Manchus were finally able to cross the Great
1644, after Beijing had already fallen to
Li Zicheng 's rebels. Before
this time, the Manchus had crossed the Great
Wall multiple times to
raid, but this time it was for conquest. The gates at Shanhai Pass
were opened on May 25 by the commanding Ming general,
Wu Sangui , who
formed an alliance with the Manchus, hoping to use the Manchus to
expel the rebels from Beijing. The Manchus quickly seized Beijing,
and eventually defeated both the rebel-founded
Shun dynasty and the
remaining Ming resistance , establishing the
Qing dynasty rule over
all of China.
Under Qing rule, China's borders extended beyond the walls and
Mongolia was annexed into the empire, so constructions on the Great
Wall were discontinued. On the other hand, the so-called Willow
Palisade , following a line similar to that of the Ming
was constructed by the Qing rulers in Manchuria. Its purpose, however,
was not defense but rather migration control.
Part of the Great
Wall of China (April 1853, X, p. 41)
Wall in 1907
None of the Europeans who visited Yuan China or Mongolia, such as
Marco Polo ,
Giovanni da Pian del Carpine ,
William of Rubruck ,
Giovanni de\' Marignolli and
Odoric of Pordenone
Odoric of Pordenone , mentioned the Great
The North African traveler
Ibn Battuta , who also visited China
Yuan dynasty ca. 1346, had heard about China's Great Wall,
possibly before he had arrived in China. He wrote that the wall is
"sixty days' travel" from Zeitun (modern
Quanzhou ) in his travelogue
Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of
Travelling . He associated it with the legend of the wall mentioned in
the Qur\'an , which
Dhul-Qarnayn (commonly associated with Alexander
the Great ) was said to have erected to protect people near the land
of the rising sun from the savages of
Gog and Magog . However, Ibn
Battuta could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who
had seen it, suggesting that although there were remnants of the wall
at that time, they weren't significant.
Soon after Europeans reached Ming China by ship in the early 16th
century, accounts of the Great
Wall started to circulate in Europe,
even though no European was to see it for another century. Possibly
one of the earliest European descriptions of the wall and of its
significance for the defense of the country against the "
(i.e. Mongols), may be the one contained in
João de Barros 's 1563
Asia. Other early accounts in Western sources include those of Gaspar
da Cruz ,
Bento de Goes ,
Matteo Ricci , and Bishop Juan González de
Mendoza . In 1559, in his work "A Treatise of China and the Adjoyning
Gaspar da Cruz offers an early discussion of the Great Wall.
Perhaps the first recorded instance of a European actually entering
China via the Great
Wall came in 1605, when the Portuguese Jesuit
Bento de Góis reached the northwestern
Jiayu Pass from India.
Early European accounts were mostly modest and empirical, closely
mirroring contemporary Chinese understanding of the Wall, although
later they slid into hyperbole, including the erroneous but
ubiquitous claim that the Ming Walls were the same ones that were
built by the
First Emperor in the 3rd century BC.
When China opened its borders to foreign merchants and visitors after
its defeat in the First and Second Opium Wars , the Great
a main attraction for tourists. The travelogues of the later 19th
century further enhanced the reputation and the mythology of the Great
Wall, such that in the 20th century, a persistent misconception
exists about the Great
Wall of China being visible from the
The main sections of the Great
Wall that are still standing
today An area of the sections of the Great
Although a formal definition of what constitutes a "Great Wall" has
not been agreed upon, making the full course of the Great Wall
difficult to describe in its entirety, the course of the main Great
Wall line following Ming constructions can be charted.
Jiayu Pass , located in
Gansu province, is the western terminus
of the Ming Great Wall. Although Han fortifications such as Yumen Pass
Yang Pass exist further west, the extant walls leading to
those passes are difficult to trace. From
Jiayu Pass the wall travels
discontinuously down the
Hexi Corridor and into the deserts of Ningxia
, where it enters the western edge of the
Yellow River loop at
Yinchuan . Here the first major walls erected during the Ming dynasty
cuts through the
Ordos Desert to the eastern edge of the Yellow River
loop. There at Piantou Pass (t 偏頭關, s 偏头关,
Shanxi province, the Great
Wall splits in
two with the "Outer Great Wall" (t 外長城, s 外长城, Wài
Chǎngchéng) extending along the
Inner Mongolia border with Shanxi
Hebei province, and the "inner Great Wall" (t 內長城, s
內长城, Nèi Chǎngchéng) running southeast from Piantou Pass for
some 400 km (250 mi), passing through important passes like the
Pingxing Pass and
Yanmen Pass before joining the Outer Great
Sihaiye (四海冶, Sìhǎiyě), in Beijing's
Yanqing County .
The sections of the Great
Wall around Beijing municipality are
especially famous: they were frequently renovated and are regularly
visited by tourists today. The
the most famous stretch of the Wall, for this is the first section to
be opened to the public in the People's Republic of China, as well as
the showpiece stretch for foreign dignitaries. South of
Juyong Pass ; when used by the Chinese to protect their land, this
section of the wall had many guards to defend China's capital Beijing.
Made of stone and bricks from the hills, this portion of the Great
Wall is 7.8 m (25 ft 7 in) high and 5 m (16 ft 5 in) wide.
One of the most striking sections of the Ming Great
Wall is where it
climbs extremely steep slopes in
Jinshanling . There it runs 11 km (7
mi) long, ranges from 5 to 8 m (16 ft 5 in to 26 ft 3 in) in height,
and 6 m (19 ft 8 in) across the bottom, narrowing up to 5 m (16 ft 5
in) across the top. Wangjinglou (t 望京樓, s 望京楼,
Wàngjīng Lóu) is one of Jinshanling's 67 watchtowers , 980 m (3,220
ft) above sea level. Southeast of
Jinshanling is the
Wall which winds along lofty, cragged mountains from the southeast to
the northwest for 2.25 km (1.40 mi). It is connected with Juyongguan
Pass to the west and
Gubeikou to the east. This section was one of the
first to be renovated following the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution
At the edge of the Bohai Gulf is Shanhai Pass, considered the
traditional end of the Great
Wall and the "First Pass Under Heaven ".
The part of the wall inside
Shanhai Pass that meets the sea is named
the "Old Dragon Head". 3 km (2 mi) north of
Shanhai Pass is Jiaoshan
Wall (焦山長城), the site of the first mountain of the Great
Wall. 15 km (9 mi) northeast from Shanhaiguan is Jiumenkou (t
九門口, s 九门口, Jiǔménkǒu), which is the only portion of
the wall that was built as a bridge. Beyond Jiumenkou, an offshoot
known as the
Wall continues through
Liaoning province and
terminates at the Hushan Great
Wall , in the city of
Dandong near the
North Korean border .
In 2009, 180 km of previously unknown sections of the wall concealed
by hills, trenches and rivers were discovered with the help of
infrared range finders and
GPS devices. In March and April 2015 nine
sections with a total length of more than 10 km (6 mi), believed to be
part of the Great Wall, were discovered along the border of Ningxia
autonomous region and
Wall at Mutianyu, near Beijing
Before the use of bricks, the Great
Wall was mainly built from rammed
earth, stones, and wood. During the Ming, however, bricks were heavily
used in many areas of the wall, as were materials such as tiles, lime
, and stone. The size and weight of the bricks made them easier to
work with than earth and stone, so construction quickened.
Additionally, bricks could bear more weight and endure better than
rammed earth. Stone can hold under its own weight better than brick,
but is more difficult to use. Consequently, stones cut in rectangular
shapes were used for the foundation, inner and outer brims, and
gateways of the wall. Battlements line the uppermost portion of the
vast majority of the wall, with defensive gaps a little over 30 cm (12
in) tall, and about 23 cm (9.1 in) wide. From the parapets, guards
could survey the surrounding land. Communication between the army
units along the length of the Great Wall, including the ability to
call reinforcements and warn garrisons of enemy movements, was of high
importance. Signal towers were built upon hill tops or other high
points along the wall for their visibility. Wooden gates could be used
as a trap against those going through. Barracks, stables, and armories
were built near the wall's inner surface.
A more rural portion of the Great
Wall that stretches throughout
the mountains, here seen in slight disrepair A view of the
Wall ranging across a mountain, from another part of the Great
Wall, near Beijing.
While portions north of Beijing and near tourist centers have been
preserved and even extensively renovated, in many other locations the
Wall is in disrepair. Those parts might serve as a village playground
or a source of stones to rebuild houses and roads. Sections of the
Wall are also prone to graffiti and vandalism , while inscribed bricks
were pilfered and sold on the market for up to 50 renminbi . Parts
have been destroyed because the
Wall is in the way of construction. A
2012 report by the
State Administration of Cultural Heritage states
that 22% of the Ming Great
Wall has disappeared, while 1,961 km (1,219
mi) of wall have vanished. More than 60 km (37 mi) of the wall in
Gansu province may disappear in the next 20 years, due to erosion from
sandstorms . In some places, the height of the wall has been reduced
from more than 5 m (16 ft 5 in) to less than 2 m (6 ft 7 in). Various
square lookout towers that characterize the most famous images of the
wall have disappeared. Many western sections of the wall are
constructed from mud , rather than brick and stone, and thus are more
susceptible to erosion. In 2014 a portion of the wall near the border
Hebei province was repaired with concrete. The work
has been much criticized.
VISIBILITY FROM SPACE
FROM THE MOON
One of the earliest known references to the myth that the Great Wall
can be seen from the moon appears in a letter written in 1754 by the
William Stukeley . Stukeley wrote that, "This mighty
wall of four score miles in length is only exceeded by the Chinese
Wall, which makes a considerable figure upon the terrestrial globe ,
and may be discerned at the Moon." The claim was also mentioned by
Henry Norman in 1895 where he states "besides its age it enjoys the
reputation of being the only work of human hands on the globe visible
from the Moon." The issue of "canals" on Mars was prominent in the
late 19th century and may have led to the belief that long, thin
objects were visible from space. The claim that the Great
visible from the moon also appears in 1932's Ripley\'s Believe It or
Not! strip and in
Richard Halliburton 's 1938 book Second Book of
The claim the Great
Wall is visible from the moon has been debunked
many times, but is still ingrained in popular culture. The wall is a
maximum 9.1 m (29 ft 10 in) wide, and is about the same color as the
soil surrounding it. Based on the optics of resolving power (distance
versus the width of the iris: a few millimeters for the human eye,
meters for large telescopes) only an object of reasonable contrast to
its surroundings which is 110 km (70 mi) or more in diameter (1
arc-minute) would be visible to the unaided eye from the Moon, whose
average distance from Earth is 384,393 km (238,851 mi). The apparent
width of the Great
Wall from the
Moon is the same as that of a human
hair viewed from 3 km (2 mi) away. To see the wall from the
require spatial resolution 17,000 times better than normal (20/20)
vision. Unsurprisingly, no lunar astronaut has ever claimed to have
seen the Great
Wall from the Moon.
FROM LOW EARTH ORBIT
A satellite image of a section of the Great
Wall in northern
Shanxi, running diagonally from lower left to upper right and not to
be confused with the more prominent river running from upper left to
lower right. The region pictured is 12 km × 12 km (7 mi × 7 mi).
A more controversial question is whether the
Wall is visible from low
Earth orbit (an altitude of as little as 160 km (100 mi)).
that it is barely visible, and only under nearly perfect conditions;
it is no more conspicuous than many other man-made objects. Other
authors have argued that due to limitations of the optics of the eye
and the spacing of photoreceptors on the retina , it is impossible to
see the wall with the naked eye, even from low orbit, and would
require visual acuity of 20/3 (7.7 times better than normal).
William Pogue thought he had seen it from
discovered he was actually looking at the
Grand Canal of China
Grand Canal of China near
Beijing. He spotted the Great
Wall with binoculars, but said that "it
wasn't visible to the unaided eye." U.S. Senator
Jake Garn claimed to
be able to see the Great
Wall with the naked eye from a space shuttle
orbit in the early 1980s, but his claim has been disputed by several
U.S. astronauts. Veteran U.S. astronaut Gene Cernan has stated: "At
Earth orbit of 100 to 200 miles high, the Great
Wall of China is,
indeed, visible to the naked eye."
Ed Lu ,
Expedition 7 Science
Officer aboard the
International Space Station
International Space Station , adds that, "it's less
visible than a lot of other objects. And you have to know where to
Neil Armstrong stated about the view from
Apollo 11 : "I do
not believe that, at least with my eyes, there would be any man-made
object that I could see. I have not yet found somebody who has told me
they've seen the
Wall of China from Earth orbit. ... I've asked
various people, particularly Shuttle guys, that have been many orbits
around China in the daytime, and the ones I've talked to didn't see
In October 2003, Chinese astronaut
Yang Liwei stated that he had not
been able to see the Great
Wall of China. In response, the European
Space Agency (ESA) issued a press release reporting that from an orbit
between 160 and 320 km (100 and 200 mi), the Great
Wall is visible to
the naked eye, even though the ISS is in low Earth orbit , not space.
In an attempt to further clarify things, the ESA published a picture
of a part of the "Great Wall" photographed from low orbit. However, in
a press release a week later, they acknowledged that the "Great Wall"
in the picture was actually a river.
Leroy Chiao , a Chinese-American astronaut, took a photograph from
International Space Station
International Space Station that shows the wall. It was so
indistinct that the photographer was not certain he had actually
captured it. Based on the photograph, the
China Daily later reported
that the Great
Wall can be seen from 'space' with the naked eye, under
favorable viewing conditions, if one knows exactly where to look.
However, the resolution of a camera can be much higher than the human
visual system, and the optics much better, rendering photographic
evidence irrelevant to the issue of whether it is visible to the naked
"The First Mound" – at Jiayuguan , the western terminus
Wall of China at
A portion of the Great
Wall of China at
Simatai , overlooking the
Mutianyu Great Wall, China. This is atop the wall on a section that
has not been restored
The Old Dragon Head, the Great
Wall where it meets the sea in the
vicinity of Shanhaiguan
* China portal
* Defense of the Great
Gates of Alexander
Wall of China hoax
Wall of Qi
List of World Heritage Sites in China
List of World Heritage Sites in China
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* ^ Haw 2006 , pp. 53–54.
* ^ Haw 2006 , pp. 54–55.
* ^ Qur\'an , XVIII: "The Cave". English translations hosted at
Wikisource include Maulana Muhammad Ali's, E.H. Palmer's, and the
Progressive Muslims Organization's.
* ^ Haw 2006 , pp. 53–55.
* ^ Barros, João de (1777) . Ásia de João de Barros: Dos feitos
que os portugueses fizeram no descobrimento dos mares e terras do
Oriente. V. Lisbon. 3a Década, pp. 186–204 (originally Vol. II, Ch.
* ^ A B Waldron 1990 , pp. 204–05.
* ^ Yule 1866 , p. 579This section is the report of Góis's travel,
as reported by
Matteo Ricci in De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas
(published 1615), annotated by
Henry Yule ).
* ^ Waldron 1990 , pp. 2–4.
* ^ A B Waldron 1990 , p. 206.
* ^ Waldron 1990 , p. 209.
* ^ Waldron 1990 , p. 214.
* ^ Hessler 2007 , p. 60.
* ^ Rojas 2010 , p. 140.
* ^ Lindesay 2008 , p. 212.
* ^ "Jiaoshan Great Wall". TravelChinaGuide.com. Retrieved
September 15, 2010. Jiaoshan Great
Wall is located about 3 km (2 mi)
from Shanhaiguan ancient city. It is named after Jiaoshan Mountain,
which is the highest peak to the north of
Shanhai Pass and also the
first mountain the Great
Wall climbs up after Shanhai Pass. Therefore
Jiaoshan Mountain is noted as "The first mountain of the Great Wall".
* ^ "The Great Wall:
Liaoning Province". Global Times. October 14,
2014. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
* ^ "Great
Wall of China longer than believed as 180 missing miles
The Guardian . 20 April 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
* ^ "Newly-discovered remains redraw path of Great Wall". China
Daily . 15 April 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
* ^ A B Turnbull 2007 , p. 29.
* ^ Ford, Peter (November 30, 2006). New law to keep China\'s Wall
looking great. Christian Science Monitor, Asia Pacific section.
Retrieved March 17, 2007.
* ^ A B Wong, Edward (29 June 2015). "China Fears Loss of Great
Wall, Brick by Brick".
The New York Times
The New York Times . Retrieved 1 July 2015.
* ^ Bruce G. Doar: The Great
Wall of China: Tangible, Intangible
and Destructible. China Heritage Newsletter, China Heritage Project,
Australian National University
Australian National University
* ^ "China\'s
Wall becoming less and less Great". Reuters. August
29, 2007. Retrieved August 30, 2007.
* ^ CNN, Ben Westcott and Serenitie Wang. "China\'s Great Wall
covered in cement".
* ^ The Family Memoirs of the Rev.
William Stukeley (1887) Vol. 3,
p. 142. (1754).
* ^ Norman, Henry, The Peoples and Politics of the Far East, p.
* ^ "The Great
Wall of China, Ripley's Believe It or Not, 1932.
* ^ Urban Legends.com website. Accessed May 12, 2010.
"Can you see the Great
Wall of China from the moon or outer space?",
Answers.com. Accessed May 12, 2010.
Cecil Adams , "Is the Great wall of China the only manmade object
byou can see from space?", The Straight Dope. Accessed May 12, 2010.
Snopes, "Great wall from space", last updated July 21, 2007. Accessed
May 12, 2010.
"Is China\'s Great
Wall Visible from Space?", Scientific American,
February 21, 2008. "... the wall is only visible from low orbit under
a specific set of weather and lighting conditions. And many other
structures that are less spectacular from an earthly vantage
point—desert roads, for example—appear more prominent from an
orbital perspective." * ^ "Metro Tescos",
The Times (London), April
26, 2010. Found at
The Times website. Accessed May 12, 2010.
* ^ A B C D López-Gil 2008 , pp. 3–4.
* ^ "
NASA – Great
Wall of China". Nasa.gov. Retrieved July 31,
* ^ Dr.
Stephen E. Ambrose ; Dr.
Douglas Brinkley (September 19,
2001). "Johnson Space Center Oral History Project Oral History
Transcript – Neil Armstrong" (PDF).
NASA . Retrieved July 31, 2010.
* ^ Markus, Francis. (2005, April 19). Great
Wall visible in space
BBC News, Asia-Pacific section. Retrieved March 17, 2007.
* Edmonds, Richard Louis (1985). Northern Frontiers of Qing China
and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. University
of Chicago, Department of Geography; Research Paper No. 213. ISBN
* Elliott, Mark C. (2001). The
Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and
Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-8047-4684-7 .
* Evans, Thammy (2006). Great
Wall of China: Beijing & Northern
China. Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 3. ISBN
* Haw, Stephen G. (2006). Marco Polo's China: a Venetian in the
realm of Khubilai Khan. Volume 3 of Routledge studies in the early
history of Asia. Psychology Press. ISBN 0-415-34850-1 .
* Hessler, Peter (2007). "Letter from China: Walking the Wall". The
New Yorker (May 21, 2007): 58–67.
* Karnow, Mooney, Paul and Catherine (2008). National Geographic
Traveler: Beijing. National Geographic Books. p. 192. ISBN
* Lindesay, William (2008). The Great
Wall Revisited: From the Jade
Gate to Old Dragon's Head. Harvard University Press. ISBN
* López-Gil, Norberto (2008). "Is it Really Possible to See the
Wall of China from Space with a Naked Eye?" (PDF). Journal of
Optometry. 1 (1): 3–4. doi :10.3921/joptom.2008.3 .
* Lovell, Julia (2006). The Great
Wall : China against the world
1000 BC – AD 2000. Sydney: Picador Pan Macmillan. ISBN
* Rojas, Carlos (2010). The Great
Wall : a cultural history.
Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-04787-7 .
* Slavicek, Louise Chipley; Mitchell, George J.; Matray, James I.
(2005). The Great
Wall of China. Infobase Publishing. p. 35. ISBN
* Szabó, József; Dávid, Lóránt; Loczy, Denes, eds. (2010).
Anthropogenic Geomorphology: A Guide to Man-made Landforms. Springer .
ISBN 978-90-481-3057-3 .
* Turnbull, Stephen R (January 2007). The Great
Wall of China 221
BC–AD 1644. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-004-8 .
* Waldron, Arthur (1983). "The Problem of The Great
Wall of China".
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies . Harvard-Yenching Institute. 43
JSTOR 2719110 .
* Waldron, Arthur (1988). "The Great
Wall Myth: Its Origins and Role
in Modern China".
The Yale Journal of Criticism . Johns Hopkins
University Press . 2 (1): 67–104.
* Waldron, Arthur (1990). The Great
Wall of China : from history to
myth. Cambridge England New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN
* Yule, Sir Henry , ed. (1866). Cathay and the way thither: being a
collection of medieval notices of China. Issues 36–37 of Works
issued by the Hakluyt Society. Printed for the Hakluyt society.
* Arnold, H.J.P, "The Great Wall: Is It or Isn't It?" Astronomy Now,
* Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009): Empires of the Silk Road: A
History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present.
Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2 .
* Luo, Zewen, et al. and Baker, David, ed. (1981). The Great Wall.
Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Book Company (UK). ISBN 0-07-070745-6
* Man, John. (2008). The Great Wall. London: Bantam Press. 335
pages. ISBN 978-0-593-05574-8 .
* Michaud, Roland and Sabrina (photographers), Lindesay, William
(2007). The Great
Wall – From Beginning to End. New York: Sterling.
160 pages. ISBN 978-1-4027-3160-0 .
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