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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire

* Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
* Principality of Upper Hungary
Hungary
(until 1685) * Moldavia
Moldavia
* Wallachia
Wallachia
* Transylvania
Transylvania

* v * t * e

Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War

* Vienna
Vienna
* Párkány * Esztergom * Vác * 1st Buda * Santa Maura * Coron * Érsekújvár * Eperjes * Kassa * Navarino * Modon * 2nd Buda * Nauplia * Pécs * Patras
Patras
* Mohács * Acropolis * 1st Crimean * Negroponte * 1st Belgrade * Batočina * 2nd Crimean * Niš * Zernest * Kačanik * Mytilene * 2nd Belgrade * Slankamen * 3rd Belgrade * Oinousses * Chios * Zeytinburnu * Azov
Azov
campaigns * Lugos * Andros * Ulaş * Cenei * Action of 6 July 1697 * Zenta * Podhajce * Samothrace

* v * t * e

Ottoman–Habsburg wars

HUNGARY AND THE BALKANS

* Mohács (1526) * Hungarian Campaign (1527–28) * Croatia
Croatia
(1527-93) * Balkans (1529) * Vienna
Vienna
(1529) * Little War in Hungary
Hungary
(1530–52) * Klis (1536–37) * Temesvár (1552) * Eger (1552) * Szigetvár (1566) * Long War (1593–1606) * Bocskai insurrection (1604–1606) * Austro-Turkish War (1663–64) * Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War
(1683–1699) * Austro-Turkish War (1716–18) * Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39) * Austro-Turkish War (1787–91)

MEDITERRANEAN

* Cephalonia (1500) * Balearics (1501) * Pantelleria (1515) * Algiers (1516) * Tlemcen (1517) * Algiers (1529) * Formentera (1529) * Coron (1532-34) * Tunis (1535) * Mahón (1535) * Preveza
Preveza
(1538) * Castelnuovo (1539) * Girolata (1540) * Alborán (1540) * Algiers (1541) * Nice (1543) * Mahdiye (1550) * Gozo (1551) * Tripoli (1551) * Ponza (1552) * Corsica (1553-59) * Bougie (1555) * Oran (1556) * Balearics (1558) * Mostaganem (1558) * Djerba (1560) * Orán and Mers-el-Kébir (1563) * Vélez de la Gomera (1564) * Malta (1565) * Lepanto (1571) * Tunis (1574) * Fez (1576) * Cape Corvo (1613) * Żejtun (1614) * Cape Celidonia (1616)

The GREAT TURKISH WAR (German : Der Große Türkenkrieg) or the WAR OF THE HOLY LEAGUE (Turkish : Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland, Venice and Russia. Intensive fighting began in 1683 and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. The war was a defeat for the Ottoman Empire, which for the first time lost large amounts of territory. It lost lands in Hungary
Hungary
and Poland, as well as part of the western Balkans. The war was also significant in that it marked the first time Russia was involved in a western European alliance.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background (1667–1683)

* 2 Overview

* 2.1 Serbia
Serbia

* 3 Previous Wars

* 3.1 Morean War

* 3.1.1 Operations in the Ionian Sea * 3.1.2 The conquest of the Morea

* 3.2 Polish–Ottoman War (1683–99) * 3.3 Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)

* 4 Battle of Vienna
Battle of Vienna

* 4.1 Staging the battle * 4.2 Battle

* 5 Conclusion * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links

BACKGROUND (1667–1683)

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See also: Polish–Cossack–Tatar War (1666–71) , Polish–Ottoman War (1672–76) , and Russo-Turkish War (1676–81)

After Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Bohdan Khmelnytsky
's rebellion, when the Tsardom of Russia acquired parts of Eastern Ukraine
Ukraine
from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , some Cossacks
Cossacks
stayed in the southeast of the Commonwealth. Their leader, Petro Doroshenko
Petro Doroshenko
, wanted to connect the rest of Ukraine
Ukraine
with the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, starting a rebellion against Hetman
Hetman
(Polish army commander) John Sobieski . Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed IV , who knew that the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was weakened due to internal conflicts, attacked Kamianets-Podilskyi , a large city on the border.

The small Polish force resisted the Siege of Kamenets for two weeks but was then forced to capitulate. The Polish Army was too small to resist the Ottoman invasion and could only score some minor tactical victories. After three months, the Poles were forced to sign the Treaty of Buchach in which they agreed to surrender Kamyanets-Podilsky, Podolia and to pay tribute to the Ottoman Sultan.

When the news about the defeat and treaty terms reached Warsaw
Warsaw
, the Sejm refused to pay the tribute and organized a large army under Jan Sobieski; subsequently, the Poles won the Battle of Khotyn (1673) . After King Michael 's death in 1673, Jan Sobieski was elected king of Poland; he subsequently tried to defeat the Ottomans for four years, with no success. The war ended on 17 October 1676 with the Treaty of Żurawno in which the Turks only retained control over Kamianets-Podilskyi. This Turkish attack also led in 1676 to the beginning of the Russo-Turkish Wars .

OVERVIEW

After a few years of peace, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
attacked the Habsburg Empire . The Turks almost captured Vienna
Vienna
, but John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski
led a Christian
Christian
alliance that defeated them in the Battle of Vienna (1683), stalling the Ottoman Empire's hegemony in south-eastern Europe.

A new Holy League was initiated by Pope Innocent XI and encompassed the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(headed by Habsburg Austria
Austria
), Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Venetian Republic
Venetian Republic
in 1684, joined by Russia in 1686. The second Battle of Mohács (1687) was a crushing defeat for the Sultan. The Turks were more successful on the Polish front and were able to retain Podolia during their battles with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Russia's involvement marked the first time the country formally joined an alliance of European powers. This was the beginning of a series of Russo-Turkish Wars , which continued into the 20th century. As a result of the Crimean campaigns and Azov
Azov
campaigns , Russia captured the key Ottoman fortress of Azov
Azov
.

Following the decisive Battle of Zenta
Battle of Zenta
in 1697 and lesser skirmishes (such as the Battle of Podhajce in 1698), the League won the war in 1699 and forced the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to sign the Treaty of Karlowitz . The Ottomans ceded most of Hungary
Hungary
, Transylvania
Transylvania
and Slavonia to the Habsburg Empire
Habsburg Empire
while Podolia returned to Poland. Most of Dalmatia passed to Venice, along with the Morea (the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
peninsula), which the Ottomans reconquered in 1715 and regained in the Treaty of Passarowitz of 1718.

SERBIA

After allied Christian
Christian
forces had captured Buda from the Ottoman Empire in 1686 during the Great Turkish War, Serbs
Serbs
from Pannonian Plain (present-day Hungary
Hungary
, Slavonia region in present-day Croatia
Croatia
, Bačka and Banat regions in present-day Serbia
Serbia
) joined the troops of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
as separate units known as Serbian Militia . Serbs, as volunteers, massively joined the Austrian side. In the first half of 1688, the Habsburg army, together with units of Serbian Militia, captured Gyula , Lipova and Ineu from the Ottoman Empire. After Belgrade had been liberated from the Ottomans in 1688, Serbs from the territories in the south of Sava
Sava
and Danube
Danube
rivers began to join Serbian Militia units.

* Habsburg-occupied Serbia
Serbia
(1686–91) * Serbian Militia * Great Migration of the Serbs
Serbs

PREVIOUS WARS

MOREAN WAR

Main article: Morean War

Venice had held several islands in the Aegean and the Ionian seas, together with strategically positioned forts along the coast of the Greek mainland since the carving up of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
after the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
. However, with the rise of the Ottomans , during the 16th and early 17th centuries, they lost most of these, such as Cyprus and Euboea
Euboea
(Negropont ) to the Turks. Between 1645 and 1669, the Venetians and the Ottomans fought a long and costly war over the last major Venetian possession in the Aegean, Crete
Crete
. During this war, the Venetian commander, Francesco Morosini
Francesco Morosini
, came into contact with the rebellious Maniots
Maniots
, for a joint campaign in the Morea. In 1659, Morosini landed in the Morea, and together with the Maniots, he took Kalamata . However, he was soon after forced to return to Crete, and the Peloponnesian venture failed.

In 1683, a new war broke out between Austria
Austria
and the Ottomans, with a large Ottoman army advancing towards Vienna
Vienna
. In response to this, a Holy League was formed. After the Ottoman army was defeated in the Battle of Vienna
Battle of Vienna
, the Venetians decided to use the opportunity of the weakening of Ottoman power and its distraction in the Danubian front so as to reconquer its lost territories in the Aegean and Dalmatia. On 25 April 1684, the Most Serene Republic declared war on the Ottomans.

Aware that she would have to rely on her own strength for success, Venice prepared for the war by securing financial and military aid in men and ships from the Knights of Malta , the Duchy of Savoy
Duchy of Savoy
, the Papal States
Papal States
, and the Knights of St. Stephen . In addition, the Venetians enrolled large numbers of mercenaries from Italy and the German states, especially Saxony
Saxony
and Brunswick.

Operations In The Ionian Sea

In mid-June, the Venetian fleet moved from the Adriatic towards the Venetian-held Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
. The first target was the island of Lefkada
Lefkada
(Santa Maura), which fell, after a brief siege of 16 days, on 6 August 1684. The Venetians, aided by Greek irregulars, then crossed into the mainland and started raiding the opposite shore of Acarnania . Most of the area was soon under Venetian control, and the fall of the forts of Preveza
Preveza
and Vonitsa
Vonitsa
in late September removed the last Ottoman bastions. These early successes were important for the Venetians not only for reasons of morale, but because they secured their communications with Venice, denied to the Ottomans the possibility of threatening the Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
or of ferrying troops via western Greece
Greece
to the Peloponnese, and because these successes encouraged the Greeks
Greeks
to cooperate with them against the Ottomans.

The Conquest Of The Morea

Having secured his rear during the previous year, Morosini set his sights upon the Peloponnese, where the Greeks, especially the Maniots, had begun showing signs of revolt and communicated with Morosini, promising to rise up in his aid. Ismail Pasha, the new military commander of the Morea, learned of this and invaded the Mani peninsula with 10,000 men, reinforcing the three forts that the Ottomans already garrisoned, and compelled the Maniots
Maniots
to give up hostages to secure their loyalty. As a result, the Maniots
Maniots
remained uncommitted when, on 25 June 1685, the Venetian army, 8,100 men strong, landed outside the former Venetian fort of Koroni and laid siege to it. The castle surrendered after 49 days, on 11 August, and the garrison was massacred. After this success, Morosini embarked his troops towards the town of Kalamata , in order to encourage the Maniots
Maniots
to revolt. The Venetian army, reinforced by 3,300 Saxons and under the command of general Hannibal von Degenfeld , defeated a Turkish force of ca. 10,000 outside Kalamata on 14 September, and by the end of the month, all of Mani and much of Messenia
Messenia
were under Venetian control. Nafplion, or Napoli di Romagna, in the mid-16th century.

In October 1685, the Venetian army retreated to the Ionian Islands for winter quarters, where a plague broke out, something which would occur regularly in the next years, and take a great toll on the Venetian army, especially among the German contingents. In April next year, the Venetians helped repulse an Ottoman attack which threatened to overrun Mani, and were reinforced from the Papal States
Papal States
and Tuscany. The Swedish marshal Otto Wilhelm Königsmarck was appointed head of the land forces, while Morosini retained command of the fleet. On 3 June Königsmarck took Pylos
Pylos
, and proceeded to lay siege the fortress of Navarino . A relief force under Ismail Pasha was defeated on June 16, and the next day the fort surrendered. The garrison and the Muslim population were transported to Tripoli . Methoni (Modon) followed on 7 July, after an effective bombardment destroyed the fort's walls, and its inhabitants were also transferred to Tripoli. The Venetians then advanced towards Argos
Argos
and Nafplion
Nafplion
, which was then the most important town in the Peloponnese. The Venetian army, ca. 12,000 strong, landed around Nafplion
Nafplion
between 30 July and August 4. Königsmarck immediately led an assault upon the hill of Palamidi , then unfortified, which overlooked the town. Despite the Venetians' success in capturing Palamidi, the arrival of a 7,000 strong Ottoman army under Ismail Pasha at Argos
Argos
rendered their position difficult. The Venetians' initial assault against the relief army succeeded in taking Argos
Argos
and forcing the pasha to retreat to Corinth, but for two weeks, from 16 August, Königsmarck's forces were forced to continuously repulse attacks from Ismail Pasha's forces, fight off the sorties of the besieged Ottoman garrison and cope with a new outbreak of plague. On 29 August 1686 Ismail Pasha attacked the Venetian camp, but was heavily defeated. With the defeat of the relief army, Nafplion was forced to surrender the on September 3. News of this major victory were greeted in Venice with joy and celebration. Nafplion became the Venetians' major base, while Ismail Pasha withdrew to Achaea
Achaea
after strengthening the garrisons at Corinth
Corinth
, which controlled the passage to Central Greece
Greece
.

Despite losses to the plague during the autumn and winter of 1686, Morosini's forces were replenished by the arrival of new German mercenary corps form Hannover in spring 1687. Thus strengthened, he was able to move against the last major Ottoman bastion in the Peloponnese, the town of Patras
Patras
and the fort of Rion , which along with its twin at Antirrion controlled the entrance to the Corinthian Gulf (the "Little Dardanelles
Dardanelles
"). On 22 July 1687, Morosini, with a force of 14,000, landed outside Patras
Patras
, where the new Ottoman commander, Mehmed Pasha, had established himself. Mehmed, with an army of roughly equal size, attacked the Venetian force immediately after it landed, but was defeated and forced to retreat. At this point panic spread among the Ottoman forces, and the Venetians were able, within a few days, to capture the citadel of Patras, and the forts of Rion, Antirrion, and Nafpaktos (Lepanto) without any opposition, as their garrisons abandoned them. This new success caused great joy in Venice, and honours were heaped on Morosini and his officers. Morosini received the victory title "Peloponnesiacus", and a bronze bust of his was displayed in the Great Hall, something never before done for a living citizen. The Venetians followed up this success with the reduction of the last Ottoman bastions in the Peloponnese, including Corinth, which was occupied on 7 August, and Mystra , which surrendered later in the month. The Peloponnese
Peloponnese
was under complete Venetian control, and only the fort of Monemvasia
Monemvasia
(Malvasia) in the southeast continued to resist, holding out until 1690.

POLISH–OTTOMAN WAR (1683–99)

Main article: Polish–Ottoman War (1683–99)

After a few years of peace, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
attacked the Habsburg Empire again. The Turks almost captured the Empire's capital of Vienna , but king of Poland
Poland
John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski
led a Christian
Christian
alliance that defeated them in the Battle of Vienna
Battle of Vienna
which shook the Ottoman Empire's hegemony in south-eastern Europe.

A new Holy League was initiated by Pope Innocent XI and encompassed the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(headed by Habsburg Austria
Austria
), the Venetian Republic and Poland
Poland
in 1684, joined by the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
in 1686. Ottomans suffered two decisive defeats against the Holy Roman Empire: the second Battle of Mohács in 1687 and a decade later, in 1697, the battle of Zenta .

On the smaller Polish front, after the battles of 1683 ( Vienna
Vienna
and Parkany), Sobieski, after his proposal for the League to state a major coordinated offensive, undertook a rather unsuccessful offensive in Moldavia
Moldavia
in 1686, with the Ottomans refusing a major engagement and harassing the army. For the next four years Poland
Poland
would blockade the key fortress at Kamenets , and Ottoman Tatars
Tatars
would raid the borderlands. In 1691, Sobieski undertook another expedition to Moldavia, with slightly better results, but still with no decisive victories.

The last battle of the campaign was the battle of Podhajce in 1698, where Polish hetman Feliks Kazimierz Potocki
Feliks Kazimierz Potocki
defeated the Ottoman incursion into the Commonwealth. The League won the war in 1699 and forced the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to sign the Treaty of Karlowitz . The Ottomans lost much of their European possessions, with Podolia (including Kamenets) returned to Poland.

RUSSO-TURKISH WAR (1686–1700)

Main article: Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)

During the war, the Russian army organized the Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 both which ended in Russian defeats. Despite these setbacks, Russia launched the Azov
Azov
campaigns in 1695 and 1696, and after raising the siege in 1695 successfully occupied Azov
Azov
in 1696. Relief of Vienna
Vienna
by Bacciarelli - king John III of Poland
Poland

BATTLE OF VIENNA

Capturing the city of Vienna
Vienna
had long been a strategic aspiration of the Ottoman Empire, because of its interlocking control over Danubian (Black Sea to Western Europe) southern Europe, and the overland (Eastern Mediterranean to Germany) trade routes. During the years preceding this second siege (the first had taken place in 1529), under the auspices of grand viziers from the influential Köprülü family , the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
undertook extensive logistical preparations, including the repair and establishment of roads and bridges leading into the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and its logistical centres, as well as the forwarding of ammunition, cannon and other resources from all over the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to these centres and into the Balkans. Since 1679, the plague had been raging in Vienna.

The main Ottoman army finally laid siege to Vienna
Vienna
on 14 July. On the same day, Kara Mustafa sent the traditional demand for surrender to the city.

Ernst Rüdiger Graf von Starhemberg , leader of the remaining 15,000 troops and 8,700 volunteers with 370 cannon, refused to capitulate. Only days before, he had received news of the mass slaughter at Perchtoldsdorf , a town south of Vienna, where the citizens had handed over the keys of the city after having been given a similar choice. Siege operations started on 17 July.

On 6 September, the Poles under Jan III Sobieski crossed the Danube 30 km north-west of Vienna
Vienna
at Tulln
Tulln
, to unite with the Imperial troops and the additional forces from Saxony
Saxony
, Bavaria
Bavaria
, Baden
Baden
, Franconia
Franconia
, and Swabia
Swabia
. Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
declined to help his Habsburg rival , having just annexed Alsace .

An alliance between John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski
and the Emperor Leopold I resulted in the addition of the Polish hussars to the already existing allied army. The command of the forces of European allies was entrusted to the Polish king, who had under his command 70,000-80,000 soldiers facing a Turkish army of 150,000. :661 John III Sobieski's courage and remarkable aptitude for command were already known in Europe.

During early September, the experienced 5,000 Ottoman sappers had repeatedly blown up large portions of the walls between the Burg bastion , the Löbel bastion and the Burg ravelin , creating gaps of about 12m in width. The Viennese tried to counter this by digging their own tunnels to intercept the depositing of large amounts of gunpowder in subterranean caverns. The Ottomans finally managed to occupy the Burg ravelin and the low wall in that area on 8 September. Anticipating a breach in the city walls, the remaining Viennese prepared to fight in the inner city.

STAGING THE BATTLE

Turks before the walls of Vienna
Vienna

The relief army had to act quickly to save the city and so prevent another long siege. Despite the binational composition of the army and the short space of only six days, an effective leadership structure was established, centred on the King of Poland
King of Poland
and his heavy cavalry ( Polish Hussars
Polish Hussars
). The Holy League settled the issues of payment by using all available funds from the government, loans from several wealthy bankers and noblemen and large sums of money from the Pope. Also, the Habsburgs and Poles agreed that the Polish government would pay for its own troops while still in Poland, but that they would be paid by the Emperor once they had crossed into Imperial territory. However, the Emperor had to recognise Sobieski’s claim to first rights of plunder of the enemy camp in the event of a victory.

Kara Mustafa Pasha was less effective at ensuring his forces' motivation and loyalty, and preparing for the expected relief-army attack. He had entrusted defence of the rear to the Khan of Crimea
Crimea
and his cavalry force, which numbered about 30–40,000. There is doubt as to how far the Tatars
Tatars
participated in the final battle before Vienna. Their Khan refused to attack the Polish relief force as it crossed the Danube
Danube
on pontoon bridges and refused to attack as they emerged from the Wienerwald. :151, 161

The Ottomans could not rely on their Wallachian and Moldavian allies. George Ducas , Prince of Moldavia
Moldavia
, was captured, while Șerban Cantacuzino 's forces joined the retreat after Sobieski's cavalry charge. :163

The confederated troops signalled their arrival on the Kahlenberg above Vienna
Vienna
with bonfires. Before the battle a Mass was celebrated for the King of Poland
King of Poland
and his nobles. The relief of Vienna
Vienna
on 12 September 1683

BATTLE

At around 6:00 pm, the Polish king ordered the cavalry attack in four groups, three Polish and one from the Holy Roman Empire. Eighteen thousand horsemen charged down the hills, the largest cavalry charge in history . :152 Jan III Sobieski led the charge :661 at the head of 3,000 Polish heavy lancers, the famed "Winged Hussars ". The Lipka Tatars
Tatars
who fought on the Polish side wore a sprig of straw in their helmets to distinguish themselves from the Tatars
Tatars
fighting on the Ottoman side. The charge easily broke the lines of the Ottomans, who were exhausted and demoralised and soon started to flee the battlefield. The cavalry headed straight for the Ottoman camps and Kara Mustafa's headquarters, while the remaining Viennese garrison sallied out of its defences to join in the assault. :661

The Ottoman troops were tired and dispirited following the failure of both the attempt at sapping and the assault on the city and the advance of the Holy League infantry on the Turkenschanz. :661 The cavalry charge was one last deadly blow. Less than three hours after the cavalry attack, the Christian
Christian
forces had won the battle and saved Vienna. The first Christian
Christian
officer who entered Vienna
Vienna
was Margrave Ludwig of Baden, at the head of his dragoons.

Afterwards Sobieski paraphrased Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
's famous quotation ( Veni, vidi, vici
Veni, vidi, vici
) by saying "Veni, vidi, Deus vicit" – "I came, I saw, God conquered".

CONCLUSION

Main articles: Treaty of Karlowitz , Battle of Zenta
Battle of Zenta

On September 11, 1697, the Battle of Zenta
Battle of Zenta
was fought just south of the then-Ottoman city of Zenta. During the battle, Habsburg Imperial forces routed the Ottoman forces while the Ottomans were crossing the Tisa River (which is near the city). This resulted in the Habsburg forces killing over 30,000 Ottomans and dispersing the rest. This crippling defeat was the ultimate factor of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
signing the Treaty of Karlowitz on January 22, 1699, ending the Great Turkish War. This treaty resulted in the transfer of most of Ottoman Hungary to the Habsburgs, and prompted the Ottomans to adopt a more defensive military policy in the following century.

SEE ALSO

* International relations 1648-1814 * Ottoman wars in Europe
Ottoman wars in Europe
* Ottoman–Habsburg wars * Long War (Ottoman wars) * List of Ottoman sieges and landings * List of Prussian wars * Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* Transformation of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* Osman Aga of Temesvar

REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to GREAT TURKISH WAR .

* ^ Treasure, Geoffrey, The making of modern Europe, 1648-1780, (Methuen ">(pdf) (in Serbian), 74, Novi Sad: Matica Srpska
Matica Srpska
, Department of Social Sciences, Proceedings i History, p. 7, retrieved 21 December 2011, U toku Velikog bečkog rata, naročito posle oslobođenja Budima 1686. srpski narod u Ugarskoj, Slavoniji, Bačkoj, Banatu, priključivao se carskim trupama i kao "rašanska, racka" milicija učestvovao u borbama u Lipi, Jenovi i Đuli...carska vojska i srpska milicija oslobodile su u proleće i leto 1688, U toku Velikog bečkog rata, ... srpski narod.. od pada Beograda u ruke austrijske vojske 1688. i u Srbiji priključivao se carskim trupama i kao "rašanska, racka" milicija učestvovao u borbama u toku 1689–1691. borbe su prenete na Banat. Srbe u njima predvodio je vojvoda Novak Petrović * ^ Janićijević, Jovan (1996), Kulturna riznica Srbije (in Serbian), IDEA, p. 70, Велики или Бечки рат Аустрије против Турске, у којем су Срби, као добровољци, масовно учествовали на аустријској страни * ^ George Finlay, A History of Greece