HOME
The Info List - Great Lakes



--- Advertisement ---


(i)

The GREAT LAKES (French : _les Grands-Lacs_), also called the LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES and the GREAT LAKES OF NORTH AMERICA, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America
North America
, on the Canada–United States border , which connect to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
through the Saint Lawrence River . Consisting of Lakes Superior , Michigan
Michigan
, Huron (or Michigan–Huron ), Erie , and Ontario
Ontario
, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total area, and second largest by total volume containing 21% of the world's surface fresh water by volume. The total surface is 94,250 square miles (244,106 km2), and the total volume (measured at the low water datum) is 5,439 cubic miles (22,671 km3). Due to their sea -like characteristics (rolling waves, sustained winds, strong currents, great depths, and distant horizons) the five Great Lakes
Great Lakes
have also long been referred to as _inland seas_. Lake Superior
Lake Superior
is the second largest lake in the world by area, and Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
is the largest lake that is entirely within one country. The southern half of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
is bordered by the Great Lakes Megalopolis
Great Lakes Megalopolis
.

The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
began to form at the end of the last glacial period around 14,000 years ago, as retreating ice sheets exposed the basins they had carved into the land which then filled with meltwater. The lakes have been a major highway for transportation, migration and trade, and they are home to a large number of aquatic species. Many invasive species have been introduced due to trade, and some threaten the region's biodiversity .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Bathymetry
Bathymetry
* 1.2 Primary connecting waterways * 1.3 Lake Michigan–Huron * 1.4 Other significant bodies of water * 1.5 Islands * 1.6 Shipping connection to the ocean * 1.7 Water levels

* 2 Name origins * 3 Statistics * 4 Geology

* 5 Climate

* 5.1 Lake effect

* 6 Ecology

* 6.1 Fauna * 6.2 Flora * 6.3 Pollution

* 7 History

* 8 Economy

* 8.1 Shipping * 8.2 Drinking water and compact * 8.3 Recreation * 8.4 Great Lakes passenger steamers * 8.5 Shipwrecks

* 9 Legislation

* 9.1 Coast
Coast
Guard live fire exercises

* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

GEOGRAPHY

A map of the Great Lakes Basin showing the five sub-basins within. Left to right they are: Superior (lavender); Michigan (cyan/light blue); Huron (green); Erie (yellow); Ontario
Ontario
(blue).

Though the five lakes reside in separate basins, they form a single, naturally interconnected body of fresh water, within the Great Lakes Basin . The lakes form a chain connecting the east-central interior of North America
North America
to the Atlantic Ocean. From the interior to the outlet at the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
, water flows from Superior to Huron and Michigan, southward to Erie, and finally northward to Lake Ontario. The lakes drain a large watershed via many rivers, and are studded with approximately 35,000 islands. There are also several thousand smaller lakes, often called "inland lakes," within the basin. The surface area of the five primary lakes combined is roughly equal to the size of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, while the surface area of the entire basin (the lakes and the land they drain) is about the size of the UK and France
France
combined. Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
is the only one of the Great Lakes that is located entirely within the United States; the others form a water boundary between the United States and Canada. The lakes are divided among the jurisdictions of the Canadian province of Ontario and the U.S. states of Minnesota
Minnesota
, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
, Michigan
Michigan
, Illinois
Illinois
, Indiana
Indiana
, Ohio
Ohio
, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, and New York . Both Ontario
Ontario
and Michigan
Michigan
include in their boundaries portions of four of the lakes: Ontario
Ontario
does not border Lake Michigan, and Michigan
Michigan
does not border Lake Ontario. New York and Wisconsin's jurisdictions extend into two lakes, and the remaining states into one of the lakes.

BATHYMETRY

LAKE ERIE LAKE HURON LAKE MICHIGAN LAKE ONTARIO LAKE SUPERIOR

SURFACE AREA 9,910 sq mi (25,700 km2) 23,000 sq mi (60,000 km2) 22,300 sq mi (58,000 km2) 7,340 sq mi (19,000 km2) 31,700 sq mi (82,000 km2)

WATER VOLUME 116 cu mi (480 km3) 850 cu mi (3,500 km3) 1,180 cu mi (4,900 km3) 393 cu mi (1,640 km3) 2,900 cu mi (12,000 km3)

ELEVATION 571 ft (174 m) 577 ft (176 m) 577 ft (176 m) 246 ft (75 m) 600.0 ft (182.9 m)

AVERAGE DEPTH 62 ft (19 m) 195 ft (59 m) 279 ft (85 m) 283 ft (86 m) 483 ft (147 m)

MAXIMUM DEPTH 210 ft (64 m) 748 ft (228 m) 925 ft (282 m) 804 ft (245 m) 1,333 ft (406 m)

MAJOR SETTLEMENTS Buffalo, NY Erie, PA Cleveland, OH Lorain, OH Toledo, OH Sandusky, OH Alpena, MI Bay City, MI Owen Sound, ON Port Huron, MI Sarnia, ON Chicago, IL Gary, IN Green Bay, WI Sheboygan, WI Milwaukee, WI Kenosha, WI Racine, WI Muskegon, MI Traverse City, MI Hamilton, ON Kingston, ON Mississauga, ON Oshawa, ON Rochester, NY Toronto, ON Duluth, MN Marquette, MI Sault Ste. Marie, MI Sault Ste. Marie, ON Superior, WI Thunder Bay, ON

RELATIVE ELEVATIONS, AVERAGE DEPTHS, MAXIMUM DEPTHS, AND VOLUMES OF THE GREAT LAKES.

NOTES: The area of each rectangle is proportionate to the volume of each lake. All measurements at Low Water Datum.

SOURCE: EPA

System profile of the Great Lakes. Great Lakes
Great Lakes
bathymetry .

As the surfaces of Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, and Erie are all approximately the same elevation above sea level, while Lake Ontario is significantly lower, and because the Niagara Escarpment precludes all natural navigation, the four upper lakes are commonly called the "upper great lakes". This designation, however, is not universal. Those living on the shore of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
often refer to all the other lakes as "the lower lakes", because they are farther south. Sailors of bulk freighters transferring cargoes from Lake Superior
Lake Superior
and northern Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
and Lake Huron to ports on Lake Erie
Lake Erie
or Ontario commonly refer to the latter as the lower lakes and Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior as the upper lakes. This corresponds to thinking of Lakes Erie and Ontario
Ontario
as "down south" and the others as "up north". Vessels sailing north on Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
are considered "upbound" even though they are sailing toward its effluent current.

PRIMARY CONNECTING WATERWAYS

Chicago
Chicago
on Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
is in the western part of the lakes megalopolis, and the site of the waterway linking the lakes to the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
valley Detroit
Detroit
on the Detroit
Detroit
River links the region's central metropolitan areas. Toronto
Toronto
on Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
is in the eastern section of the Great Lakes Megalopolis
Great Lakes Megalopolis

* The Chicago
Chicago
River and Calumet River systems connect the Great Lakes Basin to the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
System through man-made alterations and canals. * The St. Marys River , including the Soo Locks
Soo Locks
, connects Lake Superior to Lake Huron. * The Straits of Mackinac connect Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
to Lake Huron (which are hydrologically one). * The St. Clair River connects Lake Huron to Lake St. Clair . * The Detroit
Detroit
River connects Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie. * The Niagara River , including Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
, connects Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. * The Welland Canal
Welland Canal
, bypassing the Falls, connects Lake Erie
Lake Erie
to Lake Ontario. * The Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
connects Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
to the Gulf of St. Lawrence , which connects to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
.

LAKE MICHIGAN–HURON

Main article: Lake Michigan–Huron

Lakes Huron and Michigan
Michigan
are sometimes considered a single lake, called Lake Michigan–Huron, because they are one hydrological body of water connected by the Straits of Mackinac . The straits are 5 miles (8 km) wide and 120 feet (37 m) deep; the water levels – currently at 577 feet (176 m) – rise and fall together, and the flow between Michigan
Michigan
and Huron frequently reverses direction.

OTHER SIGNIFICANT BODIES OF WATER

* Lake Nipigon , connected to Lake Superior
Lake Superior
by the Nipigon River , is surrounded by sill-like formations of mafic and ultramafic igneous rock hundreds of meters high. The lake lies in the Nipigon Embayment , a failed arm of the triple junction (centered beneath Lake Superior) in the Midcontinent Rift System event, estimated at 1,109 million years ago. * Green Bay is an arm of Lake Michigan, located along the south coast of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan
Michigan
and the east coast of Wisconsin. It is separated from the rest of the lake by the Door Peninsula in Wisconsin, the Garden Peninsula in Michigan, and the chain of islands between them, all of which were formed by the Niagara Escarpment . * Lake Winnebago , connected to Green Bay by the Fox River , serves as part of the Fox– Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Waterway and is part of a larger system of lakes in Wisconsin
Wisconsin
known as the Winnebago Pool . * Grand Traverse Bay is an arm of Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
located on Michigan's west coast, being one of the largest natural harbors in the Great Lakes. The bay has one large peninsula and one major island known as Power Island. Its namesake is derived from when Jacques Marquette crossed the bay from Norwood to Northport calling it _La Grande Traversee_. * Georgian Bay
Georgian Bay
is an arm of Lake Huron, extending northeast from the lake entirely within Ontario. The bay, along with its narrow westerly extensions of the North Channel and Mississagi Strait , is separated from the rest of the lake by the Bruce Peninsula , Manitoulin Island , and Cockburn Island , all of which were also formed by the Niagara Escarpment. * Lake Nipissing , connected to Georgian Bay
Georgian Bay
by the French River , contains two volcanic pipes , which are the Manitou Islands and Callander Bay . These pipes were formed by a violent, supersonic eruption of deep-origin. The lake lies in the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben , a Mesozoic rift valley that formed 175 million years ago. * Lake Simcoe , connected to Georgian Bay
Georgian Bay
by the Severn River , serves as part of the Trent–Severn Waterway , a canal route traversing Southern Ontario
Ontario
between Lakes Ontario
Ontario
and Huron. * Lake St. Clair , connected with Lake Huron (to its north) by the St. Clair River and with Lake Erie
Lake Erie
(to its south) by the Detroit
Detroit
River , is notable for the fact that Canadian territory along its southern shore (the city of Windsor and Essex County ) lies south of the adjacent United States territory (the city of Detroit
Detroit
). Although it is 17 times smaller in area than Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
and only rarely included in the listings of the Great Lakes, proposals for its official recognition as a Great Lake are occasionally made, which would affect its inclusion in scientific research projects, etc., designated as related to "The Great Lakes".

ISLANDS

Dispersed throughout the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
are approximately 35,000 islands . The largest among them is Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron, the largest island in any inland body of water in the world. The second-largest island is Isle Royale
Isle Royale
in Lake Superior. Both of these islands are large enough to contain multiple lakes themselves—for instance, Manitoulin Island's Lake Manitou is the world's largest lake located on a freshwater island.

SHIPPING CONNECTION TO THE OCEAN

The Saint Lawrence Seaway
Saint Lawrence Seaway
and Great Lakes Waterway make the Great Lakes accessible to ocean-going vessels. However, shifts in shipping to wider ocean-going container ships —which do not fit through the locks on these routes—have limited container shipping on the lakes. Most Great Lakes
Great Lakes
trade is of bulk material, and bulk freighters of Seawaymax -size or less can move throughout the entire lakes and out to the Atlantic. Larger ships are confined to working in the lakes themselves. Only barges can access the Illinois
Illinois
Waterway system providing access to the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
via the Mississippi River. Despite their vast size, large sections of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
freeze over in winter, interrupting most shipping from January to March. Some icebreakers ply the lakes, keeping the shipping lanes open through other periods of ice on the lakes.

The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
are also connected by canal to the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
by way of the Illinois
Illinois
River (from the Chicago
Chicago
River ) and the Mississippi River. An alternate track is via the Illinois
Illinois
River (from Chicago), to the Mississippi, up the Ohio, and then through the Tennessee–Tombigbee Waterway (a combination of a series of rivers and lakes and canals), to Mobile Bay and the Gulf . Commercial tug-and-barge traffic on these waterways is heavy.

Pleasure boats can also enter or exit the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
by way of the Erie Canal
Canal
and Hudson River
Hudson River
in New York. The Erie Canal
Canal
connects to the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
at the east end of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
(at Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York
) and at the south side of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
(at Oswego, New York ).

WATER LEVELS

In 2009, the lakes contained 84% of the surface freshwater of North America; if the water were evenly distributed over the entire continent's land area, it would reach a depth of 1.5 meters (5 feet). The source of water levels in the lakes is tied to what was left by melting glaciers when the lakes took their present form. Annually, only about 1% is "new" water originating from rivers, precipitation, and groundwater springs that drain into the lakes. Historically, evaporation has been balanced by drainage, making the level of the lakes constant. While the lake levels have been preserved, intensive human population growth only began in the region in the 20th century and continues today. At least two human water use activities have been identified as having the potential to affect the lakes' levels: diversion (the transfer of water to other watersheds) and consumption (substantially done today by the use of lake water to power and cool electric generation plants, resulting in evaporation).

The water level of Lake Michigan–Huron had remained fairly constant over the 20th century, but has nevertheless dropped more than 6 feet from the record high in 1986 to the low of 2013. One newspaper reported that the long-term average level has gone down about 20 inches because of dredging and subsequent erosion in the St. Clair River . Lake Michigan–Huron hit all-time record low levels in 2013; according to the US Army Corps of Engineers , the previous record low had been set in 1964. By April 2015 the water level had recovered to 7 inches (17.5 cm) more than the "long term monthly average".

NAME ORIGINS

Lake Erie
Lake Erie
From the Erie tribe , a shortened form of the Iroquoian word _erielhonan_ (long tail). Lake Huron Named by French explorers for the inhabitants of the area, the Wyandot or "Hurons". Lake Michigan
Michigan
From the Ojibwa word _mishigami_ (great water or large lake). Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
From the Wyandot (Huron) word _ontarío_ (lake of shining waters). Lake Superior
Lake Superior
English translation of the French term _lac supérieur_ (upper lake), referring to its position north of Lake Huron. The indigenous Ojibwe call it _gichi gumi_ (from Ojibwe _gichi_ big, large, great; _gumi_ water, lake, sea. Popularized in French-influenced transliteration as _Gitchigumi_ as in Gordon Lightfoot 's 1976 story song, _The Wreck of the_ Edmund Fitzgerald , or _Gitchee Gumee_ as in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 's 1855 epic poem, _ The Song of Hiawatha _).

STATISTICS

The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
contained 21% of the world's surface fresh water around the year 2000: 5,472 cubic miles (22,810 km3), or 6.0×1015 U.S. gallons (2.3×1016 liters). This is enough water to cover the 48 contiguous U.S. states to a uniform depth of 9.5 feet (2.9 m). Although the lakes contain a large percentage of the world's fresh water, the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
supply only a small portion of U.S. drinking water on a national basis.

The total surface area of the lakes is approximately 94,250 square miles (244,100 km2)—nearly the same size as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and larger than the U.S. states of New York , New Jersey
New Jersey
, Connecticut
Connecticut
, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, Vermont
Vermont
, and New Hampshire
New Hampshire
combined.

The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
coast measures approximately 10,500 miles (16,900 km); however, the length of a coastline is impossible to measure exactly and is not a well-defined measure (see Coastline paradox ). Of the total 10,500 miles (16,900 km) of shoreline, Canada borders approximately 5,200 miles (8,400 km), while the remaining 5,300 miles (8,500 km) are bordered by the United States. Michigan
Michigan
has the longest shoreline of the United States, bordering roughly 3,288 miles (5,292 km) of shoreline, followed by Wisconsin
Wisconsin
(820 miles (1,320 km)), New York (473 miles (761 km)), and Ohio
Ohio
(312 miles (502 km)). Traversing the shoreline of all the lakes would cover a distance roughly equivalent to travelling half-way around the world at the equator .

GEOLOGY

A diagram of the formation of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Map of Glacial Lake Algonquin and its Correlatives (USGS 1915)

It has been estimated that the foundational geology that created the conditions shaping the present day upper Great Lakes
Great Lakes
was laid from 1.1 to 1.2 billion years ago, when two previously fused tectonic plates split apart and created the Midcontinent Rift , which crossed the Great Lakes Tectonic Zone . A valley was formed providing a basin that eventually became modern day Lake Superior. When a second fault line, the Saint Lawrence rift , formed approximately 570 million years ago, the basis for Lakes Ontario
Ontario
and Erie were created, along with what would become the Saint Lawrence River.

The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
are estimated to have been formed at the end of the last glacial period (the Wisconsin
Wisconsin
glaciation ended 10,000 to 12,000 years ago), when the Laurentide ice sheet receded. The retreat of the ice sheet left behind a large amount of meltwater (see Lake Algonquin and Lake Chicago
Chicago
) that filled up the basins that the glaciers had carved, thus creating the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
as we know them today. Because of the uneven nature of glacier erosion , some higher hills became Great Lakes
Great Lakes
islands . The Niagara Escarpment follows the contour of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
between New York and Wisconsin. See also Glacial Lake Iroquois and Champlain Sea
Sea
.

Land below the glaciers "rebounded" as it was uncovered. Because the glaciers covered some areas longer than others, this glacial rebound occurred at different rates.

CLIMATE

The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
have a humid continental climate, Köppen climate classification DFA (in southern areas) and DFB (in northern parts) with varying influences from air masses from other regions including dry, cold Arctic systems, mild Pacific air masses from the West, and warm, wet tropical systems from the south and the Gulf of Mexico. The lakes themselves also have a moderating effect on the climate; they can also increase precipitation totals and produce lake effect snowfall .

LAKE EFFECT

Main article: Lake-effect snow The location of common lake effect bands on the Great Lakes
Great Lakes

The most well-known winter effect of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
on regional weather is the _lake effect _ in snowfall, which is sometimes very localized. Even late in winter, the lakes often have no icepack in the middle. The prevailing winds from the west pick up the air and moisture from the lake surface, which is slightly warmer in relation to the cold surface winds above. As the slightly warmer, moist air passes over the colder land surface, the moisture often produces concentrated, heavy snowfall that sets up in bands or "streamers". This is similar to the effect of warmer air dropping snow as it passes over mountain ranges. During freezing weather with high winds, the "snow belts" receive regular snow fall from this localized weather pattern, especially along the eastern shores of the lakes. Snow belts are found in Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, United States; and Ontario, Canada.

The lakes also moderate seasonal temperatures to some degree, but not with as large an influence as do large oceans; they absorb heat and cool the air in summer, then slowly radiate that heat in autumn. They protect against frost during transitional weather, and keep the summertime temperatures cooler than further inland. This effect can be very localized and overridden by offshore wind patterns. This temperature buffering produces areas known as "fruit belts ", where fruit can be produced that is typically grown much farther south. For instance, Western Michigan
Michigan
has apple and cherry orchards, and vineyards cultivated adjacent to the lake shore as far north as the Grand Traverse Bay and Nottawasaga Bay in central Ontario. The eastern shore of Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
and the southern shore of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
have many successful wineries because of the moderating effect, as does the Niagara Peninsula between Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and Lake Ontario. A similar phenomenon allows wineries to flourish in the Finger Lakes
Finger Lakes
region of New York, as well as in Prince Edward County, Ontario
Ontario
on Lake Ontario's northeast shore. Related to the lake effect is the regular occurrence of fog over medium-sized areas, particularly along the shorelines of the lakes. This is most noticeable along Lake Superior's shores.

The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
have been observed to help intensify storms, such as Hurricane Hazel
Hurricane Hazel
in 1954, and the 2011 Goderich, Ontario
Ontario
tornado , which moved onshore as a tornadic waterspout. In 1996 a rare tropical or subtropical storm was observed forming in Lake Huron, dubbed the 1996 Lake Huron cyclone . Rather large severe thunderstorms covering wide areas are well known in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
during mid-summer; these Mesoscale convective complexs or MCCs can cause damage to wide swaths of forest and shatter glass in city buildings. These storms mainly occur during the night, and the systems sometimes have small embedded tornadoes, but more often straight-line winds accompanied by intense lightning.

ECOLOGY

Generalized schematic of Great Lakes
Great Lakes
waterline ecosystem

Historically, the Great Lakes, in addition to their lake ecology , were surrounded by various forest ecoregions (except in a relatively small area of southeast Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
where savanna or prairie occasionally intruded). Logging, urbanization, and agriculture uses have changed that relationship. In the early 21st century, Lake Superior's shores are 91% forested, Lake Huron 68%, Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
49%, Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
41%, and Lake Erie, where logging and urbanization has been most extensive, 21%. Some of these forests are second or third growth (i.e. they have been logged before, changing their composition). At least 13 wildlife species are documented as becoming extinct since the arrival of Europeans, and many more are threatened or endangered. Meanwhile, exotic and invasive species have also been introduced.

FAUNA

See also: Category:Fauna of the Great Lakes region (North America) , Category:Fish of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
, and Asian carp in North America
North America
Lake sturgeon , the largest native fish in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and the subject of extensive commercial fishing in the 19th and 20th centuries is listed as a threatened species

The organisms living on the bottom of shallow waters are similar to those found in smaller lakes. The deep waters, however, contain organisms found only in deep, cold lakes of the northern latitudes. These include the delicate opossum shrimp (order mysida ), the deepwater scud (a crustacean of the order amphipoda ), two types of copepods , and the deepwater sculpin (a spiny, large-headed fish).

The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
are an important source of fishing . Early European settlers were astounded by both the variety and quantity of fish; there were 150 different species in the Great Lakes. Throughout history, fish populations were the early indicator of the condition of the Lakes and have remained one of the key indicators even in the current era of sophisticated analyses and measuring instruments. According to the bi-national (U.S. and Canadian) resource book, _The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book_: "The largest Great Lakes
Great Lakes
fish harvests were recorded in 1889 and 1899 at some 67,000 tonnes (66,000 long tons; 74,000 short tons) ."

By 1801, the New York Legislature found it necessary to pass regulations curtailing obstructions to the natural migrations of Atlantic salmon from Lake Erie
Lake Erie
into their spawning channels. In the early 19th century, the government of Upper Canada found it necessary to introduce similar legislation prohibiting the use of weirs and nets at the mouths of Lake Ontario's tributaries. Other protective legislation was passed, as well, but enforcement remained difficult.

On both sides of the Canada–United States border, the proliferation of dams and impoundments have multiplied, necessitating more regulatory efforts. Concerns by the mid-19th century included obstructions in the rivers which prevented salmon and lake sturgeon from reaching their spawning grounds. The Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Fisheries Commission noted a reduction of roughly 25% in general fish harvests by 1875. The states have removed dams from rivers where necessary.

Overfishing has been cited as a possible reason for a decrease in population of various whitefish , important because of their culinary desirability and, hence, economic consequence. Moreover, between 1879 and 1899, reported whitefish harvests declined from some 24.3 million pounds (11 million kg) to just over 9 million pounds (4 million kg). By 1900, commercial fishermen on Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
were hauling in an average of 41 million pounds of fish annually. By 1938, Wisconsin's commercial fishing operations were motorized and mechanized. generating jobs for more than 2,000 workers, and hauling 14 million pounds per year. The population of giant freshwater mussels was eliminated as the mussels were harvested for use as buttons by early Great Lakes
Great Lakes
entrepreneurs . Since 2000, the invasive quagga mussel has smothered the bottom of Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
almost from shore to shore, and their numbers are estimated at 900 trillion.

The influx of parasitic lamprey populations after the development of the Erie Canal
Canal
and the much later Welland Canal
Welland Canal
led to the two federal governments of the US and Canada working on joint proposals to control it. By the mid-1950s, the lake trout populations of Lakes Michigan
Michigan
and Huron were reduced, with the lamprey deemed largely to blame. This led to the launch of the bi-national Great Lakes Fishery Commission . Cliffs at Palisade Head on Lake Superior
Lake Superior
in Minnesota
Minnesota
near Silver Bay.

_The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book_ (1972) noted: "Only pockets remain of the once large commercial fishery." But, water quality improvements realized during the 1970s and 1980s, combined with successful salmonid stocking programs, have enabled the growth of a large recreational fishery. The last commercial fisherman left Milwaukee
Milwaukee
in 2011 because of overfishing and anthropogenic changes to the biosphere.

Since the 19th century an estimated 160 new species have found their way into the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
ecosystem; many have become invasive; the overseas ship ballast and ship hull parasitism are causing severe economic and ecological impacts. According to the Inland Seas Education Association, on average a new species enters the Great Lakes every eight months. A zebra mussel -encrusted vector-averaging current meter from Lake Michigan.

Introductions into the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
include the zebra mussel , which was first discovered in 1988, and quagga mussel in 1989. The mollusks are efficient filter feeders, competing with native mussels and reducing available food and spawning grounds for fish. In addition, the mussels may be a nuisance to industries by clogging pipes. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates that the economic impact of the zebra mussel could be about $5 billion over the next decade.

The alewife first entered the system west of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
via 19th-century canals. By the 1960s, the small silver fish had become a familiar nuisance to beach goers across Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie. Periodic mass dieoffs result in vast numbers of the fish washing up on shore; estimates by various governments have placed the percentage of Lake Michigan's biomass, which was made up of alewives in the early 1960s, as high as 90%. In the late 1960s, the various state and federal governments began stocking several species of salmonids, including the native lake trout as well as non-native chinook and coho salmon ; by the 1980s, alewife populations had dropped drastically. The ruffe , a small percid fish from Eurasia, became the most abundant fish species in Lake Superior's Saint Louis River within five years of its detection in 1986. Its range, which has expanded to Lake Huron, poses a significant threat to the lower lake fishery. Five years after first being observed in the St. Clair River, the round goby can now be found in all of the Great Lakes. The goby is considered undesirable for several reasons: it preys upon bottom-feeding fish, overruns optimal habitat, spawns multiple times a season, and can survive poor water quality conditions.

Several species of exotic water fleas have accidentally been introduced into the Great Lakes, such as the spiny waterflea, _ Bythotrephes longimanus _, and the fishhook waterflea, _Cercopagis pengoi _, potentially having an effect on the zooplankton population. Several species of crayfish have also been introduced that may contend with native crayfish populations. More recently an electric fence has been set up across the Chicago
Chicago
Sanitary and Ship Canal
Canal
in order to keep several species of invasive Asian carp out of the area. These fast-growing planktivorous fish have heavily colonized the Mississippi and Illinois
Illinois
river systems. The sea lamprey , which has been particularly damaging to the native lake trout population, is another example of a marine invasive species in the Great Lakes. Invasive species, particularly zebra and quagga mussels, may be at least partially responsible for the collapse of the deepwater demersal fish community in Lake Huron, as well as drastic unprecedented changes in the zooplankton community of the lake.

FLORA

* _See also: Flora of the Great Lakes region _, and Index: Trees of the Great Lakes region _._

Native habitats and ecoregions in the Great Lakes region include:

* Eastern forest-boreal transition * Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests * Southern Great Lakes forests * Central forest-grasslands transition * Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition * Western Great Lakes forests * Central Canadian Shield forests * Laurentian Mixed Forest
Forest
Province * Beech-maple forest * Habitats of the Indiana
Indiana
Dunes

Plant lists include:

* List of Michigan
Michigan
flowers * List of Minnesota
Minnesota
wild flowers * List of Minnesota
Minnesota
trees

LOGGING

Logging
Logging
of the extensive forests in the Great Lakes region removed riparian and adjacent tree cover over rivers and streams, which provide shade, moderating water temperatures in fish spawning grounds. Removal of trees also destabilized the soil, with greater volumes washed into stream beds causing siltation of gravel beds, and more frequent flooding.

Running cut logs down the tributary rivers into the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
also dislocated sediments. In 1884, the New York Fish Commission determined that the dumping of sawmill waste (chips and sawdust) had impacted fish populations.

POLLUTION

The first U.S. Clean Water Act , passed by a Congressional override after being vetoed by US President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
in 1972, was a key piece of legislation, along with the bi-national Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Water Quality Agreement signed by Canada and the U.S. A variety of steps taken to process industrial and municipal pollution discharges into the system greatly improved water quality by the 1980s, and Lake Erie in particular is significantly cleaner. Discharge of toxic substances has been sharply reduced. Federal and state regulations control substances like PCBs . The first of 43 " Great Lakes Areas of Concern " to be formally "de-listed" due to successful cleanup was Ontario's Collingwood Harbour in 1994; Ontario's Severn Sound followed in 2003. Presque Isle Bay in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is formally listed as in recovery, as is Ontario's Spanish Harbour. Dozens of other Areas of Concern have received partial cleanups such as the Rouge River (Michigan) and Waukegan Harbor (Illinois).

Until 1970, mercury was not listed as a harmful chemical, according to the United States Federal Water Quality Administration. Within the past ten years mercury has become more apparent in water tests. Mercury compounds have been used in paper mills to prevent slime from forming during their production, and chemical companies have used mercury to separate chlorine from brine solutions. Studies conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency have shown that when the mercury comes in contact with many of the bacteria and compounds in the fresh water, it forms the compound methyl mercury , which has a much greater impact on human health than elemental mercury due to a higher propensity for absorption. This form of mercury is not detrimental to a majority of fish types, but is very detrimental to people and other wildlife animals who consume the fish. Mercury has been known for health related problems such as birth defects in humans and animals, and the near extinction of eagles in the Great Lakes region.

The amount of raw sewage dumped into the waters was the primary focus of both the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and federal laws passed in both countries during the 1970s. Implementation of secondary treatment of municipal sewage by major cities greatly reduced the routine discharge of untreated sewage during the 1970s and 1980s. The International Joint Commission in 2009 summarized the change: "Since the early 1970s, the level of treatment to reduce pollution from waste water discharges to the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
has improved considerably. This is a result of significant expenditures to date on both infrastructure and technology, and robust regulatory systems that have proven to be, on the whole, quite effective." The commission reported that all urban sewage treatment systems on the U.S. side of the lakes had implemented secondary treatment, as had all on the Canadian side except for five small systems.

However, those treatment system upgrades have not, contrary to federal laws in both countries, yet eliminated Combined sewer Overflow events. This describes when older sewerage systems, which combine storm water with sewage into single sewers heading to the treatment plant, are temporarily overwhelmed by heavy rainstorms. Local sewage treatment authorities then must release untreated effluent, a mix of rainwater and sewage, into local water bodies. While enormous public investments such as the Deep Tunnel projects in Chicago
Chicago
and Milwaukee have greatly reduced the frequency and volume of these events, they have not been eliminated. The number of such overflow events in Ontario, for example, is flat according to the International Joint Commission. Reports about this issue on the U.S. side highlight five large municipal systems (those of Detroit
Detroit
, Cleveland , Buffalo , Milwaukee
Milwaukee
and Gary ) as being the largest current periodic sources of untreated discharges into the Great Lakes.

Phosphate detergents were historically a major source of nutrient to the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
algae blooms in particular in the warmer and shallower portions of the system such as Lake Erie
Lake Erie
, Saginaw Bay , Green Bay , and the southernmost portion of Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
. By the mid-1980s, most jurisdictions bordering the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
had controlled phosphate detergents, resulting in sharp reductions in the frequency and extent of the blooms.

In 2013, news of a garbage patch of plastic pollution in the lakes was reported.

HISTORY

_ A woodcut of Le Griffon_

Several Native American tribes inhabited the region since at least 1000 BC, after the end of the Wisconsin
Wisconsin
glaciation . The peoples of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
traded with the Hopewell culture from around 1000 AD, as copper nuggets have been extracted from the region, and fashioned into ornaments and weapons in the mounds of Southern Ohio. The brigantine _ Le Griffon
Le Griffon
_, which was commissioned by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle , was built at Cayuga Creek, near the southern end of the Niagara River , and became the first known sailing ship to travel the upper Great Lakes
Great Lakes
on August 7, 1679.

The Rush–Bagot Treaty signed in 1818, after the War of 1812 and the later Treaty of Washington eventually led to a complete disarmament of naval vessels in the Great Lakes. Nonetheless, both nations maintain coast guard vessels in the Great Lakes.

During settlement, the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and its rivers were the only practical means of moving people and freight. Barges from middle North America were able to reach the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
from the Great Lakes when the Welland canal opened in 1824 and the later Erie Canal
Canal
opened in 1825. By 1848, with the opening of the Illinois
Illinois
and Michigan
Michigan
Canal at Chicago
Chicago
, direct access to the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
was possible from the lakes. With these two canals an all-inland water route was provided between New York City
New York City
and New Orleans
New Orleans
.

The main business of many of the passenger lines in the 19th century was transporting immigrants . Many of the larger cities owe their existence to their position on the lakes as a freight destination as well as for being a magnet for immigrants. After railroads and surface roads developed, the freight and passenger businesses dwindled and, except for ferries and a few foreign cruise ships, has now vanished. The immigration routes still have an effect today. Immigrants often formed their own communities and some areas have a pronounced ethnicity, such as Dutch, German, Polish, Finnish, and many others. Since many immigrants settled for a time in New England before moving westward, many areas on the U.S. side of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
also have a New England feel, especially in home styles and accent. _ The Eastland _ leaving Chicago, ca. 1909

Since general freight these days is transported by railroads and trucks, domestic ships mostly move bulk cargoes, such as iron ore , coal and limestone for the steel industry. The domestic bulk freight developed because of the nearby mines. It was more economical to transport the ingredients for steel to centralized plants rather than try to make steel on the spot. Grain exports are also a major cargo on the lakes.

In the 19th century and early 20th centuries, iron and other ores such as copper were shipped south on (downbound ships), and supplies, food, and coal were shipped north (upbound). Because of the location of the coal fields in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and West Virginia
West Virginia
, and the general northeast track of the Appalachian Mountains , railroads naturally developed shipping routes that went due north to ports such as Erie, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Ashtabula, Ohio
Ohio
.

Because the lake maritime community largely developed independently, it has some distinctive vocabulary. Ships, no matter the size, are called _boats_. When the sailing ships gave way to steamships, they were called _steamboats_—the same term used on the Mississippi. The ships also have a distinctive design (see Lake freighter
Lake freighter
). Ships that primarily trade on the lakes are known as _lakers _. Foreign boats are known as _salties_. One of the more common sights on the lakes has been since about 1950 the 1,000‑by‑105-foot (305-by-32-meter), 78,850-long-ton (80,120-metric-ton) self-unloader. This is a laker with a conveyor belt system that can unload itself by swinging a crane over the side. Today, the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
fleet is much smaller in numbers than it once was because of the increased use of overland freight, and a few larger ships replacing many small ones.

During World War II, the risk of submarine attacks against coastal training facilities motivated the United States Navy to operate two aircraft carriers on the Great Lakes, USS _Sable_ (IX-81) and USS _Wolverine_ (IX-64) . Both served as training ships to qualify naval aviators in carrier landing and takeoff. Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
briefly became the sixth Great Lake of the United States on March 6, 1998, when President Clinton signed Senate Bill 927. This bill, which reauthorized the National Sea
Sea
Grant Program , contained a line declaring Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
to be a Great Lake. Not coincidentally, this status allows neighboring states to apply for additional federal research and education funds allocated to these national resources. Following a small uproar, the Senate voted to revoke the designation on March 24 (although New York and Vermont
Vermont
universities would continue to receive funds to monitor and study the lake).

In the early years of the 21st century, water levels in the Great Lakes were a concern. Researchers at the Mowat Centre said that low levels could cost $19bn by 2050.

ECONOMY

Photograph of Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron plus the Finger Lakes of upstate New York, June 14, 2012, taken aboard the International Space Station
International Space Station
, with lake names added

SHIPPING

The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
are today used as a major water transport corridor for bulk goods. The Great Lakes Waterway connects all the lakes; the smaller Saint Lawrence Seaway
Saint Lawrence Seaway
connects the lakes to the Atlantic oceans. Some lake freighters are too large to use the Seaway, and only operate on the Waterway and lakes.

In 2002, 162 million net tons of dry bulk cargo were moved on the Lakes. This was, in order of volume: iron ore, grain and potash . The iron ore and much of the stone and coal are used in the steel industry. There is also some shipping of liquid and containerized cargo but most container ships cannot pass the locks on the Saint Lawrence Seaway because the ships are too wide.

DRINKING WATER AND COMPACT

Main article: Great Lakes Compact

The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
are used to supply drinking water to tens of millions of people in bordering areas. This valuable resource is collectively administered by the state and provincial governments adjacent to the lakes, who have agreed to the Great Lakes Compact to regulate water supply and use.

RECREATION

Tourism and recreation are major industries on the Great Lakes. A few small cruise ships operate on the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
including a couple of sailing ships . Sport fishing, commercial fishing, and Native American fishing represent a U.S.$4 billion a year industry with salmon , whitefish , smelt , lake trout , bass and walleye being major catches. Many other water sports are practiced on the lakes such as yachting , sea kayaking , diving , kitesurfing , powerboating , and lake surfing .

The Great Lakes Circle Tour is a designated scenic road system connecting all of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and the Saint Lawrence River.

GREAT LAKES PASSENGER STEAMERS

Main article: Great Lakes passenger steamers

From 1844 through 1857, palace steamers carried passengers and cargo around the Great Lakes. In the first half of the 20th century large luxurious passenger steamers sailed the lakes in opulence. The Detroit
Detroit
and Cleveland Navigation Company had several vessels at the time and hired workers from all walks of life to help operate theses vessels. Several ferries currently operate on the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
to carry passengers to various islands, including Isle Royale, Drummond Island, Pelee Island , Mackinac Island , Beaver Island , Bois Blanc Island (Ontario) , Bois Blanc Island (Michigan) , Kelleys Island , South Bass Island , North Manitou Island
North Manitou Island
, South Manitou Island , Harsens Island , Manitoulin Island , and the Toronto
Toronto
Islands . As of 2007, four car ferry services cross the Great Lakes, two on Lake Michigan: a steamer from Ludington, Michigan
Michigan
, to Manitowoc, Wisconsin , and a high speed catamaran from Milwaukee
Milwaukee
to Muskegon, Michigan
Michigan
, one on Lake Erie: a boat from Kingsville, Ontario
Ontario
, or Leamington, Ontario
Ontario
, to Pelee Island, Ontario
Ontario
, then onto Sandusky, Ohio
Ohio
, and one on Lake Huron: the M.S. Chi-Cheemaun runs between Tobermory and South Baymouth, Manitoulin Island, operated by the Owen Sound Transportation Company. An international ferry across Lake Ontario Rochester, New York , to Toronto
Toronto
ran during 2004 and 2005, but is no longer in operation.

SHIPWRECKS

The large size of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
increases the risk of water travel; storms and reefs are common threats. The lakes are prone to sudden and severe storms, in particular in the autumn, from late October until early December. Hundreds of ships have met their end on the lakes. The greatest concentration of shipwrecks lies near Thunder Bay
Thunder Bay
(Michigan) , beneath Lake Huron, near the point where eastbound and westbound shipping lanes converge.

The Lake Superior
Lake Superior
shipwreck coast from Grand Marais, Michigan
Michigan
, to Whitefish Point became known as the "Graveyard of the Great Lakes". More vessels have been lost in the Whitefish Point area than any other part of Lake Superior. The Whitefish Point Underwater Preserve serves as an underwater museum to protect the many shipwrecks in this area.

The first ship to sink in Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
was _ Le Griffon
Le Griffon
_, also the first ship to sail the Great Lakes. Caught in a 1679 storm while trading furs between Green Bay and Michilimacinac, it was lost with all hands aboard. Its wreck may have been found in 2004, but a wreck subsequently discovered in a different location was also claimed in 2014 to be _Le Griffon_.

The largest and last major freighter wrecked on the lakes was the SS _Edmund Fitzgerald_ , which sank on November 10, 1975, just over 17 miles (30 km) offshore from Whitefish Point on Lake Superior. The largest loss of life in a shipwreck out on the lakes may have been that of the _Lady Elgin_ , wrecked in 1860 with the loss of around 400 lives on Lake Michigan. In an incident at a Chicago
Chicago
dock in 1915, the SS _Eastland_ rolled over while loading passengers, killing 841.

In August 2007, the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Shipwreck Historical Society announced that it had found the wreckage of _Cyprus_, a 420-foot (130 m) long, century-old ore carrier. _Cyprus_ sank during a Lake Superior storm on October 11, 1907, during its second voyage while hauling iron ore from Superior, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
, to Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York
. The entire crew of 23 drowned, except one, a man named Charles Pitz, who floated on a life raft for almost seven hours.

In June 2008, deep sea divers in Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
found the wreck of the 1780 Royal Navy
Royal Navy
warship HMS _Ontario_ in what has been described as an "archaeological miracle". There are no plans to raise her as the site is being treated as a war grave.

In June 2010, the _ L.R. Doty _ was found in Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
by an exploration diving team led by dive boat Captain Jitka Hanakova from her boat the Molly V. The ship sank in October 1898, probably attempting to rescue a small schooner, the Olive Jeanette, during a terrible storm. There are no plans to raise the ship as it would quickly deteriorate in open air.

Still missing are the two last warships to sink in the Great Lakes, the French minesweepers, _Inkerman_ and _Cerisoles_ , which vanished in Lake Superior
Lake Superior
during a blizzard in 1918. 78 lives were lost making it the largest loss of life in Lake Superior
Lake Superior
and the greatest unexplained loss of life in the Great Lakes.

RELATED ARTICLES

* List of shipwrecks in the Great Lakes * Index: Shipwrecks in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
* Great Storms of the North American Great Lakes * Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Storm
Storm
of 1913

LEGISLATION

The International Joint Commission was established in 1909 to help prevent and resolve disputes relating to the use and quality of boundary waters, and to advise Canada and the United States on questions related to water resources. Concerns over diversion of Lake water are of concern to both Americans and Canadians. Some water is diverted through the Chicago
Chicago
River to operate the Illinois
Illinois
Waterway but the flow is limited by treaty. Possible schemes for bottled water plants and diversion to dry regions of the continent raise concerns. Under the U.S. "Water Resources Development Act", diversion of water from the Great Lakes Basin requires the approval of all eight Great Lakes governors through the Great Lakes Commission , which rarely occurs. International treaties regulate large diversions. In 1998, the Canadian company Nova Group won approval from the Province of Ontario to withdraw 158,000,000 U.S. gallons (600,000 m3) of Lake Superior water annually to ship by tanker to Asian countries. Public outcry forced the company to abandon the plan before it began. Since that time, the eight Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Governors and the Premiers of Ontario
Ontario
and Quebec have negotiated the Great Lakes- Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement and the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact that would prevent most future diversion proposals and all long-distance ones. The agreements strengthen protection against abusive water withdrawal practices within the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
basin. On December 13, 2005, the Governors and Premiers signed these two agreements, the first of which is between all ten jurisdictions. It is somewhat more detailed and protective, though its legal strength has not yet been tested in court. The second, the Great Lakes Compact , has been approved by the state legislatures of all eight states that border the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
as well as the U.S. Congress, and was signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 3, 2008.

The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Restoration Initiative, described as "the largest investment in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
in two decades," was funded at $475 million in the U.S. federal government's Fiscal Year 2011 budget, and $300 million in the Fiscal Year 2012 budget. Through the program a coalition of federal agencies is making grants to local and state entities for toxics cleanups, wetlands and coastline restoration projects, and invasive species-related projects.

COAST GUARD LIVE FIRE EXERCISES

In 2006, the United States Coast
Coast
Guard (USCG) proposed a plan to designate 34 areas in the Great Lakes, at least 5 mi (8 km) offshore, as permanent safety zones for live fire machine gun practice. In August 2006, the plan was published in the Federal Register
Federal Register
. The USCG reserved the right to hold target practice whenever the weather allowed with a two-hour notice. These firing ranges would be open to the public when not in use. In response to requests from the public, the Coast
Coast
Guard held a series of public meetings in nine U.S. cities to solicit comment. During these meetings many people voiced concerns about the plan and its impact on the environment. On December 18, 2006, the Coast
Coast
Guard announced its decision to withdraw the entire proposal. Officials said they would look into alternative ammunition, modifying the proposed zones and have more public dialogue before proposing a new plan.

SEE ALSO

* Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 * Eastern Continental Divide
Eastern Continental Divide
* Great Lakes census statistical areas * Great Lakes Megalopolis
Great Lakes Megalopolis
* Great Lakes Protection Fund * Great Lakes WATER Institute * Great Lakes Waterway * Great Recycling and Northern Development Canal
Canal
* List of cities on the Great Lakes * List of municipalities on the Great Lakes * Michigan
Michigan
Islands National Wildlife Refuge * Muskellunge * Northern pike
Northern pike
* Populated islands of the Great Lakes * Seiche * Snowbelt * Sixty Years\' War for control of the Great Lakes * Valparaiso Moraine * The Great Lakes Book Project

REFERENCES

* ^ Waples, James T. (2008). "The Laurentian Great Lakes" (PDF). _North American Continental Margins_. Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Environmental Research
Research
Laboratory: 73–81. * ^ " Great Lakes
Great Lakes
– U.S. EPA". Epa.gov. June 28, 2006. Retrieved February 19, 2011. * ^ "LUHNA Chapter 6: Historical Landcover Changes in the Great Lakes Region". Biology.usgs.gov. November 20, 2003. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved February 19, 2011. * ^ Ghassemi, Fereidoun (2007). _Inter-basin water transfer_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. ISBN 0-521-86969-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Great Lakes: Basic Information: Physical Facts". United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). May 25, 2011. Archived from the original on May 29, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2011. * ^ Williamson, James (2007). _The inland seas of North America: and the natural and industrial productions ..._ John Duff Montreal Hew Ramsay Toronto
Toronto
AH Armour and Co. Retrieved January 5, 2014. * ^ "The Top Ten: The Ten Largest Lakes of the World". _infoplease.com_. * ^ Rosenberg, Matt. "Largest Lakes in the World by Area, Volume and Depth". _About.com Education_. * ^ Hough, Jack (1970) . "Great Lakes". _The Encyclopædia Britannica_ (Hardcover)format= requires url= (help ). 10 (Commemorative Edition for Expo'70 ed.). Chicago: William Benton. p. 774. ISBN 0-85229-135-3 . * ^ "Large Lakes of the World". _factmonster.com_. * ^ Great Lakes. America 2050. Retrieved on December 7, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Cordell, Linda S.; Lightfoot, Kent; McManamon, Francis; Milner, George (2008). _Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia_. ABC-CLIO. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-313-02189-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Tom Bennett (February 1, 1999). _State of the Great Lakes: 1997 Annual Report_. DIANE Publishing. p. 1991. ISBN 978-0-7881-4358-8 . * ^ Likens, Gene E. (May 20, 2010). _Lake Ecosystem Ecology: A Global Perspective_. Academic Press. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-12-382003-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ Grady, Wayne (2007). _The Great Lakes_. Vancouver: Greystone Books and David Suzuki Foundation . pp. 13, 21–26, 42–43. ISBN 978-1-55365-197-0 . * ^ _A_ _B_ " Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Atlas: Factsheet #1". United States Environmental Protection Agency. March 9, 2006. Retrieved December 3, 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Map". Michigan
Michigan
Department of Environmental Quality. Archived from the original on November 27, 2011. Retrieved November 27, 2011. * ^ See List of cities on the Great Lakes for a complete list. * ^ National Geophysical Data Center (1999). Bathymetry
Bathymetry
of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi :10.7289/V5KS6PHK * ^ National Geophysical Data Center (1999). Bathymetry
Bathymetry
of Lake Huron. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi :10.7289/V5G15XS5 * ^ National Geophysical Data Center (1999). Bathymetry
Bathymetry
of Lake Michigan. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi :10.7289/V5B85627 * ^ National Geophysical Data Center (1999). Bathymetry
Bathymetry
of Lake Ontario. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi :10.7289/V56H4FBH

* ^ National Geophysical Data Center (1999). Bathymetry
Bathymetry
of Lake Superior. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. (the general reference to NGDC because this lake was never published, compilation of Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Bathymetry
Bathymetry
at NGDC has been suspended). * ^ National Geophysical Data Center (1999). Global Land One-kilometer Base Elevation (GLOBE) v. 1. Hastings, D. and P.K. Dunbar. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi :10.7289/V52R3PMS * ^ W. Bruce Bowlus (2010). _Iron Ore
Ore
Transport on the Great Lakes: The Development of a Delivery System to Feed American Industry_. McFarland. p. 215. ISBN 978-0-7864-8655-7 . * ^ " Michigan
Michigan
and Huron: One Lake or Two?" Pearson Education, Inc: Information Please Database, 2007. * ^ Wright, John W., ed. (2006). _The New York Times Almanac_ (2007 ed.). New York, New York: Penguin Books. p. 64. ISBN 0-14-303820-6 . * ^ Home. Peninsula Township. Retrieved on December 7, 2016. * ^ Citation neededMay 2016 * ^ Background Geology of the North Bay area. Archived July 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved on September 24, 2007 * ^ Lake St. Clair summary report. _Great Lakes.net_. Retrieved on December 2, 2007. * ^ "Chapter 1:Introduction to Lake St. Clair and the St. Clair River". U.S. government U.S. Army. June 2004. Archived from the original on January 10, 2009. Retrieved June 8, 2008. * ^ "Movement Would Thrust Greatness on Lake St. Clair", _Los Angeles Times _, October 20, 2002 * ^ Dunn, Gary A (July 1, 1996). _Insects of the Great Lakes Region_. University of Michigan
Michigan
Press . p. 3. ISBN 978-0-472-06515-8 .

* ^ Huber, Norman King; Geological Survey (U.S.); United States. National Park Service (1975). _The geologic story of Isle Royale National Park_. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey: for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 41. * ^ Manivanan, R. (January 1, 2008). _Water Quality Modeling: Rivers, Streams, and Estuaries_. New India Publishing. p. 114. ISBN 978-81-89422-93-6 . * ^ Robert McCalla (January 1, 1994). _Water Transportation in Canada_. Formac Publishing Company. pp. 159–162. ISBN 978-0-88780-247-8 . * ^ _Coastal Sediments \'07_. ASCE Publications. January 1, 2007. p. 2215. ISBN 978-0-7844-7194-4 . Retrieved April 16, 2013. * ^ United States. Bureau of the Census (1908). _Transportation by water. 1906_. Govt. Print. Off. p. 220. * ^ Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Basic Information. United States Environmental Protection Agency * ^ "State of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
2009 Highlights (PDF)". Environment Canada and USEPA . pp. 7–8. Retrieved July 7, 2013. * ^ Bolsenga, Stanley J.; Herdendorf, Charles E. (1993). _Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair Handbook_. Wayne State University Press . p. 67. ISBN 978-0-8143-2470-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _jsonline.com: Lakes Michigan, Huron hit record low water level February 5, 2013_ * ^ "Weekly Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Water Level Update"; Detroit
Detroit
District, Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army (April 17, 2005) * ^ Room, A. (2006). _Placenames of the World: Origins And Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features And Historic Sites_. McFarland. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7 . * ^ Room, A. (2006). _Placenames of the World: Origins And Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features And Historic Sites_. McFarland. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7 . * ^ Weiland, Matt; Wilsey, Sean (October 19, 2010). _State by State_. HarperCollins. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-06-204357-3 . * ^ Ylvisaker, Anne (2004). _Lake Ontario_. Capstone. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-7368-2211-4 . * ^ Cayton, Andrew R. L.; Sisson, Richard; Zacher, Chris (November 8, 2006). _The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia_. Indiana
Indiana
University Press . p. 161. ISBN 978-0-253-00349-2 . * ^ Taylor, William W.; Schechter, Michael G.; Wolfson, Lois G. (2007-10-25). _Globalization: Effects on Fisheries Resources_. Cambridge University Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-139-46834-3 . * ^ "Shorelines of the Great Lakes". _ Michigan
Michigan
Department of Environmental Quality_. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014. * ^ Van Schmus, W. R.; Hinze, W. J. (May 1985). "The Midcontinent Rift System" (PDF). _Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences_. 13 (1): 345–83. doi :10.1146/annurev.ea.13.050185.002021 . Retrieved October 6, 2008. * ^ Larson, Grahame; Schaetzl, R. (2001). "Origin and evolution of the Great Lakes" (PDF). _Journal of Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Research_. Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Res. 27 (4): 518–546. doi :10.1016/S0380-1330(01)70665-X . Archived from the original (PDF) on October 31, 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2009. * ^ "Lake levels report weighs Great Lakes
Great Lakes
basin\'s glacial legacy". Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Echo. June 8, 2009. Retrieved February 19, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Natural Processes in the Great Lakes". _The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book_. Environmental Protection Agency. July 24, 2008. Retrieved November 27, 2011. * ^ " Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Water Levels Sensitive To Climate Change". Science Daily. January 14, 2009. Retrieved April 14, 2010. * ^ "Glossary – NOAA\'s National Weather Service". * ^ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, External Affairs, 612-713-5309. " U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service – Midwest Region". _fws.gov_. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Beeton, Alfred. "Great Lakes". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Retrieved January 31, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Anon (1972). _The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book_. Bi-national (U.S. and Canadian) resource book. * ^ Margaret Beattie Bogue (June 28, 2001). _ Fishing
Fishing
the Great Lakes: An Environmental History, 1783–1933_. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-299-16763-9 . * ^ Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission. _ Special
Special
report ... of the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission_. The Commission. p. 23. * ^ _A_ _B_ Macdonald, David and Service, Katrina, ed. (March 12, 2009). _Key Topics in Conservation Biology_. John Wiley & Sons. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-4443-0906-5 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link ) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ The lake left me. It\'s gone., JS Online, August 13, 2011 * ^ United States. Environmental Protection Agency (1998). _EPA, Great Minds?, Great Lakes!, Lake Guardian, Don\'t Miss The Boat With Environmental Education, March 1997_. s.n. p. 7. * ^ "New EPA rules to target invasive species; Invaders have plagued Great Lakes
Great Lakes
for years". The Blade. Retrieved January 25, 2009.

* ^ _A_ _B_ "Our Threatened Great Lakes". Inland Seas Education Association. Archived from the original on April 3, 2013. Retrieved November 30, 2007. * ^ " Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Aquatic Nuisance Species". Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Commission. March 27, 2007. Retrieved November 30, 2007. * ^ Smith, Paul (February 24, 2009). "Gobies up, alewives down in Lake Michigan". Journal Sentinel. Retrieved August 6, 2010. * ^ "Predicting Invasive Species in the Great Lakes". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved August 6, 2010. * ^ Glassner-Shwayder, Katherine (July 2000). "Briefing Paper: Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Nonindigenous Invasive Species" (PDF). Great Lakes Nonindigenous Invasive Species Workshop. Retrieved August 6, 2010. * ^ "Asian Carp Risk Assessment for Canada by Fisheries and Oceans Canada" (PDF). CSAS. Retrieved August 6, 2010. * ^ "Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus 1758". USGS. Retrieved August 6, 2010. * ^ Riley, S. C.; Roseman, Edward F.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; O'Brien, Timothy P.; Kiley, Courtney S.; Schaeffer, Jeffrey S. (2008). "Deepwater demersal fish community collapse in Lake Huron" (PDF). _Transactions of the American Fisheries Society_. 137 (6): 1879–90. doi :10.1577/T07-141.1 . Archived from the original (PDF) on June 3, 2013. * ^ Barbiero, R. P.; Barbiero, Richard P.; Balcer, Mary; Rockwell, David C.; Tuchman, Marc L. (2009). "Recent shifts in the crustacean zooplankton community of Lake Huron". _Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences_. 66 (5): 816–828. doi :10.1139/F09-036 . * ^ Dempsey, Dave (April 1, 2004). _On the Brink: The Great Lakes in the 21st Century_. Michigan
Michigan
State University Press . p. 48. ISBN 978-0-87013-705-1 . * ^ "Evolution of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Water Quality Agreement", Paul Muldoon and Lee Botts, Michigan
Michigan
State University Press, 2005 * ^ Recovery of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Walleye
Walleye
a Success Story. Department of Natural Resources State of Michigan, U.S. (June 8, 2006) * ^ "Our Great Lakes" (PDF). _binational.net_. * ^ Milestone in Waukegan Harbor PCB Cleanup. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. (Spring 1997) * ^ "Mercury Spills". Idph.state.il.us. Retrieved February 19, 2011. * ^ " Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Water Quality Past Present and Future" (PDF). Retrieved December 4, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "14th Biennial Report on Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Water Quality" (PDF). * ^ New Report: Solving Region\'s Sewage Crisis Will Create Jobs, Restore Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Healing Our Waters Coalition. Healthylakes.org (August 9, 2010). Retrieved on 2016-12-07. * ^ Knud-Hansen, Chris (February 1994) Historical Perspecitve Of The Phosphate Detergent Conflict. Working Paper 94-54. Colorado.edu. Retrieved on December 7, 2016. * ^ New Concerns About Plastic Pollution in Great Lakes
Great Lakes
\'Garbage Patch\' National Geographic. April 2013. * ^ Woodford, Arthur M. (1991). _Charting the Inland Seas: A History of the U.S. Lake Survey_. Wayne State University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-8143-2499-8 . * ^ Bernstein, Peter L. (2010). _Wedding of the Waters: The Erie Canal
Canal
and the Making of a Great Nation_. W. W. Norton. p. 349. ISBN 978-0-393-32795-3 . * ^ Danzer, Gerald A. (2011). _Illinois: A History in Pictures_. University of Illinois
Illinois
Press . p. 90. ISBN 978-0-252-03288-2 . * ^ Wharton, George. " Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Fleet Page Vessel Feature – Burns Harbor". Boatnerd. Retrieved August 6, 2010. * ^ Gonzalez, Therese (2008). _ Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Naval Training Station_. Arcadia Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7385-5193-7 . * ^ Lake Champlain, The Sixth Great Lake? – Geography – 03/02/98. Geography.about.com (March 6, 1998). Retrieved on 2013-07-12. * ^ Seelye, Katharine Q. (March 25, 1998). "Lakes Are Born Great, 5 Sniff, So Upstart Is Ousted – New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved November 14, 2013. * ^ Julie Bosman. "G+M: "Creeping up on unsuspecting shores: The Great Lakes" 28 Jun 2014". Theglobeandmail.com. Retrieved June 29, 2014. * ^ "" Great Lakes
Great Lakes
low water levels could cost $19B by 2050" 27 Jun 2014". cbc.ca. Retrieved June 29, 2014. * ^ http://www.greatlakesports.org/industry-overview/cargoes/ * ^ Grover, Velma I.; Krantzberg, Gail (2012). _Great Lakes: Lessons in Participatory Governance_. CRC Press. p. 334. ISBN 978-1-57808-769-3 . * ^ " Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Circle Tour". Great-lakes.net. July 5, 2005. Retrieved February 19, 2011. * ^ Thompson, Mark L. (1991). _Steamboats & Sailors of the Great Lakes_. Wayne State University Press. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-8143-2359-5 .

* ^ Strand, Kathryn Koutsky; Koutsky, Linda (2006). _Minnesota Vacation Days: An Illustrated History_. Minnesota
Minnesota
Historical Society. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-87351-526-9 . * ^ _Toast of the Town: The Life and Times of Sunnie Wilson_. Wayne State University Press. 2005-05-23. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-8143-2696-1 . * ^ "MS Chi-Cheemaun About Us". Ontario
Ontario
Ferries. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved June 29, 2014. * ^ Stonehouse, Frederick (1985, 1998). _Lake Superior's Shipwreck Coast_, p. 267, Avery Color Studios, Gwinn, Michigan, U.S.A. ISBN 0-932212-43-3 * ^ Matile, Roger (April 11, 2004) "Has a famed Great Lakes
Great Lakes
mystery been solved?" Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine . Ledger-Sentinel , Oswego, Illinois
Illinois
. * ^ France
France
claims historic Great Lakes
Great Lakes
wreck, Randy Boswell, Canwest News Service, February 17, 2009. * ^ Explorer says Griffin shipwreck may be found, Associated Press, June 24, 2014. * ^ "Century-old shipwreck discovered". Associated Press. September 10, 2007. Retrieved December 3, 2007. * ^ "Divers find 1780 British warship". BBC News. June 14, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008. * ^ "L.R. Doty, ship that sank in Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
112 years ago, found largely intact near Milwaukee". _ Star Tribune _. Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota,. June 24, 2010. Archived from the original on June 27, 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2010. * ^ "Federal Statute on Great Lakes. Water Diversions. Water Resources Development Act". Archived from the original on October 29, 2007. Retrieved October 29, 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ). dnr.state.oh.us * ^ "Great Lakes—St" (PDF). Retrieved February 19, 2011. * ^ Agreement. Great Lakes-St Lawrence River Basin Water Resources. cglg.org. December 13, 2005 * ^ Back to Water Conservation. www.greatlakes.org * ^ " Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Restoration Initiative home page". Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. * ^ Jones, Meg (November 8, 2006). "Trading shots on bullets". Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved December 2, 2007. * ^ Lydersen, Kari (December 19, 2006). " Coast
Coast
Guard Target-Practice Plan Misfires". Washington Post. Retrieved December 2, 2007. * ^ Weisberg, Deborah (December 24, 2006). "Fishing: Coast
Coast
Guard reloads on firing range". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette . Retrieved December 2, 2007.

FURTHER READING

* Peter Annin (2006). _The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Water Wars_. Island Press. ISBN 978-1-61091-077-4 . * Beltran, R. et al. _The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book_. ( United States Environmental Protection Agency and Government of Canada, 1995, ISBN 0-662-23441-3 ). * Coon, W.F. and R.A. Sheets. _Estimate of Ground Water in Storage in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Basin_ . Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 2006. * Helen Hornbeck Tanner (1987). _Atlas of Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Indian History_. University of Oklahoma Press . ISBN 978-0-8061-2056-0 . * Riley, John L. (2013) _The Once and Future Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Country: An Ecological History_ (McGill-Queen\'s University Press 516 pages; traces environmental change in the region since the last ice age. * Holling, Holling Clancy _Paddle to the Sea_ (ISBN 0-395-15082-5 ), an illustrated children's book about the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and their environment. Beautiful and educational.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for GREAT LAKES _.

_

.