Greaser (subculture)
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Greasers are a
youth subculture A youth subculture is a youth-based subculture with distinct styles, behaviors, and interests. Youth subcultures offer participants an identity outside of that ascribed by social institutions such as family, work, home A home, or domi ...
that emerged in the 1950s and early 1960s from predominantly
working class The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in manual-labour occupations or industrial work, who are remunerated via waged or salaried contracts. Working-class occupations (see also "Designation of workers by collar colorCo ...
and lower class
teenager Adolescence ()''Macmillan Dictionary for Students'' Macmillan, Pan Ltd. (1981), page 14, 456. Retrieved July 15, 2010. is a transitional stage of physical and psychological Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology in ...

teenager
s and young adults in the United States. The subculture remained prominent into the mid-1960s and was particularly embraced by certain ethnic groups in
urban areas An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbatio ...
, particularly Italian Americans and Latino Americans.


History


Etymology of the term greaser

The etymology for the term ''greaser'' is unknown. It is speculated that the word originated in the late 19th century in the United States as Greaser (derogatory), a derogatory label for poor laborers, specifically those of Italian, Greek or Mexican descent. The similar term "greaseball" is a slur for individuals of Italians, Italian or Greeks, Greek descent, though to a lesser extent it has also been used more generally to refer to all Mediterranean race, Mediterranean, Latino (demonym), Latino, or Hispanic people. By the time of the American Civil War, Civil War, the word was understood to carry racist and Racial segregation, segregationist meanings. It was later used to reference automotive mechanics. It was not used in writing to refer to the American subculture of the mid-20th century until the mid-1960s, though in this sense it still evoked a pejorative connotation and a relation to machine work. The name was partially applied to members of the subculture because of their characteristic greased-back hair. Within Baltimore metropolitan area, Greater Baltimore during the 1950s and early 1960s, greasers were colloquially referred to as drapes and drapettes.


Origins of the subculture and rise to popularity

The greaser subculture may have emerged in the post-World War II era among the motorcycle clubs and street gangs of the late 1940s in the United States, though it was certainly established by the 1950s, when it was increasingly adopted by ethnic urban youth. The original greasers (often coming from “ethnic” backgrounds) were aligned by a feeling of working class and lower class social alienation, disillusionment with American popular culture either through a lack of economic opportunity in spite of the Economic history of the United States#Post-World War II prosperity: 1945–1973, post-war boom or a marginalization enacted by the general domestic shift towards homogeneity in the 1950s. Most were male, usually ethnic or white working class outsiders, and were interested in hotrod culture or motorcycling. A handful of middle-class youth were drawn to the subculture for its rebellious attitude. The weak structural foundation of the greasers can be attributed to the subculture's origins in working-class youth possessing few economic resources with which to participate in American consumerism. Greasers, unlike motorcyclists, did not explicitly have their own interest clubs or publications. As such, there was no business marketing geared specifically towards the group. Their choice in clothing was largely drawn from a common understanding of the empowering aesthetic of working-class attire, rather than a cohesive association with similarly dressed individuals. Many greasers were in motorcycle clubs or in street gangs—and conversely, some gang members and bikers dressed like greasers—though such membership was not necessarily an inherent principle of the subculture. Ethnically, original greasers were composed mostly of Italian Americans in the the Northeastern United States, Northeast and Mexican American Chicanos in the Southwestern United States, Southwest. Since both of these groups were mostly olive skin, olive skinned, the "greaser" label assumed a quasi-racial status that implied an urban, ethnic, lower-class masculinity and delinquency. This development led to an ambiguity in the racial distinction between poor Italian Americans and Puerto Rican migration to New York City#1950s, Puerto Ricans in New York City during the 1950s and 1960s. Greasers were also perceived as being predisposed to perpetrating sexual violence, evoking fear in middle-class males but also titillation in middle-class females.


Decline and modern incarnations

Though the television show ''American Bandstand'' helped to "sanitize" the negative image of greasers in the 1960s and 1970s, Promiscuity, sexual promiscuity was still seen as a key component of the modern character. By the mid-1970s, the greaser image had become a quintessential part of 1950s nostalgia and cultural revival.


Culture


Fashion

The most notable physical characteristic of greasers was the greased-back hairstyles they fashioned for themselves through use of hair products such as pomade or petroleum jelly, which necessitated frequent combing and reshaping to maintain. Males sported coiffures adopted from early rock 'n' roll and rockabilly performers such as Elvis Presley, among them the Folsom, Pompadour (hairstyle), Pompadour, Elephant's trunk, and Duck's ass, while females commonly backcombing, backcombed, coiffed, or teased their hair. Male greasers typically wore loose work pants such as cotton twill trousers, common among the working class; dark slacks, or dark blue Levi Strauss & Co., Levi's blue jeans, jeans, widely popular among all American youth in the 1950s. The latter were often cuffed over ankle-high black or brown leather boots, including steel-toed boot, steel-toed engineer boot, engineer or combat boots, Harness boots, work boots, and (especially in the Southwest) cowboy boots. Other footwear choices included Chuck Taylor All-Stars, pointed Italian dress shoes, brothel creepers, and winklepickers. Male shirts were typically solid black or white T-shirts, ringer T-shirts, or sometimes sleeveless shirt, sleeveless undershirts or Tank top (shirt), tank tops (which would have been retailed as underwear). Choices of outerwear included denim or leather jackets (including Perfecto motorcycle jackets). Female greaser dress included leather jackets and risque clothing, such as tight and cropped capri pants, capris and pedal pushers (broadly popular during the time period).


Music tastes

In the early 1950s, there was significant greaser interest in doo-wop, a genre of African-American music from the industrial cities of the Northeast that had disseminated to mainstream American music through Italian American performers. Greasers were heavily associated with the culture surrounding rock n' roll, a musical genre that had induced feelings of a moral panic among older middle-class generations during the mid-to-late 1950s, to whom greasers epitomized the connection between rock music and juvenile delinquency professed by several important social and cultural observers of the time.


Portrayal in media and popular culture

* The first cinematic representation of the greaser subculture was the 1953 film ''The Wild One''. * The music group Sha-Na-Na, formed in the late 1960s, models their onstage presence on New York City greasers (the band members themselves were mostly Ivy Leaguers). * The 1967 critically-acclaimed young adult novel ''The Outsiders (novel), The Outsiders'' by S. E. Hinton told the story of a gang of greasers, and was controversial upon release due to its depiction of gang violence. The film adaptation of ''The Outsiders (film), The Outsiders'' was released in 1983 and directed by Francis Ford Coppola. *The 1971 American musical and subsequent 1978 film ''Grease (film), Grease'' is named after and centres around characters based on the 1950s United States working-class youth subculture known as greasers. *Character "Fonzie" from the American TV show ''Happy Days'' is a stereotypical greaser who was frequently seen on his motorcycle, wore a leather jacket, and typified the essence of cool, in contrast to his circle of friends. *Characters Leonard "Lenny" Kosnowski and Andrew "Squiggy" Squiggman from the American sitcom ''Laverne & Shirley'', a Spin-off (media), spin-off of ''Happy Days''. * The 1990 John Waters film ''Cry-Baby'' is a Camp (style), camp reminiscence of Baltimore greasers during the 1950s.Sprengler, C., "''Grease'', the Jukebox Fifties and Time's Percolations", in O. Gruner & P. Krämer, eds., ''Grease Is the Word: Exploring a Cultural Phenomenon'' (London & New York: Anthem Press, 2019)
p. 125


See also

* Rockers (youth movement), Rockers, similar subculture in the United Kingdom * Teddy Boy, a contemporary subculture in the United Kingdom * Nozem, a similar subculture in the Netherlands * Raggare, a similar subculture in Sweden * Bodgies and widgies, a similar subculture in Australia and New Zealand * Bōsōzoku, a similar subculture in Japan * Halbstarke, a similar subculture in Germany, Austria and Switzerland * Nerd, stereotypical term which formed a subculture * Jock (stereotype), Jock, stereotypical term used for male athletes, often anti-intellectual * Preppy, another mostly youth subculture


Notes


Citations


References

* * * * * * {{refend Motorcycling subculture in the United States Subcultures Italian-American culture Youth culture in the United States