In hand-to-hand combat, grappling is a close fighting technique used
to gain a physical advantage such as improving relative position, or
causing injury to the opponent.
1 Types of 2 Use 3 Stand-up grappling 4 Ground grappling 5 Applications 6 Types of grappling
6.1 ADCC 6.2 Mundials 6.3 United World Wrestling 6.4 NAGA 6.5 GRiND
7 See also 8 References 9 Other sources
Ancient Egyptian wrestling
Clinching, or clinch work, takes place with both competitors on their feet using various clinch holds applied to the upper body of the opponent. Clinch work is generally used to set up or defend against throws or takedowns. Takedowns A takedown is used by one grappler to manipulate his opponent from a position where both are initially standing, to a position on the ground. The grappler completing the takedown aims to end on top of the opponent in a position of relative control. Throws: A throw is a technique in which one grappler lifts or off-balances his opponent and maneuvers him forcefully through the air or to the ground. The purpose of throws varies among the different disciplines of grappling with some emphasizing throws with the potential to incapacitate the opponent, while leaving the thrower standing, or to gain a takedown or controlling position. Sprawling: A sprawl is a defensive technique done usually when the opponent attempts a takedown. It is performed by shifting the legs backwards and spread out in one fast motion. If done correctly one will land on their opponent's back and gain control. Submission holds: There are generally two types of submission holds: those that would potentially strangle or suffocate an opponent (chokes), and those that would potentially cause injury to a joint or other body part (locks). In sport grappling, a competitor is expected to submit, either verbally or by tapping the opponent, to admit defeat when he is caught in a submission hold that he cannot escape. Competitors who refuse to "tap out" risk unconsciousness or serious injury. Securing or Controlling Techniques: A pin involves holding an opponent on his back in a position where he is unable to attack. In some styles of competitive grappling a pin is an instant victory, and in other styles it is considered a dominant position that is rewarded with points. Other controlling techniques are used to hold an opponent face down on the ground or on all fours in order to prevent an escape or attack. Either of these types of technique may also be used as a prelude to a submission hold. Escapes: In a general sense, an escape is accomplished by maneuvering out of danger or from an inferior position; for example when a grappler who is underneath side control moves to guard or gets back to a neutral standing position, or when a grappler is able to maneuver out of a submission attempt and back to a position where he is no longer in immediate danger of being submitted. Turnovers: used to maneuver an opponent who is on all fours or flat on their stomach to their back, in order to score points, prepare for a pin or in order to gain a more dominant position. Reversals or Sweeps: These occur when a grappler who was underneath his opponent on the ground is able to maneuver so that he gains a top position over his opponent.
The degree to which grappling is utilized in different fighting
systems varies. Some systems, such as amateur wrestling, Pehlwani,
Two wrestlers engaging.
Stand-up grappling is arguably an integral part of all grappling and
clinch fighting arts, considering that two combatants generally start
fighting from a stand-up position. The aim of stand-up grappling
varies according to the martial arts or combat sports in question.
Defensive stand-up grappling concerns itself with pain-compliance
holds and escapes from possible grappling holds applied by an
opponent, while offensive grappling techniques include submission
holds, trapping, takedowns and throws, all of which can be used to
inflict serious damage, or to move the fight to the ground. Stand-up
grappling can also be used both offensively and defensively
simultaneously with striking, either to trap an opponents arms while
striking, prevent the opponent from obtaining sufficient distance to
strike effectively, or to bring the opponent close to apply, for
instance, knee strikes.
In combat sports, stand-up grappling usually revolves around
successful takedowns and throws.
In judo, the aim of ne-waza is to obtain a chokehold, joint lock or to pin the opponent.
Ground grappling refers to all the grappling techniques that are
applied while the grapplers are no longer in a standing position. A
large part of most martial arts and combat sports which feature ground
grappling is positioning and obtaining a dominant position. A dominant
position (usually on top) allows the dominant grappler a variety of
options, including: attempting to escape by standing up, obtaining a
pin or hold-down to control and exhaust the opponent, executing a
submission hold, or striking the opponent. The bottom grappler is, on
the other hand, concerned with escaping the situation and improving
his position, typically by using a sweep or reversal. In some
disciplines, especially those where the guard is used, the bottom
grappler may also be able to finish the fight from the bottom by a
submission hold. Some people feel more confident on the bottom because
of the large number of submissions that can be accomplished from
having the opponent in full-guard.
When unskilled fighters get embroiled in combat, a common reaction is
to grab the opponent in an attempt to slow the situation down by
holding them still, resulting in an unsystematic struggle that relies
on brute force. A skilled fighter, in contrast, can perform takedowns
as a way of progressing to a superior position such as a Mount
(grappling) or side control, or using clinch holds and ground
positions to set up strikes, choke holds, and joint locks. A grappler
who has been taken down to the ground can use defensive positions such
as the Guard (grappling), which protects against being mounted or
attacked. If a grappler is strong and can utilize leverage well, a
takedown or throw itself can be a form of dix; the impact can render
an opponent unconscious. On the other hand, grappling also offers the
possibility of controlling an opponent without injuring them. For this
reason, most police staff receive some training in grappling.[citation
needed] Likewise, grappling sports have been devised so that their
participants can compete using full physical effort without injuring
Gracie; Renzo, Gracie, Royler; Peligro, Kid; Danaher, John (2001).
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu: Theory and technique. Invisible Cities Press.
Ohlenkamp, Neil (2006)
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Grappling-based martial arts
Bridge Clinch Collar tie Eye-gouging Fish-hooking Holds Hooks Ippon Seoinage Nelson hold Overhook Stacking Sprawl Sweep Takedown Transition Underhook Throw
Back mount Collar-and-elbow position Cradle Crucifix position Guard Half guard Knee-on-stomach Mount North-south position Over-under position Pinch grip tie Side control
Chokehold Armlock Wristlock Leglock Small joint manipulation Spinal lock Joint lock Compression lock
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List of styles History Timeline Hard and soft
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American Kenpo Chun Kuk Do Jeet Kune Do Kuk Sool Shooto Shorinji Kempo Unifight