HOME
The Info List - Grand Duchy Of Lithuania


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

2. Internationally recognized as part of Moldova
Moldova
.

The GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA was a European state from the 13th century until 1795. The state was founded by the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
from Aukštaitija .

The Grand Duchy later expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus\' and other Slavic lands, including territory of present-day Belarus
Belarus
, parts of Ukraine
Ukraine
, Poland
Poland
and Russia
Russia
. At its greatest extent in the 15th century, it was the largest state in Europe. It was a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state with great diversity in languages, religion, and cultural heritage.

Consolidation of the Lithuanian lands began in the late 12th century. Mindaugas
Mindaugas
, the first ruler of the Grand Duchy, was crowned as Catholic King of Lithuania
Lithuania
in 1253. The pagan state was targeted in the religious crusade by the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
and the Livonian Order
Livonian Order
. The multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state emerged only at the late reign of Gediminas
Gediminas
and continued to expand under his son Algirdas . Algirdas's successor Jogaila
Jogaila
signed the Union of Krewo in 1386, bringing two major changes in the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: conversion to Catholicism
Catholicism
and establishment of a dynastic union between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
and the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
.

The reign of Vytautas the Great
Vytautas the Great
marked both the greatest territorial expansion of the Grand Duchy and the defeat of the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in the Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
in 1410. It also marked the rise of the Lithuanian nobility . After Vytautas's death, Lithuania's relationship with the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
greatly deteriorated. Lithuanian noblemen, including the Radvila family (Radziwiłłs ), attempted to break the personal union with Poland. However, the unsuccessful Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars with the Grand Duchy of Moscow forced the union to remain intact.

Eventually, the Union of Lublin of 1569 created a new state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
. In this federation , the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
maintained its political distinctiveness and had separate government, laws, army, and treasury. This federation was terminated by the passing of the Constitution of May 3, 1791
Constitution of May 3, 1791
, and since then there was supposed to be a single country – Respublica Poloniae – under one monarch and one parliament. Shortly after, the unitary character of the state was confirmed by adopting the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations
Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations
. The newly reformed Commonwealth was invaded by Russia
Russia
in 1792 and partitioned between the neighbours, with a truncated state (principal cities being Kraków
Kraków
, Warsaw
Warsaw
and Vilnius
Vilnius
) remaining only nominally independent. After the Kościuszko Uprising , the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
, and Austria in 1795.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Establishment of the state * 2.2 Kingdom of Lithuania * 2.3 Rise of the Gediminids * 2.4 Territorial expansion * 2.5 Union with Poland
Poland
* 2.6 Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
* 2.7 Partitions and the Napoleonic period

* 3 Religion and culture

* 4 Languages

* 4.1 Languages for state and academic purposes * 4.2 Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
situation

* 5 Demographics * 6 Legacy * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Sources * 11 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The Statutes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
have the complete name of the state as the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
, Ruthenia
Ruthenia
and Samogitia (Ruthenian : Великое князство Литовское, Руское, Жомойтское и иных). The title of "grand duchy" was consistently applied to Lithuania
Lithuania
from the 14th century onward.

In other languages, the grand duchy is referred to as:

* Belarusian : Вялікае Княства Літоўскае * German : Großfürstentum Litauen * Estonian : Leedu Suurvürstiriik * Latin
Latin
: Magnus Ducatus Lituaniae * Latvian : Lieitija or Lietuvas Lielkņaziste * Lithuanian : Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė * Old literary Lithuanian: Didi Kunigystė Lietuvos * Polish : Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie * Russian : Великое княжество Литовское * Ruthenian : Великое князство Литовское * Ukrainian : Велике князiвство Литовське

HISTORY

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE STATE

Main article: History of Lithuania
Lithuania
(1219–1295) Balts
Balts
in the 12th century

The first written reference to Lithuania
Lithuania
is found in the Quedlinburg Chronicle , which dates from 1009. In the 12th century, Slavic chronicles refer to Lithuania
Lithuania
as one of the areas attacked by the Rus\' . Pagan Lithuanians
Lithuanians
initially paid tribute to Polotsk
Polotsk
, but they soon grew in strength and organized their own small-scale raids. At some point between 1180 and 1183 the situation began to change, and the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
started to organize sustainable military raids on the Slavic provinces, raiding the Principality of Polotsk
Polotsk
as well as Pskov , and even threatening Novgorod
Novgorod
. The sudden spark of military raids marked consolidation of the Lithuanian lands in Aukštaitija .

The Livonian Order
Livonian Order
and Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
, crusading military orders , were established in Riga
Riga
in 1202 and in Prussia
Prussia
in 1226. The Christian orders posed a significant threat to pagan Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
and further galvanized the formation of the state. The peace treaty with Galicia–Volhynia of 1219 provides evidence of cooperation between Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Samogitians . This treaty lists 21 Lithuanian dukes , including five senior Lithuanian dukes from Aukštaitija (Živinbudas , Daujotas , Vilikaila , Dausprungas and Mindaugas
Mindaugas
) and several dukes from Žemaitija . Although they had battled in the past, the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and the Žemaičiai now faced a common enemy. Likely Živinbudas had the most authority and at least several dukes were from the same families. The formal acknowledgment of common interests and the establishment of a hierarchy among the signatories of the treaty foreshadowed the emergence of the state.

KINGDOM OF LITHUANIA

Main article: Kingdom of Lithuania Navahrudak Castle

Mindaugas, the duke of southern Lithuania, was among the five senior dukes mentioned in the treaty with Galicia–Volhynia. The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle , reports that by the mid-1230s, Mindaugas had acquired supreme power in the whole of Lithuania. In 1236, the Samogitians , led by Vykintas
Vykintas
, defeated the Livonian Order
Livonian Order
in the Battle of Saule . The Order was forced to become a branch of the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in Prussia, making Samogitia, a strip of land that separated Livonia from Prussia, the main target of both orders. The battle provided a break in the wars with the Knights, and Lithuania exploited this situation, arranging attacks towards the Ruthenian provinces and annexing Navahrudak and Hrodna . Belarusian historians consider that Mindаugas was invited to rule Navahrudak and that the union was peaceful. Trakai Island Castle

In 1248 a civil war broke out between Mindaugas
Mindaugas
and his nephews Tautvilas and Edivydas . The powerful coalition against Mindaugas included Vykintas, the Livonian Order, Daniel of Galicia and Vasilko of Volhynia . Taking advantage of internal conflicts, Mindaugas
Mindaugas
allied with the Livonian Order. He promised to convert to Christianity and to exchange some lands in western Lithuania
Lithuania
in return for military assistance against his nephews and the royal crown. In 1251 Mindaugas was baptized and Pope Innocent IV issued a papal bull proclaiming the creation of the Kingdom of Lithuania . After the civil war ended, Mindaugas
Mindaugas
was crowned as King of Lithuania
Lithuania
on July 6, 1253, starting a decade of relative peace. Mindaugas
Mindaugas
later renounced Christianity and converted back to paganism. Mindaugas
Mindaugas
tried to expand his influence in Polatsk
Polatsk
, a major center of commerce in the Daugava River basin, and Pinsk . The Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
used this period to strengthen their position in parts of Samogitia
Samogitia
and Livonia, but they lost the Battle of Skuodas in 1259 and the Battle of Durbe in 1260. This encouraged the conquered Semigallians and Old Prussians to rebel against the Knights.

Encouraged by Treniota
Treniota
, Mindaugas
Mindaugas
broke the peace with the Order, possibly reverted to pagan beliefs , and allied with Alexander Nevsky of Novgorod
Novgorod
. He hoped to unite all Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
under the Lithuanian leadership. As military campaigns were not successful, the relationships between Mindaugas
Mindaugas
and Treniota
Treniota
deteriorated. Treniota, together with Daumantas of Pskov
Pskov
, assassinated Mindaugas
Mindaugas
and his two sons, Ruklys and Rupeikis, in 1263. The state lapsed into years of internal fighting.

RISE OF THE GEDIMINIDS

Gediminas\' Tower in Vilnius
Vilnius

From 1263 to 1269, Lithuania
Lithuania
had three Grand Dukes – Treniota
Treniota
, Vaišvilkas , and Svarn . The state did not disintegrate, however, and Traidenis came to power in 1269. He strengthened Lithuanian control in Black Ruthenia
Ruthenia
and fought with the Livonian Order, winning the Battle of Karuse in 1270 and the Battle of Aizkraukle in 1279. There is considerable uncertainty about the identities of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania
Lithuania
between his death in 1282 and the assumption of power by Vytenis
Vytenis
in 1295. During this time the Orders finalized their conquests. In 1274 the Great Prussian Rebellion ended, and the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
proceeded to conquer other Baltic tribes: the Nadruvians and Skalvians in 1274–1277, and the Yotvingians
Yotvingians
in 1283; the Livonian Order
Livonian Order
completed its conquest of Semigalia, the last Baltic ally of Lithuania, in 1291. The Orders could now turn their full attention to Lithuania. The "buffer zone" composed of other Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
had disappeared, and Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
was left to battle the Orders on its own.

The Gediminids dynasty ruled the Grand Duchy for over a century, and Vytenis
Vytenis
was the first ruler from the dynasty. During his reign Lithuania
Lithuania
engaged in constant warfare with the Order, the Kingdom of Poland, and Ruthenia. Vytenis
Vytenis
was involved in succession disputes in Poland, supporting Boleslaus II of Masovia , who was married to a Lithuanian duchess, Gaudemunda . In Ruthenia, Vytenis
Vytenis
managed to recapture lands lost after the assassination of Mindaugas
Mindaugas
and to capture the principalities of Pinsk and Turaŭ . In the struggle against the Order, Vytenis
Vytenis
allied with citizens of Riga
Riga
; securing positions in Riga
Riga
strengthened trade routes and provided a base for further military campaigns. Around 1307, Polotsk, an important trading center, was annexed by military force. Vytenis
Vytenis
also began the construction of a defensive castle network along the Neman River . Gradually this network developed into the main defensive line against the Teutonic Order.

TERRITORIAL EXPANSION

The expansion of the state reached its height under Grand Duke Gediminas
Gediminas
, who created a strong central government and established an empire that later spread from the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. In 1320, most of the principalities of western Rus' were either vassalized or annexed by Lithuania. In 1321 Gediminas
Gediminas
captured Kiev
Kiev
, sending Stanislav , the last Rurikid to rule Kiev
Kiev
, into exile. Gediminas
Gediminas
also re-established the permanent capital of the Grand Duchy in Vilnius
Vilnius
, presumably moving it from Trakai in 1323; some researchers, such as Maciej Stryjkowski , claim that Navahrudak was the capital of the 13th century state. The ruins of Kaunas
Kaunas
Castle from the mid-14th century were restored in the late 20th century

Lithuania
Lithuania
was in an ideal position to inherit the western and the southern parts of Kievan Rus\' . While almost every other state around it had been plundered or defeated by the Mongols , the hordes stopped at the modern borders of Belarus, and the core territory of the Grand Duchy was left mostly untouched. The weak control of the Mongols over the areas they had conquered allowed the expansion of Lithuania
Lithuania
to accelerate. Rus' principalities were never incorporated directly into the Golden Horde , maintaining vassal relationships with a fair degree of independence. Lithuania
Lithuania
annexed some of these areas as vassals through diplomacy, as they exchanged rule by the Mongols or the Grand Prince
Prince
of Moscow with rule by the Grand Duchy. An example is Novgorod , which was often in the Lithuanian sphere of influence and became an occasional dependency of the Grand Duchy. Lithuanian control resulted from internal frictions within the city, which attempted to escape submission to Muscovy
Muscovy
. Such relationships could be tenuous, however, as changes in a city's internal politics could disrupt Lithuanian control, as happened on a number of occasions with Novgorod
Novgorod
and other East-Slavic cities.

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
managed to hold off Mongol incursions and eventually secured gains. In 1333 and 1339, Lithuanians
Lithuanians
defeated large Mongol forces attempting to regain Smolensk
Smolensk
from the Lithuanian sphere of influence. By about 1355, the State of Moldavia
Moldavia
had formed, and the Golden Horde did little to re-vassalize the area. In 1362 regiments of the Grand Duchy army defeated the Golden Horde at the Battle at Blue Waters . In 1380 a Lithuanian army allied with Russian forces to defeat the Golden Horde in the Battle of Kulikovo , and though the rule of the Mongols did not end, their influence in the region waned thereafter. In 1387, Moldavia
Moldavia
became a vassal of Poland and, in a broader sense, of Lithuania. By this time, Lithuania
Lithuania
had conquered the territory of the Golden Horde all the way to the Dnieper River. In a crusade against the Golden Horde in 1398 (in an alliance with Tokhtamysh ), Lithuania
Lithuania
invaded northern Crimea
Crimea
and won a decisive victory. In an attempt to place Tokhtamish on the Golden Horde throne in 1399, Lithuania
Lithuania
moved against the Horde but were defeated in the Battle of the Vorskla River
Battle of the Vorskla River
, losing the steppe region.

UNION WITH POLAND

Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
1386-1434

Lithuania
Lithuania
was Christianized in 1387, led by Jogaila
Jogaila
, who personally translated Christian prayers into the Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
. The state reached a peak under Vytautas the Great
Vytautas the Great
, who reigned from 1392 to 1430. Vytautas was one of the most famous rulers of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, serving as the Grand Duke
Grand Duke
from 1401–1430, and as the Prince
Prince
of Hrodna (1370–1382) and the Prince
Prince
of Lutsk (1387–1389). Vytautas was the son of Kęstutis
Kęstutis
, cousin of Jogaila, who became King of Poland
Poland
in 1386, and he was the grandfather of Vasili II of Moscow
Vasili II of Moscow
.

In 1410 Vytautas commanded the forces of the Grand Duchy in the Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
. The battle ended in a decisive Polish-Lithuanian victory against the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
. Vytautas backed economic development of the state and introduced many reforms. Under his rule, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
slowly became more centralized, as the governors loyal to Vytautas replaced local princes with dynastic ties to the throne. The governors were rich landowners who formed the basis for the nobility of the Grand Duchy. During Vytautas' rule, the Radziwiłł and Goštautas families started to gain influence. The Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
, 1410, with Ulrich von Jungingen and Vytautas at center

The rapid expansion of the influence of Muscovy
Muscovy
soon put it into a comparable position as the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and after the annexation of Novgorod
Novgorod
in 1478, Muscovy
Muscovy
was among the preeminent states in northeastern Europe . Between 1492 and 1508, Ivan III further consolidated Muscovy, winning the key Battle of Vedrosha and regaining such ancient lands of Kievan Rus\' as Chernigov
Chernigov
and Bryansk .

On 8 September 1514, the allied forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
and Kingdom of Poland, under the command of Hetman Konstanty Ostrogski, fought the Battle of Orsha against the army of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, under Konyushy Ivan Chelyadnin and Kniaz Mikhail Golitsin. The battle was part of a long series of Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars conducted by Russian rulers striving to gather all the former lands of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
under their rule. According to Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii by Sigismund von Herberstein, the primary source for the information on the battle, the much smaller army of Poland– Lithuania
Lithuania
(under 30,000 men) defeated the 80,000 Russian soldiers, capturing their camp and commander. The Russians lost about 30,000 men, while the losses of the Poland– Lithuania
Lithuania
army totaled only 500. While the battle is remembered as one of the greatest Lithuanian victories, Muscovy
Muscovy
ultimately prevailed in the war. Under the 1522 peace treaty, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
made large territorial concessions.

POLISH–LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH

Main article: Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
c. 1635

The loss of land to Moscow and the continued pressure threatened the survival of the state of Lithuania, so it was forced to ally more closely with Poland
Poland
, uniting with its western neighbor as the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
(Commonwealth of Two Nations) in the Union of Lublin of 1569. During the period of the Union, many of the territories formerly controlled by the largely Ruthenized Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
were transferred to the Crown of the Polish Kingdom
Crown of the Polish Kingdom
, while the gradual process of Polonization slowly drew Lithuania
Lithuania
itself under Polish domination. The Grand Duchy retained many rights in the federation (including a separate government, treasury and army) until the May Constitution of Poland
Poland
and Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations were passed in 1791.

PARTITIONS AND THE NAPOLEONIC PERIOD

Following the partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
, most of the lands of the former Grand Duchy were directly annexed by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, the rest by Prussia
Prussia
. In 1812, just prior the French invasion of Russia
Russia
, the former Grand Duchy revolted against the Russians. Soon after his arrival in Vilnius, Napoleon proclaimed the creation of a Commissary Provisional Government of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
which, in turn, renewed the Polish-Lithuanian Union . The union was never formalized, however, as only half a year later Napoleon's Grande Armée was pushed out of Russia
Russia
and forced to retreat further westwards. In December 1812, Vilnius
Vilnius
was recaptured by Russian forces, bringing all plans of recreation of the Grand Duchy to an end. Most of the lands of the former Grand Duchy were re-annexed by Russia. The Augustów Voivodeship (later Augustów Governorate ), including the counties of Marijampolė and Kalvarija , was attached to the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
, a rump state in personal union with Russia.

RELIGION AND CULTURE

See also: Lithuanian mythology and Metropolitanate of Lithuania
Lithuania
"Christianization of Lithuania
Lithuania
in 1387", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko , 1889, Royal Castle in Warsaw
Warsaw
St. Anne\'s Church and the church of the Bernardine Monastery in Vilnius
Vilnius

After the baptism in 1252 and coronation of King Mindaugas
Mindaugas
in 1253, Lithuania
Lithuania
was recognized as a Christian state until 1260, when Mindaugas
Mindaugas
supported an uprising in Courland and (according to the German order) renounced Christianity. Up until 1387, Lithuanian nobles professed their own religion, which was polytheistic . Ethnic Lithuanians
Lithuanians
were very dedicated to their faith. The pagan beliefs needed to be deeply entrenched to survive strong pressure from missionaries and foreign powers. Until the seventeenth century there were relics of old faith reported by counter-reformation active Jesuit priests, like feeding žaltys with milk or bringing food to graves of ancestors.

The lands of modern-day Belarus
Belarus
and Ukraine
Ukraine
, as well as local dukes (princes) in these regions, were firmly Orthodox Christian (Greek Catholic after the Union of Brest ), though. While pagan beliefs in Lithuania
Lithuania
were strong enough to survive centuries of pressure from military orders and missionaries, they did eventually succumb. A separate Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
metropolitan eparchy was created sometime between 1315 and 1317 by Constantinople Patriarch John XIII . Following the Galicia–Volhynia Wars which divided Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia between Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
and Kingdom of Poland
Poland
, in 1355 the Halych metropoly was liquidated and its eparchies transferred to the metropoly of Lithuania
Lithuania
and Volhynia. In 1387, Lithuania
Lithuania
converted to Catholicism
Catholicism
, while most of the Ruthenian lands stayed Orthodox . At one point, though, Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI
reprimanded the Grand Duke
Grand Duke
for keeping non-Catholics as advisers. There was an effort to polarise Orthodox Christians after the Union of Brest in 1596, by which some Orthodox Christians acknowledged papal authority and Catholic catechism, but preserved their liturgy. The country also became one of the major centers of the Reformation.

In the second half of the 16th century Calvinism spread in Lithuania, supported by the families of Radziwiłł , Chodkiewicz , Sapieha
Sapieha
, Dorohostajski and others. By the 1580s the majority of the senators from Lithuania
Lithuania
were Calvinist or Socinian Unitarians ( Jan Kiszka ).

In 1579, Stephen Báthory , King of Poland
Poland
and Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania, founded Vilnius
Vilnius
University , one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe . Due to the work of the Jesuits during the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
the university soon developed into one of the most important scientific and cultural centers of the region and the most notable scientific center of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The work of the Jesuits as well as conversions from among the Lithuanian senatorial families turned the tide and by the 1670s Calvinism lost its former importance though it still retained some influence among the ethnically Lithuanian peasants and some middle nobility, by then thoroughly Polonized.

LANGUAGES

The Constitution of May 3 was one of the first official state documents issued in both Polish and Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
. Lithuanian language edition of the Constitution.

In the 13th century, the center of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
was inhabited by a majority that spoke Lithuanian, though it was not a written language until the 16th century. In the other parts of the duchy, the majority of the population, including Ruthenian nobles and ordinary people, used both spoken and written Ruthenian languages . Nobles who migrated from one place to another would adapt to a new locality and adopt the local religion and culture and those Lithuanian noble families that moved to Slavic areas often took up the local culture quickly over subsequent generations. Ruthenians were native to the east-central and south-eastern parts of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

The Ruthenian language , also called Chancery Slavonic in its written form, was used to write laws alongside Polish, Latin
Latin
and German, but use varied between regions. From the time of Vytautas, there are fewer remaining documents written in Ruthenian than there are in Latin
Latin
and German, but later Ruthenian became the main language of documentation and writings, especially in eastern and southern parts of the Duchy. In the 16th century at the time of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Lithuanian lands became increasingly polonized over time and started to use the Polish language
Polish language
instead of the Lithuanian and Ruthenian languages. Polish officially became the chancellery language of the Lithuanian-Polish Commonwealth in 1697.

The voivodeships with the predominant ethnic Lithuanian population, Vilnius
Vilnius
, Trakai , and Samogitian voivodeships, remained almost wholly Lithuanian speaking, both colloquially and by ruling nobility. Ruthenian communities were also present in the extreme southern parts of Trakai voivodeship and south-eastern parts of Vilnius
Vilnius
voivodeship. In addition to Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Ruthenians, other important ethnic groups throughout the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
were Jews and Tatars . Vilnius's city population and its surroundings were multi-ethnic and spoke Lithuanian , Polish, Belarusian , Yiddish , German , Tatar , and Karaim among others.

LANGUAGES FOR STATE AND ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Tribunal of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, printed in Ruthenian language, 1586

Numerous languages were used in state documents depending on which period in history and for what purpose. These languages included Lithuanian , Ruthenian (East Slavonic ; Old Belarusian or Old Ukrainian ), Polish and, to a lesser extent (mostly in diplomatic communication), Latin
Latin
and German.

The Court used Ruthenian to correspond with Eastern countries while Latin
Latin
and German were used in foreign affairs with Western countries. During the latter part of the history of the Grand Duchy, Polish was increasingly used in State documents, especially after the Union of Lublin. By 1697, Polish had largely replaced Ruthenian as the "official" language at Court, although Ruthenian continued to be used on a few official documents until the second half of the 18th century.

Usage of the Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
still continued at Court after the death of Vytautas and Jogaila
Jogaila
while Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Alexander I could understand and speak Lithuanian. Zygmunt August maintained both Polish- and Lithuanian-speaking courts.

From the beginning of the 16th century, and especially after a rebellion led by Michael Glinski in 1508, there were attempts by the Court to replace the usage of Ruthenian with Latin. But the Ruthenian tongue had deep cultural roots. Its use by academics in areas formerly part of Rus' and even in Lithuania
Lithuania
proper was widespread. Court Chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
Lew Sapieha
Sapieha
, noted in the preface of the Third Statute of Lithuania
Lithuania
(1588) that this code was to be written exclusively in Ruthenian.

And clerk must use ruthenian letters and ruthenian words in all pages, letters and requests, and not any other language or words... — А писаръ земъский маеть по-руску литерами и словы рускими вси листы, выписы и позвы писати, а не иншимъ езыкомъ и словы..., The Statute of GPL 1588. Part 4, article 1

Nonetheless, Mikalojus Daukša , writing in Polish, noted in his Postilla (1599) that many people, especially szlachta , preferred to speak Polish rather than Lithuanian, but spoke Polish poorly. Such were the linguistic trends in the Grand Duchy that by the political reforms of 1564–1566 parliaments local land courts, appellate courts and other State functions were recorded in Polish. and Polish became increasingly spoken across all social classes.

LITHUANIAN LANGUAGE SITUATION

Area of the Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
in the 16th century

Ruthenian and Polish languages were used as state languages of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, besides Latin
Latin
and German in diplomatic correspondence. Vilnius, Trakai and Samogitia
Samogitia
were the core voivodeships of the state, being part of Lithuania
Lithuania
Proper , as evidenced by the privileged position of their governors in state authorities, such as the Council of Lords . Peasants in ethnic Lithuanian territories spoke exclusively Lithuanian, except transitional border regions, but the Statutes of Lithuania
Lithuania
and other laws and documentation were written in Ruthenian. Following the royal court, there was tendency to replace Lithuanian with Polish in the ethnic Lithuanian areas, whereas Ruthenian was stronger in ethnic Belarusian and Ukrainian territories. There is Sigismund von Herberstein 's note left, that there were in an ocean of Russian language in this part of Europe two non-Ruthenian regions: Lithuania and Samogitia.

At one point in the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the higher strata of Lithuanian society from ethnic Lithuania
Lithuania
spoke Lithuanian, although since the later 16-th century gradually began using Polish, and from Belarus
Belarus
Old Belarusian . Samogitia
Samogitia
was exclusive through state in its economical situation – it lay near ports and there were fewer people under corvee , instead of that, many simple people were money payers. As a result, the stratification of the society was not as sharp as in other areas. Being more similar to a simple population the local szlachta spoke Lithuanian to a bigger extent than in the areas close to the capital Vilnius, which itself had become a center of intensive linguistic Polonization of surrounding areas since the 18th century.

In Vilnius
Vilnius
University there are preserved texts written in the Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
of the Vilnius
Vilnius
area, lying south-eastwards from Vilnius, then called Lithuanian language, today called a dialect of Eastern Aukštaitian
Aukštaitian
. The source are preserved in works of graduates from Stanislovas Rapalionis Vilnius
Vilnius
based Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
school graduate Martynas Mažvydas and Rapalionis relative Abraomas Kulvietis .

One of the main sources of Lithuanian written and common language is the Eastern Aukštaitian
Aukštaitian
dialect ( Vilnius
Vilnius
dialect), preserved by Konstantinas Sirvydas in a trilingual (Polish-Latin-Lithuanian) 17th-century dictionary, Dictionarium trium linguarum in usum studiosae juventutis, the main Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
dictionary used until the late 19th century.

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: Historical demography of Poland
Poland
§ Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795) The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
(1588) in Ruthenian printed in Vilnius
Vilnius
The first printed book in Lithuanian Catechism of Martynas Mažvydas by Martynas Mažvydas

In 1260 the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
was the land of Lithuania
Lithuania
, and ethnic Lithuanians
Lithuanians
formed majority (67.5%) of its 400,000 people. With the acquisition of new Ruthenian territories, in 1340 this portion decreased to 30% By the time of the largest expansion towards Rus\' lands, which came at the end of the 13th and during the 14th century, the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
was 800 to 930 thousand km2, just 10% to 14% of which was ethnically Lithuanian.

An estimate of the population in the territory of Poland
Poland
and Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
together gives a population at 7.5 million for 1493, breaking them down by ethnicity at 3.75 million Ruthenians (ethnic Ukrainians , Belarusians
Belarusians
), 3.25 million Poles and 0.5 million Lithuanians. With the Union of Lublin , 1569, Lithuanian Grand Duchy lost large part of lands to the Polish Crown.

In the mid and late 17th century, due to Russian and Swedish invasions, there was much devastation and population loss on throughout the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, including ethnic Lithuanian population in Vilnius
Vilnius
surroundings . Besides devastation, Ruthenian population declined proportionally after the territorial losses to Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. By 1770 there were about 4.84 million inhabitants in the territory of 320 thousand km2, the biggest part of whom were inhabitants of Ruthenia
Ruthenia
and about 1.39 million or 29% – of ethnic Lithuania. During the following decades, the population decreased in a result of partitions .

LEGACY

See also: Statutes of Lithuania
Lithuania

Some Russian historians claim that one of the most crucial effects of Lithuanian rule was ethnic divisions amongst the inhabitants of former Kievan Rus\' . From this point of view, the creation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
played a major role in the division of Eastern Slavs . After the Mongolian conquest of the Rus\' , Mongols attempted to keep Eastern Slavs unified and succeeded in conquering most of Ruthenian lands.

Prussian tribes (of Baltic origin) were attacking Masovia
Masovia
, so Duke Konrad of Masovia
Masovia
invited the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
to settle near the Prussian area of settlement. The fighting between Prussians and the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
gave the more distant Lithuanian tribes time to unite. Because of strong enemies in the south and north, the newly formed Lithuanian state concentrated most of its military and diplomatic efforts on expansion eastward.

The rest of the former Ruthenian lands (Belarusian principalities) joined the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Some other lands in Ukraine
Ukraine
were vassalized by Lithuania
Lithuania
later. The subjugation of Eastern Slavs by two powers created substantial differences between them that persist to this day. While there were certainly substantial regional differences in Kievan Rus', it was the Lithuanian annexation of much of southern and western Ruthenia
Ruthenia
that led to the permanent division between Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Russians. Some argue that the ethnic and linguistic divisions amongst inhabitants of Ruthenia
Ruthenia
were not initiated by division of this area between Mongols and Lithuania, and are instead older than the creation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. They state that until the 20th century, ethnic and linguistic frontiers between Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Russians coincided with no political borders.

Notwithstanding the above, Lithuania
Lithuania
was a kingdom under Mindaugas, who was crowned by authority of Pope Innocent IV in 1253. Gediminas and Vytautas the Great
Vytautas the Great
also assumed the title of King, although uncrowned. A failed attempt was made in 1918 to revive the Kingdom under a German Prince, Wilhelm Karl, Duke
Duke
of Urach , who would have reigned as Mindaugas
Mindaugas
II of Lithuania.

In the first half of the 20th century, the memory of the multiethnic history of the Grand Duchy was revived by the Krajowcy movement, which included Ludwik Abramowicz (Liudvikas Abramovičius), Konstancja Skirmuntt , Mykolas Römeris (Michał Pius Römer), Józef Albin Herbaczewski (Juozapas Albinas Herbačiauskas), Józef Mackiewicz and Stanisław Mackiewicz . This feeling was expressed in poetry by Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz

GALLERY

*

Lithuanian ancient hill fort in Rudamina *

Lithuanian ancient hill fort mounds in Kernavė , now listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site *

Ruins of Navahrudak Castle . Current state (2004) *

Mir Castle *

St. George church (1487) in Kaunas
Kaunas
*

Vilnius
Vilnius
University and the Church of St. John

SEE ALSO

* Belarus
Belarus
* Cities of Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
* Crimea
Crimea
* Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
* History of Lithuania
Lithuania
* List of Belarusian rulers * List of Lithuanian rulers * Lithuania
Lithuania
* Lithuania
Lithuania
proper * Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
* Ukraine
Ukraine

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Baranauskas, Tomas (2000). "Lietuvos valstybės ištakos" (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: viduramziu.istorija.net. Retrieved 20 July 2016. * ^ Sužiedėlis, Saulius. Historical dictionary of Lithuania
Lithuania
(2nd ed.). Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-8108-4914-3 . * ^ Rowell S.C. Lithuania
Lithuania
Ascending: A pagan empire within east-central Europe, 1295-1345. Cambridge, 1994. p.289-290 * ^ Ch. Allmand, The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge, 1998, p. 731. * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Grand Duchy of Lithuania * ^ R. Bideleux. A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change. Routledge, 1998. p. 122 * ^ Rowell, Lithuania
Lithuania
Ascending, p.289. * ^ Z. Kiaupa. " Algirdas ir LDK rytų politika." Gimtoji istorija 2: Nuo 7 iki 12 klasės (Lietuvos istorijos vadovėlis). CD. (2003). Elektroninės leidybos namai: Vilnius. * ^ N. Davies. Europe: A History. Oxford, 1996, p. 392. * ^ J. Kiaupienė. Gediminaičiai ir Jogailaičiai prie Vytauto palikimo. Gimtoji istorija 2: Nuo 7 iki 12 klasės (Lietuvos istorijos vadovėlis). CD. (2003) Elektroninės leidybos namai: Vilnius. * ^ J. Kiaupienë, "Valdžios krizës pabaiga ir Kazimieras Jogailaitis." Gimtoji istorija 2: Nuo 7 iki 12 klasės (Lietuvos istorijos vadovėlis). CD. (2003). Elektroninės leidybos namai: Vilnius. * ^ D. Stone. The Polish-Lithuanian state: 1386-1795. University of Washington Press, 2001, p. 63. * ^ Statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
(1529), Part. 1., Art. 1.: "На первей преречоным прелатом, княжатом, паном, хоруговым, шляхтам и местом преречоных земель Великого князства Литовского, Руского, Жомойтского и иных дали есмо:..."; According to.: Pervyi ili Staryi Litovskii Statut // Vremennik Obschestva istorii i drevnostei Rossiiskih. 1854. Book
Book
18. p. 2-106. P. 2. * ^ Bojtár, Endre (1999). Foreword to the Past: A Cultural History of the Baltic People. Central European University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-963-9116-42-9 . * ^ "Lithuania". Encarta. 1997. Archived from the original on 29 October 2009. Retrieved 21 September 2006. * ^ A B Encyclopedia Lituanica. Boston, 1970-1978, Vol.5 p.395 * ^ Lithuania
Lithuania
Ascending p.50 * ^ A. Bumblauskas, Senosios Lietuvos istorija, 1009–1795 , Vilnius, 2005, p. 33. * ^ By contemporary accounts, the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
called their early rulers kunigas (kunigai in plural). The word was borrowed from the German language
German language
– kuning, konig. Later on kunigas was replaced by the word kunigaikštis, used to describe to medieval Lithuanian rulers in modern Lithuanian, while kunigas today means priest. * ^ Z.Kiaupa, J. Kiaupienė, A. Kunevičius. The History of Lithuania
Lithuania
Before 1795. Vilnius, 2000. p. 43-127 * ^ A B C V. Spečiūnas. Lietuvos valdovai (XIII-XVIII a.): Enciklopedinis žinynas. Vilnius, 2004. p. 15-78. * ^ А. Кравцевич История Великого Княжества Литовского. * ^ Краўцэвіч, А.К. Стварэнне Вялікага Княства Літоўскага. * ^ Senosios Lietuvos istorija p. 44-45 * ^ Kiaupa, Zigmantas; Jūratė Kiaupienė; Albinas Kunevičius (2000) . "Establishment of the State". The History of Lithuania
Lithuania
Before 1795 (English ed.). Vilnius: Lithuanian Institute of History. pp. 45–72. ISBN 9986-810-13-2 . * ^ Lithuania
Lithuania
Ascending p.55 * ^ New Cambridge p.706 * ^ Maciej Stryjkowski (1985). Kronika polska, litewska, żmódzka i wszystkiéj Rusi Macieja Stryjkowskiego. Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe. p. 572. * ^ Hinson, E. Glenn (1995), The Church Triumphant: A History of Christianity Up to 1300, Mercer University Press, p. 438, ISBN 978-0-86554-436-9 * ^ Cherkas, Borys (30 December 2011). Битва на Синіх Водах. Як Україна звільнилася від Золотої Орди (IN UKRAINIAN). ISTPRAVDA.COM.UA. RETRIEVED 22 FEBRUARY 2016. * ^ Kloczowski, Jerzy (2000), A History of Polish Christianity, Cambridge University Press, p. 55, ISBN 978-0-521-36429-4 * ^ A B Makuch, Andrij. "Ukraine: History: Lithuanian and Polish rule". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 20 July 2016. Within the grand duchy the Ruthenian (Ukrainian and Belarusian) lands initially retained considerable autonomy. The pagan Lithuanians themselves were increasingly converting to Orthodoxy and assimilating into Ruthenian culture. The grand duchy's administrative practices and legal system drew heavily on Slavic customs, and an official Ruthenian state language (also known as Rusyn) developed over time from the language used in Rus. Direct Polish rule in Ukraine
Ukraine
in the 1340s and for two centuries thereafter was limited to Galicia. There, changes in such areas as administration, law, and land tenure proceeded more rapidly than in Ukrainian territories under Lithuania. However, Lithuania
Lithuania
itself was soon drawn into the orbit of Poland
Poland
following the dynastic linkage of the two states in 1385/86 and the baptism of the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
into the Latin
Latin
(Roman Catholic) church. * ^ "Union of Lublin: Poland- Lithuania
Lithuania
". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 20 July 2016. Formally, Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
were to be distinct, equal components of the federation, But Poland, which retained possession of the Lithuanian lands it had seized, had greater representation in the Diet and became the dominant partner. * ^ Stranga, Aivars. "Lithuania: History: Union with Poland". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 12 August 2016. While Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
would thereafter elect a joint sovereign and have a common parliament, the basic dual state structure was retained. Each continued to be administered separately and had its own law codes and armed forces. The joint commonwealth, however, provided an impetus for cultural Polonization of the Lithuanian nobility. By the end of the 17th century it had virtually become indistinguishable from its Polish counterpart. * ^ A B Marek Sobczyński. "Procesy integracyjne i dezintegracyjne na ziemiach litewskich w toku dziejów" (PDF) (in Polish). Zakład Geografii Politycznej Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego . Retrieved 22 February 2016. * ^ Halych metropoly. Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Ukraine
* ^ von Pastor, Ludwig . The History of the Popes, from the Close of the Middle Ages. 6. p. 146. Retrieved 18 July 2016. ...he wrote to the Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania, admonishing him to do everything in his power to persuade his consort to 'abjure the Russian religion, and accept the Christian Faith.' * ^ Vilniaus Universitetas. History of Vilnius
Vilnius
University. Retrieved on 2007.04.16 * ^ A B Daniel. Z Stone, A History of East Central Europe, p.4 * ^ A B C O'Connor, Kevin (2006), Culture and Customs of the Baltic States, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 115, ISBN 978-0-313-33125-1 , retrieved 12 August 2016 * ^ A B C D Burant, S. R.; Zubek, V. (1993). "Eastern Europe\'s Old Memories and New Realities: Resurrecting the Polish-lithuanian Union" (PDF). East European Politics color:#555">(Subscription required (help)). * ^ A B Zinkevičius, Zigmas (1995). "Lietuvos Didžiosios kunigaikštystės kanceliarinės slavų kalbos termino nusakymo problema" (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: viduramziu.istorija.net. Retrieved 19 July 2016. * ^ A B C Daniel. Z Stone, A History of East Central Europe, p.46 * ^ A B C D Wiemer, Björn (2003). "Dialect and language contacts on the territory of the Grand Duchy from the 15th century until 1939". In Kurt Braunmüller; Gisella Ferraresi. Aspects of Multilingualism in European Language History. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 109–114. ISBN 90-272-1922-2 . Retrieved 19 July 2016. * ^ Stone, Daniel. The Polish-Lithuanian State, 1386-1795. Seattle: University of Washington, 2001. p. 4. * ^ Kamuntavičius, Rustis. Development of Lithuanian State and Society. Kaunas: Vytautas Magnus University, 2002. p.21. * ^ Eberhardt, Piotr (2003). Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe. M.E. Sharpe. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-7656-1833-7 . Retrieved 19 July 2016. * ^ Daniel. Z Stone, A History of East Central Europe, p.52 * ^ A B C Dubonis, Artūras (2002). "Lietuvių kalba: poreikis ir vartojimo mastai (XV a. antra pusė - XVI a. antra pusė)" (in Lithuanian). viduramziu.istorija.net. Retrieved 19 July 2016. * ^ не обчымъ яким языкомъ, але своимъ властнымъ права списаные маемъ ; Dubonis, A. Lietuvių kalba * ^ A B C D Letukienė, Nijolė; Gineika, Petras (2003). "Istorija. Politologija: kurso santrauka istorijos egzaminui" (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Alma littera: 182. . Statistical numbers, usually accepted in historiography (the sources, their treatment, the method of measuring is not discussed in the source), are given, according to which in 1260 there were about 0.27 million Lithuanians
Lithuanians
out of a total population of 0.4 million (or 67.5%). The size of the territory of the Grand Duchy was about 200 thousand km2. The following data on population is given in the sequence - year, total population in millions, territory, Lithuanian (inhabitants of ethnic Lithuania) part of population in millions: 1340 - 0.7, 350 thousand km2, 0.37; 1375 - 1.4, 700 thousand km2, 0.42; 1430 - 2.5, 930 thousand km2, 0.59 or 24%; 1490 - 3.8, 850 thousand km2, 0.55 or 14% or 1/7; 1522 - 2.365, 485 thousand km2, 0.7 or 30%; 1568 - 2.8, 570 thousand km2, 0.825 million or 30%; 1572, 1.71, 320 thousand km2, 0.85 million or 50%; 1770 - 4.84, 320 thousand km2, 1.39 or 29%; 1791 - 2.5, 250 km2, 1.4 or 56%; 1793 - 1.8, 132 km2, 1.35 or 75% * ^ Letukienė, N., Istorija, Politologija: Kurso santrauka istorijos egzaminui, 2003, p. 182; there were about 0.37 million Lithuanians
Lithuanians
of 0.7 million of a whole population by 1340 in the territory of 350 thousand km2 and 0.42 million of 1.4 million by 1375 in the territory of 700 thousand km2. Different numbers can also be found, for example: Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003, ISBN 0-313-32355-0 , Google Print, p.17. Here the author estimates that there were 9 million inhabitants in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and 1 million of them were ethnic Lithuanians
Lithuanians
by 1387. * ^ Wiemer, Björn (2003). "Dialect and language contacts on the territory of the Grand Duchy from the 15th century until 1939". In Kurt Braunmüller; Gisella Ferraresi. Aspects of Multilingualism in European Language History. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 109; 125. ISBN 90-272-1922-2 . Retrieved 12 August 2016. * ^ Pogonowski, Iwo (1989), Poland: A Historical Atlas, Dorset, p. 92, ISBN 978-0-88029-394-5 - Based on 1493 population map * ^ Kotilaine, J. T. (2005), Russia\'s Foreign Trade and Economic Expansion in the Seventeenth Century: Windows on the World, BRILL, p. 45, ISBN 90-04-13896-X , retrieved 12 August 2016 * ^ Gil, Andrzej. "Rusini w Rzeczypospolitej Wielu Narodów i ich obecność w tradycji Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego – problem historyczny czy czynnik tworzący współczesność?" (PDF) (in Polish). Instytut Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej (Central and Eastern European Institute). Retrieved 12 August 2016. * ^ Pawełko-Czajka, Barbara (2014). "The Memory of Multicultural Tradition of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
in the Thought of Vilnius Krajowcy" (PDF). International Congress of Belarusian Studies. Retrieved 12 August 2016. * ^ Gałędek, Michał. "Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie w myśli politycznej Stanisława Cata-Mackiewicza" (in Polish). academia.edu. Retrieved 12 August 2016. * ^ A B Diena, Kauno; Vaida Milkova (5 May 2011). "Miłosz\'s Anniversary in the Context of Dumb Politics". Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania. Retrieved 12 August 2016.

SOURCES

* S. C. Rowell. Chartularium Lithuaniae res gestas magni ducis Gedeminne illustrans. Gedimino laiškai. Vilnius, 2003. * Norman Davies. God's Playground. Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press
; 2nd edition (2002), ISBN 0-231-12817-7 . * Вялікае княства Літоўскае: Энцыклапедыя. – Мінск: БелЭн, 2005—2010. – Т. 1—3. * Гісторыя Беларусі: Падруч. у 2 ч. / Я.К. Новік, Г.С. Марцуль, І.Л. Качалаў і інш.; Пад рэд. Я.К. Новіка, Г.С. Марцуля. – Мінск : Выш. шк., 2003. – Ч. 1. Ад старажытных часоў – па люты 1917 г. – 416 с. * Гісторыя Беларусі: у 6 т. / Ю. Бохан ; рэдкал: М. Касцюк (гал. рэд.) . – Мінск : Экаперспектыва, 2000—2012. – Т. 2. Беларусь у перыяд Вялікага Княства Літоўскага. – Мінск : Экаперспектыва, 2008. – 688 с. * Краўцэвіч, А.К. Стварэнне Вялікага Княства Літоўскага / А.К. Краўцэвіч. – Rzeszów, 2000. – 238 с. ISBN 985-08-0249-9 * Насевiч, В.Л. Пачаткі Вялікага княства Літоўскага: Падзеі і асобы. – Мінск : Полымя, 1993. – 160 с.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA .

* History of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania * Cheryl Renshaw. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
1253-1795 * Grand Duchy of Lithuania * Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Administrative map * Lithuanian-Ruthenian state at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Ukraine

* v * t * e

Belarus
Belarus
articles

HISTORY

* Kievan Rus\' * Principality of Polotsk
Polotsk
* Principality of Turov * Grand Duchy of Lithuania * Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
* Russian Empire
Russian Empire
* Belarus
Belarus
National Republic * Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
* West Belarus
Belarus
* Republic of Belarus
Belarus

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities

* Protected areas

* Biosphere Reserves * National parks

* Rivers

POLITICS

* Administrative divisions * Constitution * Elections * Foreign relations * Government * Human rights * Law enforcement * LGBT history * Military * Parliament * Political parties * President * Prime Minister * Union of Russia
Russia
and Belarus
Belarus

ECONOMY

* Agriculture

* Banking

* Central bank * Belarusian ruble
Belarusian ruble

* Telecommunications * Currency * Energy *

.