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The title grand prince or great prince (Latin: magnus princeps, Greek: megas archon) ranked in honour below king and emperor and above a sovereign prince. Grand duke
Grand duke
is the usual and established, though not literal, translation of these terms in English and Romance languages, which do not normally use separate words for a "prince" who reigns as a monarch (e.g., Albert II, Prince
Prince
of Monaco) and a "prince" who does not reign, but belongs to a monarch's family (e.g., Prince
Prince
William, Duke
Duke
of Cambridge). German, Dutch, Slavic and Scandinavian languages do use separate words to express this concept, and in those languages grand prince is understood as a distinct title (for a cadet of a dynasty) from grand duke (hereditary ruler ranking below a king). The title of grand prince was once used for the sovereign of a "grand principality". The last titular grand principalities vanished in 1917 and 1918, the territories being united into other monarchies or becoming republics. Already at that stage, the grand principalities of Lithuania, Transylvania
Transylvania
and Finland
Finland
had been for centuries under rulers of other, bigger monarchies, so that the title of grand prince was superseded by a royal title (king/tsar) or an imperial one (emperor). The last sovereign to reign whose highest title was grand prince was Ivan IV of Moscow
Ivan IV of Moscow
in the 16th century, until he assumed the rank of Tsar of Russia. When Ivan IV's pre-tsarist title is referred to in English, however, it is usually as grand duke. Velikiy knjaz is also a Russian courtesy title for members of the family of the Russian tsar (from the 17th century), although those grand princes were not sovereigns.

Contents

1 Terminology in Slavic and Baltic languages 2 Use in the Middle Ages

2.1 Hungary 2.2 Serbia 2.3 Kievan Rus and Successor States 2.4 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

3 Modern use 4 See also 5 References

Terminology in Slavic and Baltic languages[edit] Grand Prince, used in the Slavic and Baltic languages, was the title of a medieval monarch who headed a more-or-less loose confederation whose constituent parts were ruled by lesser princes. Those grand princes' title and position was at the time usually translated as king. In fact, the Slavic knjaz and the Baltic kunigaikštis (nowadays usually translated as prince) are cognates of king. However, a grand prince was usually only primus inter pares within a dynasty, primogeniture not governing the order of succession. All princes of the family were equally eligible to inherit a crown (for example, succession might be through agnatic seniority or rotation). Often other members of the dynasty ruled some constituent parts of the monarchy/country. An established use of the title was in the Kievan Rus' and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
(from the 14th century). Thus, Veliki Knjaz has been more like high king than "grand duke", at least, originally and were not subordinated to any other authority as more western (for example Polish) Grand Dukes were.[citation needed] As these countries expanded territorially and moved towards primogeniture and centralization, their rulers acquired more elevated titles. Use in the Middle Ages[edit] Hungary[edit] Main article: Grand Prince
Grand Prince
of the Hungarians Grand Prince
Grand Prince
(Hungarian: Nagyfejedelem) was the title used by contemporary sources to name the leader of the federation of the Hungarian tribes in the 10th century. Constantine VII
Constantine VII
mentioned Árpád
Árpád
in his book De Administrando Imperio
De Administrando Imperio
as megas Turkias arkhon, while Bruno of Querfurt
Bruno of Querfurt
referred to Géza in his Sancti Adalberti Pragensis episcopi et martyris vita altera as Ungarorum senior magnus. It was used by Géza and his son and heir Stephen of Hungary. Serbia[edit] Main article: veliki župan In the Middle Ages, the Serbian veliki župan (велики жупан) was the supreme chieftain in the multi-tribal society. The title signifies overlordship, as the leader of lesser chieftains titled župan.[1] It was used by the Serb rulers in the 11th and 12th centuries.[2] In Greek, it was known as archizoupanos (ἄρχιζουπάνος), megazoupanos (μεγαζουπάνος) and megalos zoupanos (μεγάλος ζουπάνος).[2] In the 1090s, Vukan became the veliki župan in Raška (Rascia).[3] Stefan Nemanja
Stefan Nemanja
expelled his brother Tihomir in 1168 and assumed the title of veliki župan,[4] as described in the Charter of Hilandar
Charter of Hilandar
(и постави ме великог жупана).[5] A Latin
Latin
document used mega iupanus for King
King
Stefan the First-Crowned
Stefan the First-Crowned
(Stephanus dominus Seruie siue Rasie, qui mega iupanus).[6] Afterwards, it was a high noble rank with notable holders such as Altoman Vojinović (fl. 1335–59). Kievan Rus and Successor States[edit] Великий князь (Velikiy Knyaz; literally, great prince) was, starting in the 10th century, the title of the leading Prince
Prince
of the Kievan Rus', head of the Rurikid
Rurikid
House: first the prince of Kiev, and then that of Vladimir and Galicia-Volhynia
Galicia-Volhynia
starting in the 13th century. Later, several princes of nationally important cities, which comprised vassal appanage principalities, held this title (Grand Prince
Prince
of Moscow, Tver', Yaroslavl', Ryazan', Smolensk, etc.). From 1328 the Grand Prince
Grand Prince
of Moscow
Moscow
appeared as the titular head of eastern Rus' and slowly centralized power until Ivan IV was crowned tsar in 1547. Since then, the title grand prince ceased to be a hereditary office and became a generic title for members of the Imperial family until the Russian Revolution of 1917. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth[edit] The Lithuanian title Didysis kunigaikštis was used by the rulers of Lithuania, and after 1569, it was one of two main titles used by the monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The kings of Poland from the Swedish House of Vasa
House of Vasa
also used this title for their non-Polish territories. This Lithuanian title was sometimes latinized as Magnus Dux or Grand Duke. Modern use[edit] In 1582, king John III of Sweden
John III of Sweden
added Grand Prince
Grand Prince
of Finland
Finland
to the subsidiary titles of the Swedish kings, however without any territorial or civic implications, Finland
Finland
already being a part of the Swedish realm. The Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
ruling house of Habsburg
Habsburg
instituted a similar Grand Principality in Transylvania
Transylvania
(Siebenburgen) in 1765. After the Russian conquests, the title continued to be used by the Russian emperor in his role as ruler of Lithuania
Lithuania
(1793–1918) and of autonomous Finland
Finland
(1809–1917) as well. His titulary included, among other titles: " Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Smolensk, Volynia, Podolia", "Lord and Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Nizhni Novgorod, Chernigov" etc. A more literal translation of the Russian title than grand duke would be great prince — especially in the pre-Petrine era — but the term is neither standard nor widely used in English. In German, however, a Russian Grand Duke
Grand Duke
was known as a Großfürst, and in Latin
Latin
as Magnus Princeps. Grand prince
Grand prince
remained as a dynastic title for the senior members of the Romanov
Romanov
dynasty in Russia's imperial era. The title Velikiy Knyaz, its use finally formalized by Alexander III, then belonged to children and male-line grandchildren of the emperors of Russia. The daughters and paternal granddaughters of the emperors used a different version of the title (Великая Княжна, Velikie knyazhna) from females who obtained it as the consorts of Russian grand princes (Великие Княгини, Velikie knjagini). In modern times a Russian Grand Duke
Grand Duke
or Grand Duchess
Duchess
is styled Imperial Highness. The title grand prince was also used for the heir apparent to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. See also[edit]

Grand Prince
Grand Prince
of the Hungarians Royal and noble ranks Titles of nobility

References[edit]

^ Francis William Carter; David Turnock (1999). The States of Eastern Europe. Ashgate. p. 252. ISBN 978-1-85521-512-2.  ^ a b Сима Ћирковић; Раде Михальчић (1999). Лексикон српског средњег века. Knowledge. p. 73. ВЕЛИКИ ЖУПАН - 1. Титула српског владара у XI и XII веку. Гласила је велнм жупднк и била превођена одговарајућим терминима, грчки арџ- ^огтагот, игуа^огтауге, цеуаХа? ^огтожх, латин- ски те^ајирапиз, та§пиз ...  ^ John Van Antwerp Fine (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. University of Michigan Press. pp. 225–. ISBN 0-472-08149-7.  ^ Paul Stephenson (29 June 2000). Byzantium's Balkan Frontier: A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 900-1204. Cambridge University Press. pp. 267–. ISBN 978-0-521-77017-0.  ^ Jovo Radoš (2000). Počeci filozofije prava kod Srba. Prometej.  ^ Radovi. 19. 1972.

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