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The Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
and by Rhine
Rhine
(German: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein), or the Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
(German: Großherzogtum Hessen) between 1806 and 1816, was an independent country and member state of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
as of 1806, when the Landgraviate of Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was elevated to a Grand Duchy which it remained until 1918, when the monarchy was overthrown. Hesse
Hesse
lost its independence when it joined the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871. Before 1866, its northern neighbour was its former sister Landgraviate, since 1803 an Electorate, of Hesse-Kassel – for this reason, this state was sometimes colloquially known as Hesse-Darmstadt.

Contents

1 History 2 Transport 3 Subdivisions of Hesse 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was a member of Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine during the Napoleonic Wars. Rapidly expanding during the mediatizations, Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
became an amalgamation of smaller German states, such as the Electorate of Cologne. The legal patchwork of the state culminated in a decree issued on 1 October 1806 by Louis I. The old territorial estates were abolished, which altered Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
"from a mosaic of patrimonial fragments into a centralized, absolute monarchy."[2] During the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
it was forced to cede the Duchy of Westphalia, which Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
had received in 1803, to the Kingdom of Prussia. However, Hesse-Darmstadt received some territory on the western bank of the Rhine, including the important federal fortress at Mainz.

Residenzschloss (city palace) of the Grand Dukes in Darmstadt

The Grand Duchy changed its name to the Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
and by Rhine
Rhine
(German: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) in 1816. In 1867, the northern half of the Grand Duchy (Upper Hesse) became a part of the North German Confederation, while the half of the Grand Duchy south of the Main ( Starkenburg
Starkenburg
and Rhenish Hesse) remained outside. In 1871, it became a constituent state of the German Empire. The last Grand Duke, Ernst Ludwig (a grandson of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
and brother to Empress Alexandra of Russia), was forced from his throne at the end of World War I, and the state was renamed the People's State of Hesse
Hesse
(Volksstaat Hessen). After World War II, the majority of the state combined with Frankfurt am Main, the Waldeck area (Rhine-Province) and the former Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau
Hesse-Nassau
to form the new state of Hesse. Excluded were the Montabaur district from Hessen-Nassau and that part of Hessen- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
on the left bank of the Rhine
Rhine
(Rhenish Hesse), which became part of the Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
state. (Bad) Wimpfen—an exclave of Hessen-Darmstadt—became part of Baden-Württemberg, in the district of Sinsheim. After a plebiscite on 29 April 1951, Bad Wimpfen was transferred from Sinsheim
Sinsheim
district to Heilbronn District. This change to Heilbronn was carried out on 1 May 1952. Transport[edit] Main article: Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
State Railways Because of the disjointed nature of the state, it did not develop its own state railway to begin with, but set up joint railway projects with its neighbouring states: These were the:

Main-Neckar Railway
Main-Neckar Railway
with Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Baden Main-Weser Railway
Main-Weser Railway
with Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Kurhessen Frankfurt-Offenbach Local Railway
Frankfurt-Offenbach Local Railway
with the Free City of Frankfurt

In addition the state encouraged numerous other projects by the privately owned Hessian Ludwig Railway Company. Finally, in 1876 the state founded its own company, the Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
State Railways, which continued to expand the network until it was finally merged into the Prussian-Hessian Railway Company
Prussian-Hessian Railway Company
in 1897. Subdivisions of Hesse[edit]

The three provinces of the Grand Duchy of Hesse: Upper Hesse, Starkenburg
Starkenburg
and Rhenish Hesse

The Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
was divided into three provinces:

Starkenburg
Starkenburg
(capital at Darmstadt): Right bank of the Rhine, south of the Main. Rhenish Hesse
Rhenish Hesse
(capital at Mainz): Left bank of the Rhine, territory gained from the Congress of Vienna. Upper Hesse
Hesse
(capital at Giessen): North of the Main, separated from Starkenburg
Starkenburg
by the Free City of Frankfurt.

See also[edit]

List of rulers of Hesse Line of succession to the former Hessian throne Hessenlager

References[edit]

^ Willkommen bei Gemeindeverzeichnis.de ^ Hans A. Schmitt. "Germany Without Prussia: A Closer Look at the Confederation of the Rhine." German Studies Review 6, No. 4 (1983), pp 9-39.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Grand Duchy of Hesse.

Constitution of Hesse
Hesse
(in German) Das Großherzogtum Hessen 1806–1918 Großherzogtum Hessen (Kreise und Gemeinden) 1910

v t e

States of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
(1806–13)

Rank elevated by Napoleon

Kingdoms

Bavaria Saxony Württemberg

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse

Duchies

Nassau

States created

Kingdoms

Westphalia

Grand Duchies

Berg Frankfurt1 Würzburg

Principalities

Aschaffenburg2 Leyen Regensburg2

Pre-existing states

Saxon duchies

Coburg-Saalfeld Gotha-Altenburg Hildburghausen Meiningen Weimar3 Eisenach3 Weimar-Eisenach4

Other duchies

Anhalt (Bernburg Dessau Köthen) Arenberg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg

Principalities

Hohenzollern

Hechingen Sigmaringen

Isenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Reuss

Ebersdorf Greiz Lobenstein Schleiz

Salm5 Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck

1 from 1810 2 until 1810 3 until 1809 4 from 1809 5 until 1811

v t e

States of the German Confederation
States of the German Confederation
(1815–66)

Empires

Austria1

Kingdoms

Prussia1 Bavaria Saxony Hanover Württemberg

Electorates

Hesse-Kassel

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse-Darmstadt Luxembourg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

Duchies

Anhalt

Bernburg2 Dessau2 Köthen3

Brunswick Holstein Limburg4 Nassau Saxe-Lauenburg Ernest

Altenburg5 Coburg-Saalfeld6 Coburg-Gotha5 Gotha-Altenburg6 Hildburghausen6 Meiningen

Principalities

Hesse-Homburg Hohenzollern

Hechingen7 Sigmaringen7

Liechtenstein Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck and Pyrmont

City-states

Bremen Frankfurt Hamburg Lübeck

1 w/o areas listed under other territories 2 Merged with Anhalt from 1863 3 until 1847 4 from 1839 5 from 1826 6 until 1826 7 until 1850 8 1849–60 9 as of 1849 10 until 1837 11 until 1829 12 until 1848/57 13 until 1848 14 as of 1848 15 as of 1829 16 as of 1864

v t e

States of the North German Confederation
German Confederation
(1867–71)

Kingdoms

Prussia Saxony

Grand Duchies

Hesse-Darmstadt Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

Duchies

Anhalt Brunswick Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Lauenburg Saxe-Meiningen

Principalities

Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Waldeck and Pyrmont

City-states

Bremen Hamburg Lübeck

v t e

States of the German Empire (1871–1918)

Kingdoms

Bavaria Prussia Saxony Württemberg

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse-Darmstadt Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

Duchies

Anhalt Brunswick Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Lauenburg
Saxe-Lauenburg
(until 1876) Saxe-Meiningen

Principalities

Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Waldeck and Pyrmont

City-states

Bremen Hamburg Lübeck

Imperial Territories

Alsace-Lorraine

Other

German colonial empire Mittelafrika

.