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A GRAMMY AWARD (originally called GRAMOPHONE AWARD), or GRAMMY, is an honor awarded by The Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the mainly English-language music industry . The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, and the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Emmy Awards (television), the Tony Awards (stage performance), and the Academy Awards (motion pictures).

The first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4, 1959, to honor and respect the musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, The Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012. The 59th Grammy Awards , honoring the best achievements from October 2015 to September 2016, was held on February 12, 2017, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Gramophone trophy

* 3 Categories

* 3.1 2012 category restructuring

* 4 Entry process and selection of nominees * 5 Final voting * 6 Venue * 7 Leading winners * 8 Criticism * 9 TV broadcasts and ratings * 10 The Grammys and record sales * 11 Notes and references * 12 External links

HISTORY

The Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s. As the recording executives chosen for the Walk of Fame committee worked at compiling a list of important recording industry people who might qualify for a Walk of Fame star, they realized there were many more people who were leaders in their business who would never earn a star on Hollywood Boulevard . The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to the Oscars and the Emmys . This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences . After it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of what to call it; one working title was the Eddie, to honor the inventor of the phonograph, Thomas Edison . They finally settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner , the gramophone , for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958.

The first award ceremony was held simultaneously in two locations on May 4, 1959 - Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills California, and Park Sheraton Hotel in New York City, and 28 Grammys were awarded. The number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The second Grammy Awards , also held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised, but the ceremony was not aired live until the 13th Annual Grammy Awards in 1971.

GRAMOPHONE TROPHY

The gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone , are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado . In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, making the trophy bigger and grander. Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, which is trademarked. The trophies with the recipient's name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements, so "stunt" trophies are re-used each year for the broadcast.

By February 2009, 7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded.

CATEGORIES

Main article: List of Grammy Award categories

The "General Field" are four awards which are not restricted by genre.

* Album of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a full album if other than the performer. * Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a single song if other than the performer. * Song of the Year is awarded to the writer(s)/composer(s) of a single song. * Best New Artist is awarded to a promising breakthrough performer who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording that establishes the public identity of that artist (which is not necessarily their first proper release).

The only two artists to win all four of these awards are Christopher Cross , who won all four in 1980, and Adele , who won the Best New Artist award in 2009 and the other three in 2012 and 2017.

Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other contributions such as artwork and video. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry.

Because of the large number of award categories (78 in 2012, 81 in 2013 and 82 in 2014), and the desire to feature several performances by various artists, only the ones with the most popular interest - typically about 10 to 12, including the four General Field categories and one or two categories in the most popular music genres (i.e. pop, rock, country, rap) - are presented directly at the televised award ceremony. The many other Grammy trophies are presented in a pre-telecast 'Premiere Ceremony' earlier in the afternoon before the Grammy Awards telecast.

2012 CATEGORY RESTRUCTURING

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On April 6, 2011, The Recording Academy announced a drastic overhaul of many Grammy Award categories for 2012. The number of categories was cut from 109 to 78. The most important change was the elimination of the distinction between male and female soloists and between collaborations and duo/groups in various genre fields (pop, rock, R&B, country, and rap). Also, several categories for instrumental soloists were discontinued. Recordings in these categories now fall under the general categories for best solo performances.

In the rock field, the separate categories for hard rock and metal albums were combined and the Best Rock Instrumental Performance category was eliminated due to a waning number of entries.

In R&B , the distinction between best contemporary R&B album and other R&B albums has been eliminated. They now feature in one, general Best R and Los Angeles's Shrine Auditorium , the Staples Center and the Hollywood Palladium.

In 2004, the Staples Center became the permanent home of the award ceremonies. The Grammy Museum was built across the street from Staples Center in LA Live to preserve the history of the Grammy Awards. Embedded on the sidewalks at the museum streets are bronze disks, similar to the Hollywood Walk of Fame , honoring each year's top winners, Record of the Year, Best New Artist, Album of the Year, and Song of the Year.

The awards ceremony forces the Los Angeles Kings , Los Angeles Lakers and Los Angeles Clippers to play an extended length of road games.

LEADING WINNERS

Main article: Grammy Award records

With 31 Grammy Awards, Sir Georg Solti is the artist with the most Grammy wins. Alison Krauss is the biggest winner among female artists with 27 awards. U2 , with 22 Grammy Awards, holds the record for most awards won by a group.

CRITICISM

The Grammy Awards has received criticism from various recording artists and music journalists.

When Pearl Jam won a Grammy in the category _Best Hard Rock Performance _ in 1996, the band's lead singer Eddie Vedder commented on stage: "I don't know what this means. I don't think it means anything." Glen Hansard , leader of the Irish rock group The Frames , stated in 2008 that the Grammys represent something outside of the real world of music "that's fully industry based." He said he wasn't that interested in attending that year's ceremony, even though he had been nominated for two different awards. Maynard James Keenan , lead singer of metal band Tool , did not attend the Grammy Awards ceremony to receive one of their awards. He explained his reasons:

I think the Grammys are nothing more than some gigantic promotional machine for the music industry. They cater to a low intellect and they feed the masses. They don't honor the arts or the artist for what he created. It's the music business celebrating itself. That's basically what it's all about.

They have also been criticized for generally awarding or nominating more commercially successful albums rather than critically successful albums. In 1991, Sinead O\'Connor became the first musician to refuse a Grammy, boycotting the ceremony after being nominated for Record of the Year, Best Female Pop Vocal Performance, and Best Alternative Musical Performance. O'Connor would go on to win the latter category. She said that her reasoning came from the Grammys' extreme commercialism.

In 2011, _ Los Angeles Times _ journalist Randall Roberts criticised the exclusion of Kanye West 's _ My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy _ from Album of the Year category nominations for the 54th Grammy Awards . He described West's album as "the most critically acclaimed album of the year, a career-defining record". Roberts went on to criticize the Grammy Awards for being "mired in the past" and out of touch with "new media" and trends amongst music listeners such as music sharing , stating:

The major nominations for the 54th annual awards clearly show that the recording academy has been working overtime to be all-inclusive, but more significantly, they also reveal a deep chasm between its goals and the listening habits of the general population... he focus is still on the old music industry model of cash-cow hits, major label investments and commercial radio...

In an article for _Time _, journalist Touré also responded to the snub and expressed his general displeasure with the awards, stating "I don't pretend to understand the Grammys. I have never been able to discern a consistent logic around who gets nominated or who gets statues. I comprehend the particular logic of the Oscars, but not the big awards for music. My normal state of confusion around what drives Grammy decisions was exponentialized this week when, to the shock of many, Kanye's masterpiece _My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy_ was not nominated for a Grammy for Album of the Year." He went on to compare understanding the Grammy Awards to Kremlinology and commented on The Recording Academy's exclusion of more "mature" hip hop albums as Album of the Year nominees, noting that it occasionally opts to nominate "pop-friendly" hip hop albums instead.

In a 2011 profile for _ The New York Times _ following the 53rd Grammy Awards , frontman Justin Vernon of indie band Bon Iver was asked his opinion of the Grammys and how he would react to a nomination for his group, to which he responded,

You know I was thinking about that a couple of months ago, someone asked me that, and I was like "I would go and I would" – and I don't think the Bon Iver record is the kind of record that would get nominated for a Grammy – "I would get up there and be like, 'This is for my parents, because they supported me,' because I know they would think it would be stupid of me not to go up there. But I kinda felt like going up there and being like: "Everyone should go home, this is ridiculous. You should not be doing this. We should not be gathering in a big room and looking at each other and pretending that this is important." That's what I would say.

He reaffirmed this sentiment and commented about the Grammys, saying:

percent of the people in that room, their art is compromised by the fact that they're thinking that, and that they're hoping to get that award. And who is that award given by? It's like they think it's literally handed down by the musical-history gods. And I don't know who the voters are. Like, I have a friend who's a voter who was like, "I had to be a voter because I don't trust the other voters." And I was like, "Me either!" And it's just not important and people spend too much time thinking about it.

Bon Iver subsequently received four nominations in November for the 54th Grammy Awards. After winning the award, Vernon said in his acceptance, "It's really hard to accept this award. There's so much talent out here and there's a lot of talent that's not here tonight. It's also hard to accept because you know, when I started to make songs I did it for the inherent reward of making songs, so I'm a little bit uncomfortable up here."

In his article "Everything Is Praised Again", Jon Caramanica of _The New York Times_ criticized Grammy voters for being "conservative" and disregarding more "forward-looking" music, and wrote in response to the 54th Grammy Awards, "for the umpteenth time, the Grammys went with familiarity over risk, bestowing album of the year honors (and several more) on an album that reinforced the values of an older generation suspicious of change." He cited the Grammy successes of Lauryn Hill 's _The Miseducation _ (1999), Norah Jones ' _ Come Away with Me _ (2003), and Adele 's _21 _ (2011) as examples of "the Grammys dropp a boatload of awards on a young female singer-songwriter and her breakthrough album." Of Kanye West's absence from the ceremony, Caramanica stated, "He didn't even bother to show up for the broadcast, which was well enough, because hip-hop was almost completely marginalized".

In an article for _ The Huffington Post _, music executive and author Steve Stoute criticized the Recording Academy and the Grammy Awards for having "lost touch with contemporary popular culture" and noted "two key sources" for it: "(1) over-zealousness to produce a popular show that is at odds with its own system of voting and (2) fundamental disrespect of cultural shifts as being viable and artistic." Stoute accused them of snubbing artists with more cultural impact, citing respective losses by the critical and commercial successes in Eminem 's _ The Marshall Mathers LP _ (2000) and Kanye West's _Graduation _ (2007) in the Album of the Year category, and stated:

As an institution that celebrates artistic works of musicians, singers, songwriters, producers and technical specialists, we have come to expect that the Grammys upholds all of the values that reflect the very best in music that is born from our culture. Unfortunately, the awards show has become a series of hypocrisies and contradictions, leaving me to question why any contemporary popular artist would even participate. While there is no doubt in my mind of the artistic talents of Steely Dan or Herbie Hancock , we must acknowledge the massive cultural impact of Eminem and Kanye West and how their music is shaping, influencing and defining the voice of a generation. It is this same cultural impact that acknowledged the commercial and critical success of Michael Jackson 's _Thriller _ in 1984.

The Grammys' eligibility period – which runs from October 1 to September 30 each year – is also a perennial source of complaints and confusion. Because records that drop in the last quarter of a given year are not eligible for that year's awards, fans often think a favorite artist has been snubbed (e.g., Adele, whose _25_ was released in November 2015 and so was not nominated that year despite massive sales ). Conversely, the same issue means that the Grammys often recognize work that no longer feels current by the time it wins. Taylor Swift's _1989_, for example, won Album of the Year in 2016, even though the album dropped in October 2014.

The Grammys have also been criticized for being unfavorable and racist to black recording artists. Canadian artist Drake criticized the awards in a 2017 interview for seeing him only as a rapper and not as a pop-music artist because of his previous work and because of his heritage. He criticized the snubbing of " One Dance " for the prestigious award of Record of the Year and the nomination of "Hotline Bling " for Best Rap Song and Best Rap/Sung Performance despite it not being a rap song, using it as evidence of The Recording Academy only seeing black artists as capable of producing rap music. During the 2017 show, Adele broke her trophy for Album of the Year in half onstage and gave half to Beyoncé , stating she felt that she didn't deserve to win over the latter's _Lemonade _. _ The Atlantic _'s Spencer Kornhaber accused the Grammys of "sidelining a black visionary work in favor of a white traditionalist one". Drake and Frank Ocean were vocal about boycotting the Grammy Awards, Drake had a performance in Manchester, England on February 12, 2017, the same night as the Awards Ceremony.

TV BROADCASTS AND RATINGS

Prior to the first live Grammys telecast in 1971 on ABC , a series of filmed annual specials in the 1960s called _The Best on Record_ were broadcast on NBC . The first Grammy Award telecast took place on the night of November 29, 1959, as an episode of the NBC anthology series _ NBC Sunday Showcase _, which was normally devoted to plays, original TV dramas, and variety shows. Until 1971, awards ceremonies were held in both New York and Los Angeles, with winners accepting at one of the two. Pierre Cossette bought the rights to broadcast the ceremony from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences and organized the first live telecast. CBS bought the rights in 1973 after moving the ceremony to Nashville , Tennessee ; the American Music Awards were created for ABC (by Dick Clark ) as a result.

The Recording Academy announced on June 21, 2011 that it had reached a new deal with CBS to keep the awards show on the network for another 10 years. As part of the new contract the network also airs a "nominations concert" special in the last week of November where the nominees are released during the special that is exclusive to CBS, rather than the traditional early-morning press conference with a release of the nominations seen with most major awards ceremonies which any network takes as part of a press pool . Beginning in 2006, the number of viewers was counted in live+SD.

YEAR VIEWERS (MILLIONS) RATING/SHARE (HOUSEHOLDS) AVERAGE AD PRICE (30S) SOURCE(S)

2017 26.05 7.8/22

2016 24.95 7.7/22 $1,200,000

2015 25.30 8.5/23 $1,000,000

2014 28.51 9.9/25 $800,000-$850,000

2013 28.37 10.1/25 $850,000-$900,000+

2012 39.91 14.1/32 $766,000

2011 26.55 10.0/25 $630,000

2010 25.80 TBD $426,000

2009 19.04 10.3/16 $592,000

2008 17.18 10.3/16 $572,700

2007 20.05 12.1/19 $557,300

2006 17.00 10.9/17 $675,900

2005 18.80 11.6/18 $703,900

2004 26.29 15.7/24 $654,600

2003 24.82 14.7/23 $610,300

2002 18.96 11.9/19 $573,900

2001 26.65 16.7/26 $574,000

2000 27.79 17.3/27 $505,500

1999 24.88 16.6/26 $472,000

1998 25.04 17.0/27 $315,600

1997 19.21 13.4/22 $346,300

1996 21.50 14.6/23 $304,800

1995 17.27 11.8/19 $399,100

1994 23.69 16.1/24 $407,700

1993 29.87 19.9/31 $401,500

1992 23.10 16.2/27 $352,900

1991 28.89 18.8/31 $319,200

1990 28.83 18.9/31 $330,600

1989 23.57 16.0/26 $318,300

1988 32.76 21.1/33 $299,900

1987 27.91 18.3/27 $264,200

1986 30.39 20.3/32 $205,500

1985 37.12 23.8/35 N/A

1984 51.67 30.8/45 N/A

1983 30.86 25.6/33 N/A

1982 24.02 18.2/29 N/A

1981 28.57 21.2/34 N/A

1980 32.39 23.9/39 N/A

1979 31.31 21.9/34 N/A

1978 N/A 26.6/44 N/A

1977 28.86 21.3/38 N/A

1976 N/A 23.8/47 N/A

1975 N/A 16.4/30 N/A

1974 N/A 30.3/52 N/A

THE GRAMMYS AND RECORD SALES

When the televised Grammys came into renown in 1975, a relationship between Grammy Award winners and subsequent record sales began. Many articles of _Billboard_ magazine communicate the commercial impact of winning a Grammy—improved record sales.

However, it was not until after 1984 that Grammy recipients' records displayed a substantial increase in sales. This was largely due to an agreement made by NARAS and the National Association of Record Merchandisers (NARM). Under this agreement "record labels provided stickers, posters and other point-of-purchase material emblazoned 'Grammy Nominee' or ' Grammy Award Winner' that retailers could use in order to improve marketing effects."

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ " Hollywood Walk of Fame History". _ Los Angeles Times_. Retrieved May 21, 2011. * ^ " Hollywood Walk of Fame History". Hollywood Walk of Fame. Retrieved May 21, 2011. * ^ Thomas, Bob (April 8, 1959). "Record Academy Plans TV Spectacular of Its Own". Ocala Star-Banner. Retrieved January 29, 2011. * ^ "Recording Stars Plan Eddie To Join Oscar And Emmy". The Deseret News. August 9, 1957. Retrieved February 2, 2011. * ^ "Bronze Stars Begot Grammy". The Robesonian. February 22, 1976. Retrieved May 2, 2011. * ^ "Grammy Awards 1959 (May)". _Grammy_. * ^ "Grammys history and winners through the years". _Los Angeles Times_. January 28, 2015. * ^ "Grammy Awards 1959". _Grammy_. * ^ "Grammy Awards 1971". _Grammy_. * ^ "Making the Grammy". Billingsartworks.com. 2006. Retrieved August 28, 2010. * ^ Williams, Nick (February 13, 2016). "And the Grammy Comes From...". _Billboard _. 128 (4): 56–57. * ^ "About Billings Artworks". Billingsartworks.com. 2006. Archived from the original on April 23, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010. * ^ Best, Tamara. "How the Grammy Awards Are Made: 4 Craftsmen and ‘Grammium’". _New York Times_. Retrieved February 8, 2017. * ^ "Neil Portnow\'s 50th Grammy\'s Telecast Remarks". grammy com. February 10, 2008. Archived from the original on February 21, 2009. Retrieved August 28, 2010. * ^ Grammy.org, 6 June 2011 * ^ "Grammy board axes polka category to stay \'relevant and responsive\'". CBC News . June 4, 2009. Archived from the original on June 10, 2009. Retrieved July 20, 2010. * ^ Sisario, Ben (June 5, 2009). " Polka Music Is Eliminated as Grammy Award Category". _ The New York Times _. The New York Times Company . p. C5. Retrieved October 18, 2010. * ^ Grammy announcement, 6 April 2011 * ^ "Grammy Awards Voting Process". Retrieved January 17, 2014. * ^ "Grammy Awards Voting Process". grammy com. Archived from the original on August 20, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010. * ^ Tommasini, Anthony (February 23, 2003). "Music: the Grammys/Classical; Fewer Records, More Attention". _The New York Times_. Retrieved August 28, 2010. * ^ Todd Leopold CNN (February 9, 2009). "Plant, Krauss rise with \'Raising Sand\' at Grammys". CNN. Retrieved August 28, 2010. * ^ Michael Paolette, Gail Mitchell, Melinda Newman (February 18, 2006). "U2\'s Big Grammy Night". _Billboard_. Retrieved July 20, 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Travers, Peter. "Grammy & The Movies". _ Rolling Stone _. February 8, 2008. * ^ Martens, Todd (February 6, 2008). "Glen Hansard, Eddie Vedder crash Grammy Awards". _ Los Angeles Times _. Archived from the original on February 21, 2013. * ^ Gabriella (July 2002). "Interview with Maynard James Keenan of Tool". NY Rock . Archived from the original on January 25, 2007. * ^ Deitz, Jason (February 10, 2011). 2011 Grammy Awards: A Closer Look at Key Nominees. Metacritic . 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Retrieved March 25, 2017. * ^ "Drake Won\'t Be at the Grammy Awards". _Billboard_. Retrieved 2017-07-24. * ^ Ehrlich, Ken (2007). _At The Grammys: Behind the Scenes at Music's Biggest Night_. Hal Leonard Books. ISBN 978-1-4234-3073-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ _U_ _V_ _W_ _X_ _Y_ _Z_ _AA_ _AB_ _AC_ _AD_ _AE_ _AF_ _AG_ _AH_ _AI_ _AJ_ _AK_ "Grammy Awards TV Ratings Nielsen Ratings - Ratings". TVbytheNumbers.Zap2it.com. January 28, 2010. Retrieved July 30, 2015. * ^ Porter, Rick (February 13, 2017). "TV Ratings Sunday: Grammys up slightly from 2016 ". TVbytheNumbers. Retrieved February 19, 2017. * ^ Porter, Rick (February 15, 2016). "TV Ratings Monday: Grammy Awards dominate, \'X-Files\' and \'Castle\' take hits ". TVbytheNumbers. Retrieved February 16, 2016. * ^ "TV Ratings Sunday: (Updated) Grammy Awards Slide from 2014 + \'Mulaney\' Rises as \'The Simpsons\' & \'Family Guy\' Fall - Ratings". TVbytheNumbers.Zap2it.com. Retrieved July 30, 2015. * ^ "Grammys 2015: Target\'s Imagine Dragons Commercial Break Cost About $8 Million". Billboard. February 9, 2015. Retrieved July 30, 2015. * ^ Rick Kissell (January 27, 2014). "Grammys Ratings: Grammy Awards Show Viewership Reaches 2nd Largest Since 1993". Variety. Retrieved July 30, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "• Average cost of a TV commercial during the Grammy Awards 2014 Statistic". Statista.com. July 21, 2015. Retrieved July 30, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ "2014 Grammy Commercials Sold For As High As Record $1 Million (Exclusive)". Billboard. January 23, 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2015. * ^ "TV Ratings Sunday: Grammy Awards Fall From 2012 Record + \'Revenge\' & \'Once Upon a Time\' Hit Series Lows (Updated) - Ratings". TVbytheNumbers.Zap2it.com. Retrieved July 30, 2015. * ^ Andreeva, Nellie (February 13, 2012). "Whitney Houston Tragic Grammys Draw 39.9 Million Viewers, Second Most Watched Ever". Deadline. Retrieved July 30, 2015. * ^ "Grammy Ad Rates Climb to Record $900,000 Per Spot". Billboard. February 7, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2015. * ^ Carina MacKenzie (February 14, 2011). "Ratings: Grammy Awards most viewed since 2001". Zap2It. Retrieved July 30, 2015. * ^ "TV Ratings Broadcast Top 25: Grammy Awards, Modern Family, Glee, American Idol, NCIS Top Week 21 Viewing - Ratings". TVbytheNumbers.Zap2it.com. Retrieved July 30, 2015. * ^ "Grammy\'s 2010 Ratings: 25.8 Million Viewers, Highest Since 2004". Huffingtonpost.com. February 1, 2010. Retrieved July 30, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Watson, Mary (2006). "Award Ceremony as an Arbiter of Commerce and Canon in the Popular Music Industry". _Popular Music_. 1 (25): 41–56. doi :10.1017/S0261143005000747 . * ^ Hampp, Andrew (2013). "Grammys Bump More Than Sales". _Billboard Magazine_: 27. access-date= requires url= (help )

EXTERNAL LINKS

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