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Egypt
Egypt
is divided, for administrative purposes, into twenty-seven governorates (محافظة muḥāfaẓah Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: ; genitive case : muḥāfaẓat ; plural محافظات muḥāfaẓāt ). Egyptian governorates are the top tier of the country's jurisdiction hierarchy. A governorate is administered by a governor, who is appointed by the President of Egypt and serves at the president's discretion. Most governorates have a population density of more than one thousand per km², while the three largest have a population density of less than two per km².

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 List of Governorates of Egypt
Egypt

* 4 Demographics by Governorate

* 4.1 Urban and Rural Population of Governorates * 4.2 Population Density by Governorate

* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

OVERVIEW

Governorates are either fully "urban" or else a mixture of "urban" and "rural". The official distinction between "urban" and "rural" is reflected in the lower tiers: i.e. fully urban governorates have no regions (markaz ), as the markaz is, natively, a conglomeration of villages. Moreover, governorates may comprise just one city, as in the case of Cairo
Cairo
Governorate or Alexandria
Alexandria
Governorate . Hence, these one-city governorates are only divided into districts (urban neighborhoods). Cairo
Cairo
Governorate consists of 41 districts; Alexandria Governorate consists of 7.

Two new governorates were created in April 2008: Helwan and 6th of October . In April 2011, however, the 6th of October and Helwan governorates were again incorporated into the Cairo
Cairo
and Giza Governorates, respectively. Luxor
Luxor
was created in December 2009, to be the 29th governorate of Egypt, but with the abolition of the 6th of October and Helwan governorates, the number of governorates has decreased to 27.

HISTORY

Before 1979, "local government traditionally enjoyed limited power in Egypt's highly centralized state. Under the central government, there were twenty-six governorates. These were subdivided into regions (conglomeration of villages; named in Arabic : مركز‎‎ markaz "center", plural: مراكز marākiz), each of which was further subdivided into towns or villages.

At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, and mayors, respectively. Governors were appointed by the president, and they, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers. The coercive backbone of the state apparatus ran downward from the Ministry of Interior through the governors' executive organs to the district police station and the village headman.

Before the 1952 revolution , state penetration of the rural areas was limited by the power of local notables. However, under Nasser , land reform reduced their socioeconomic dominance, and the incorporation of peasants into cooperatives transferred mass dependence from landlords to the government. The extension of officials into the countryside permitted the regime to bring development and services to the village. The local branches of the ruling party, the Arab Socialist Union (ASU), fostered a certain peasant political activism and coopted the local notables—in particular the village headmen—and checked their independence from the regime.

State penetration did not retreat under Sadat and Mubarak . The earlier effort to mobilize peasants and deliver services disappeared as the local party and cooperative withered, but administrative controls over the peasants remained intact. The local power of the old families and the headmen revived but more at the expense of peasants than of the state. The district police station balanced the notables, and the system of local government (the mayor and council) integrated them into the regime.

Sadat took several measures to decentralize power to the provinces and towns. Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of 1979, which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces. The elected councils acquired, at least formally, the right to approve or disapprove the local budget. In an effort to reduce local demands on the central treasury, local government was given wider powers to raise local taxes. Local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, and the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, and these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level. Under Mubarak decentralization and local autonomy became more of a reality, and local policies often reflected special local conditions. Thus, officials in Upper Egypt
Egypt
often bowed to the powerful Islamic movement there, while those in the port cities struck alliances with importers."

LIST OF GOVERNORATES OF EGYPT

Egyptian governorates No. on map NAME AREA (KM2) POPULATION (2015) CAPITAL

2 Alexandria
Alexandria
7003230000000000000♠2,300 7006481218600000000♠4,812,186 Alexandria
Alexandria

27 Aswan
Aswan
7004627260000000000♠62,726 7006143148800000000♠1,431,488 Aswan
Aswan

22 Asyut 7004259260000000000♠25,926 7006424521500000000♠4,245,215 Asyut

3 Beheira 7003982600000000000♠9,826 7006580426200000000♠5,804,262 Damanhur

19 Beni Suef 7004109540000000000♠10,954 7006285681200000000♠2,856,812 Beni Suef

16 Cairo
Cairo
7003308500000000000♠3,085 7006927844100000000♠9,278,441 Cairo
Cairo

5 Dakahlia 7003353800000000000♠3,538 7006594900100000000♠5,949,001 Mansoura

6 Damietta
Damietta
7002910000000000000♠910 7006133084300000000♠1,330,843 Damietta
Damietta

15 Faiyum
Faiyum
7003606800000000000♠6,068 7006317015000000000♠3,170,150 Faiyum
Faiyum

9 Gharbia 7003194200000000000♠1,942 7006475186500000000♠4,751,865 Tanta
Tanta

14 Giza
Giza
7004131840000000000♠13,184 7006758511500000000♠7,585,115 Giza
Giza

13 Ismailia
Ismailia
7003506700000000000♠5,067 7006117864100000000♠1,178,641 Ismailia
Ismailia

4 Kafr El Sheikh 7003346700000000000♠3,467 7006317275300000000♠3,172,753 Kafr El Sheikh

26 Luxor
Luxor
7003241000000000000♠2,410 7006114705800000000♠1,147,058 Luxor
Luxor

1 Matruh 7005166563000000000♠166,563 7005447846000000000♠447,846 Marsa Matruh

20 Minya 7004322790000000000♠32,279 7006515670200000000♠5,156,702 Minya

10 Monufia 7003249900000000000♠2,499 7006394129300000000♠3,941,293 Shibin El Kom

21 New Valley 7005440098000000000♠440,098 7005225416000000000♠225,416 Kharga

8 North Sinai 7004289920000000000♠28,992 7005434781000000000♠434,781 Arish
Arish

7 Port Said
Port Said
7003134500000000000♠1,345 7005666599000000000♠666,599 Port Said
Port Said

11 Qalyubia 7003112400000000000♠1,124 7006510597200000000♠5,105,972 Banha

25 Qena
Qena
7004107980000000000♠10,798 7006304550400000000♠3,045,504 Qena
Qena

23 Red Sea 7005119099000000000♠119,099 7005345775000000000♠345,775 Hurghada

12 Sharqia 7003491100000000000♠4,911 7006648541200000000♠6,485,412 Zagazig
Zagazig

24 Sohag 7004110220000000000♠11,022 7006460386100000000♠4,603,861 Sohag

18 South Sinai 7004312720000000000♠31,272 7005167426000000000♠167,426 El Tor

17 Suez 7003900200000000000♠9,002 7005622859000000000♠622,859 Suez

TOTAL 1,010,407 87,963,276

DEMOGRAPHICS BY GOVERNORATE

Main article: Demographics of Egypt
Egypt

URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION OF GOVERNORATES

Data taken from CAPMAS:

GOVERNORATE % URBAN POPULATION (2015) RURAL URBAN

Alexandria
Alexandria
7001988000000000000♠98.8 7006481218600000000♠4,812,186 7004566980000000000♠56,698 7006475548800000000♠4,755,488

Aswan
Aswan
7001423009999900000♠42.3 7006143148800000000♠1,431,488 7005826543000000000♠826,543 7005604945000000000♠604,945

Asyut 7001265000000000000♠26.5 7006424521500000000♠4,245,215 7006311911200000000♠3,119,112 7006112610300000000♠1,126,103

Beheira 7001195000000000000♠19.5 7006580426200000000♠5,804,262 7006467434600000000♠4,674,346 7006112991600000000♠1,129,916

Beni Suef 7001232000000000000♠23.2 7006285681200000000♠2,856,812 7006219387100000000♠2,193,871 7005662941000000000♠662,941

Cairo
Cairo
7002100000000000000♠100.0 7006927844100000000♠9,278,441 5000000000000000000♠0 7006927844100000000♠9,278,441

Dakahlia 7001282000000000000♠28.2 7006594900100000000♠5,949,001 7006427142800000000♠4,271,428 7006167757300000000♠1,677,573

Damietta
Damietta
7001387000000000000♠38.7 7006133084300000000♠1,330,843 7005815244000000000♠815,244 7005515599000000000♠515,599

Faiyum
Faiyum
7001225000000000000♠22.5 7006317015000000000♠3,170,150 7006245636800000000♠2,456,368 7005713782000000000♠713,782

Gharbia 7001300000000000000♠30.0 7006475186500000000♠4,751,865 7006332463000000000♠3,324,630 7006142723500000000♠1,427,235

Giza
Giza
7001586000000000000♠58.6 7006758511500000000♠7,585,115 7006313831000000000♠3,138,310 7006444680500000000♠4,446,805

Ismailia
Ismailia
7001454000000000000♠45.4 7006117864100000000♠1,178,641 7005643778000000000♠643,778 7005534863000000000♠534,863

Kafr El Sheikh 7001231000000000000♠23.1 7006317275300000000♠3,172,753 7006244124600000000♠2,441,246 7005731507000000000♠731,507

Luxor
Luxor
7001378009999900000♠37.8 7006114705800000000♠1,147,058 7005713422000000000♠713,422 7005433636000000000♠433,636

Matruh 7001706009999900000♠70.6 7005447846000000000♠447,846 7005131841000000000♠131,841 7005316005000000000♠316,005

Minya 7001189009999900000♠18.9 7006515670200000000♠5,156,702 7006418328400000000♠4,183,284 7005973418000000000♠973,418

Monufia 7001206000000000000♠20.6 7006394129300000000♠3,941,293 7006312846000000000♠3,128,460 7005812833000000000♠812,833

New Valley 7001480000000000000♠48.0 7005225416000000000♠225,416 7005117180000000000♠117,180 7005108236000000000♠108,236

North Sinai 7001602000000000000♠60.2 7005434781000000000♠434,781 7005173095000000000♠173,095 7005261686000000000♠261,686

Port Said
Port Said
7002100000000000000♠100.0 7005666599000000000♠666,599 5000000000000000000♠0 7005666599000000000♠666,599

Qalyubia 7001447000000000000♠44.7 7006510597200000000♠5,105,972 7006282504500000000♠2,825,045 7006228092700000000♠2,280,927

Qena
Qena
7001197000000000000♠19.7 7006304550400000000♠3,045,504 7006244505100000000♠2,445,051 7005600453000000000♠600,453

Red Sea 7001951000000000000♠95.1 7005345775000000000♠345,775 7004170620000000000♠17,062 7005328713000000000♠328,713

Sharqia 7001231000000000000♠23.1 7006648541200000000♠6,485,412 7006498770700000000♠4,987,707 7006149770500000000♠1,497,705

Sohag 7001214009999900000♠21.4 7006460386100000000♠4,603,861 7006361854300000000♠3,618,543 7005985318000000000♠985,318

South Sinai 7001511000000000000♠51.1 7005167426000000000♠167,426 7004819240000000000♠81,924 7004855020000000000♠85,502

Suez 7002100000000000000♠100.0 7005622859000000000♠622,859 5000000000000000000♠0 7005622859000000000♠622,859

TOTAL 42.7 87,963,276 50,384,188 37,579,088

POPULATION DENSITY BY GOVERNORATE

Egyptian Population Density in pre-2013 administrative divisions

Data taken from CAPMAS:. Information for population is in thousands, pop density - persons/km2 and area is in km2.

GOVERNORATE POPULATION IN THOUSANDS (2014-07-01) POP. DENSITY (INHABITED AREA) POP. DENSITY (TOTAL AREA) % INHABITED TO TOTAL INHABITED AREA TOTAL AREA

Alexandria
Alexandria
7003476100000000000♠4,761 7003284150000000000♠2,841.5 7003207000000000000♠2,070.0 7001728000000000000♠72.8 7003167550000000000♠1,675.50 7003230000000000000♠2,300.00

Aswan
Aswan
7003141200000000000♠1,412 7004134771000000000♠13,477.1 7001225000000000000♠22.5 6999200000000000000♠0.2 7002104770000000000♠104.77 7004627260000000000♠62,726.00

Asyut 7003418100000000000♠4,181 7003265630000000000♠2,656.3 7002161300000000000♠161.3 7000610000000000000♠6.1 7003157400000000000♠1,574.00 7004259260000000000♠25,926.00

Beheira 7003572000000000000♠5,720 7002806300000000000♠806.3 7002582100000000000♠582.1 7001722000000000000♠72.2 7003709384000000000♠7,093.84 7003982600000000000♠9,826.00

Beni Suef 7003281200000000000♠2,812 7003205340000000000♠2,053.4 7002256700000000000♠256.7 7001125000000000000♠12.5 7003136941000000000♠1,369.41 7004109540000000000♠10,954.00

Cairo
Cairo
7003918400000000000♠9,184 7004482353000000000♠48,235.3 7003297680000000000♠2,976.8 7000620000000000000♠6.2 7002190400000000000♠190.40 7003308512000000000♠3,085.12

Dakahlia 7003588100000000000♠5,881 7003166210000000000♠1,662.1 7003166210000000000♠1,662.1 7002100000000000000♠100.0 7003353823000000000♠3,538.23 7003353823000000000♠3,538.23

Damietta
Damietta
7003131600000000000♠1,316 7003196870000000000♠1,968.7 7003144570000000000♠1,445.7 7001734000000000000♠73.4 7002668470000000000♠668.47 7002910260000000000♠910.26

Faiyum
Faiyum
7003311800000000000♠3,118 7003168000000000000♠1,680.0 7002513790000099999♠513.8 7001306000000000000♠30.6 7003185600000000000♠1,856.00 7003606800000000000♠6,068.00

Gharbia 7003469800000000000♠4,698 7003241870000099999♠2,418.7 7003241870000099999♠2,418.7 7002100000000000000♠100.0 7003194234000000000♠1,942.34 7003194234000000000♠1,942.34

Giza
Giza
7003748700000000000♠7,487 7003628630000000000♠6,286.3 7002567900000000000♠567.9 7000900000000000000♠9.0 7003119100000000000♠1,191.00 7004131840000000000♠13,184.00

Ismailia
Ismailia
7003116200000000000♠1,162 7002229300000000000♠229.3 7002229300000000000♠229.3 7002100000000000000♠100.0 7003506697000000000♠5,066.97 7003506697000000000♠5,066.97

Kafr El Sheikh 7003313200000000000♠3,132 7002903500000000000♠903.5 7002903500000000000♠903.5 7002100000000000000♠100.0 7003346669000000000♠3,466.69 7003346669000000000♠3,466.69

Luxor
Luxor
7003113200000000000♠1,132 7003499270000000000♠4,992.7 7002469800000000000♠469.8 7000940000000000000♠9.4 7002226730000000000♠226.73 7003240968000099999♠2,409.68

Matruh 7002437000000000000♠437 7002111400000000000♠111.4 7000260000000000000♠2.6 7000240000000000000♠2.4 7003392140000000000♠3,921.40 7005166563000000000♠166,563.00

Minya 7003507600000000000♠5,076 7003210480000000000♠2,104.8 7002157300000000000♠157.3 7000750000000000000♠7.5 7003241165000000000♠2,411.65 7004322790000000000♠32,279.00

Monufia 7003389000000000000♠3,890 7003159690000000000♠1,596.9 7003155660000000000♠1,556.6 7001975000000000000♠97.5 7003243593000099999♠2,435.93 7003249900000000000♠2,499.00

New Valley 7002222000000000000♠222 7002205100000000000♠205.1 6999500000000000000♠0.5 6999200000000000000♠0.2 7003108224000000000♠1,082.24 7005440098000000000♠440,098.00

North Sinai 7002428000000000000♠428 7002203700000000000♠203.7 7001148000000000000♠14.8 7000720000000000000♠7.2 7003210084000000000♠2,100.84 7004289920000000000♠28,992.00

Port Said
Port Said
7002660000000000000♠660 7002499700000000000♠499.7 7002490700000000000♠490.7 7001982000000000000♠98.2 7003132068000000000♠1,320.68 7003134496000000000♠1,344.96

Qalyubia 7003504400000000000♠5,044 7003470210000000000♠4,702.1 7003448640000099999♠4,486.4 7001954000000000000♠95.4 7003107272000000000♠1,072.72 7003112428000000000♠1,124.28

Qena
Qena
7003300100000000000♠3,001 7003172410000000000♠1,724.1 7002277890000099999♠277.9 7001161000000000000♠16.1 7003174063000000000♠1,740.63 7004107980000000000♠10,798.00

Red Sea 7002341000000000000♠341 7003479400000000000♠4,794.0 7000290000000000000♠2.9 6999100000000000000♠0.1 7001711300000000000♠71.13 7005119099130000000♠119,099.13

Sharqia 7003640200000000000♠6,402 7003134370000000000♠1,343.7 7003130360000099999♠1,303.6 7001970000000000000♠97.0 7003476428000000000♠4,764.28 7003491100000000000♠4,911.00

Sohag 7003453600000000000♠4,536 7003284580000000000♠2,845.8 7002411500000000000♠411.5 7001145000000000000♠14.5 7003159392000000000♠1,593.92 7004110220000000000♠11,022.00

South Sinai 7002166000000000000♠166 7000990000000000000♠9.9 7000530000000000000♠5.3 7001537000000000000♠53.7 7004167910000000000♠16,791.00 7004312720000000000♠31,272.00

Suez 7002615000000000000♠615 7001683000000000000♠68.3 7001683000000000000♠68.3 7002100000000000000♠100.0 7003900221000099999♠9,002.21 7003900221000099999♠9,002.21

TOTAL 86,814 1109.1 85.9 7.8 78272.98 1010407.87

SEE ALSO

* Subdivisions of Egypt * Regions of Egypt
Egypt
* List of Egyptian cities * List of political and geographic subdivisions by total area * ISO 3166-2:EG

REFERENCES

* ^ "Governorates of Egypt". Statoids. Retrieved 16 October 2016. * ^ Reem Leila. "Redrawing the map". Al Ahram Weekly (On-line). Archived from the original on 2009-08-10. Retrieved 2008-05-19. * ^ http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/0/10037/Egypt/Egypts-PM-centralises-Helwan-and--October-governor.aspx * ^ " Luxor
Luxor
announced Egypt’s 29th governorate". Archived from the original on February 13, 2010. Retrieved 2009-12-08. * ^ A B C D E Metz, ed, Helen Chapin (1990). Egypt: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 21 October 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ A B C " Egypt
Egypt
in Figures