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In the United States, a governorIn the United States, a governor serves as the chief executive officer and commander-in-chief in each of the fifty states and in the five permanently inhabited territories, functioning as both head of state and head of government therein.[nb 1] As such, governors are responsible for implementing state laws and overseeing the operation of the state executive branch. As state leaders, governors advance and pursue new and revised policies and programs using a variety of tools, among them executive orders, executive budgets, and legislative proposals and vetoes. Governors carry out their management and leadership responsibilities and objectives with the support and assistance of department and agency heads, many of whom they are empowered to appoint. A majority of governors have the authority to appoint state court judges as well, in most cases from a list of names submitted by a nominations committee.[1]

All but five states (Arizona, Maine, New Hampshire, Oregon, and Wyoming) have a lieutenant governor. The lieutenant governor succeeds to the gubernatorial office (the powers and duties but not the office, in Massachusetts and West Virginia), if vacated by the removal from office, death, or resignation of the previous governor. Lieutenant governors also serve as unofficial acting state governors in case the incumbent governors are unable to fulfill their duties, and they often serve as presiding officers of the upper houses of state legislatures. But in such cases, they cannot participate in political debates, and they have no vote whenever these houses are not equally divided.

Role and powers

States are semi-sovereign republics under the federal government of the United States, and possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution, such as regulating intrastate commerce, holding elections, creating local governments, and ratifying constitutional amendments. Each state has its own constitution, grounded in republican principles, and government, consisting of three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.[2] Also, due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government, Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside.[3]

The governor heads the government's executive branch in each state or territory and, depending on the individual jurisdiction, may have considerable control over government budgeting, the power of appointment of many officials (including many judges), and a considerable role in legislation. The governor may also have additional roles, such as that of commander-in-chief of the state's National Guard (when not federalized) and of that state's respective defense force (which is not subject to federalization). In many states and territories the governor also has partial or absolute power to commute or pardon a criminal sentence. All U.S. governors serve four-year terms except those in New Hampshire and Vermont, who serve two-year terms.

In all states, the governor is directly elected, and in most cases has considerable practical powers, though this may be moderated by the state legislature and in some cases by other elected executive officials. In the five extant U.S. territories, all governors are now directly elected as well, though in the past many territorial governors were historically appointed by the President of the United States. Governors can veto state bills, and in all but seven states they have the power of the line-item veto on appropriations bills (a power the President does not have). In some cases legislatures can override a gubernatorial veto by a two-thirds vote, in others by three-fifths.

In Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee, the governor's veto can be overridden by a simple majority vote, making it virtually useless. In Arkansas, a gubernatorial veto may be overridden by an absolute majority. The governor of North Carolina had no veto power until a 1996 referendum. In 47 of the 50 states, whenever there is a vacancy of one of the state's U.S. Senate seats, that state's governor has the power to appoint someone to fill the vacancy until a special election is held; the governors of <

All but five states (Arizona, Maine, New Hampshire, Oregon, and Wyoming) have a lieutenant governor. The lieutenant governor succeeds to the gubernatorial office (the powers and duties but not the office, in Massachusetts and West Virginia), if vacated by the removal from office, death, or resignation of the previous governor. Lieutenant governors also serve as unofficial acting state governors in case the incumbent governors are unable to fulfill their duties, and they often serve as presiding officers of the upper houses of state legislatures. But in such cases, they cannot participate in political debates, and they have no vote whenever these houses are not equally divided.

States are semi-sovereign republics under the federal government of the United States, and possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution, such as regulating intrastate commerce, holding elections, creating local governments, and ratifying constitutional amendments. Each state has its own constitution, grounded in republican principles, and government, consisting of three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.[2] Also, due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government, Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside.[3]

The governor heads the government's executive branch in each state or territory and, depending on the individual jurisdiction, may have considerable control over government budgeting, the power of appointment of many officials (including many judges), and a considerable role in legislation. The governor may also have additional roles, such as that of commander-in-chief of the state's National Guard (when not federalized) and of that state's respective defense force (which is not subject to federalization). In many states and territories the governor also has partial or absolute power to commute or pardon a criminal sentence. All U.S. governors serve four-year terms except those in New Hampshire and Vermont, who serve two-year terms.

In all states, the governor is directly elected, and in most cases has considerable practical powers, though this may be moderated by the state legislature and in some cases by other elected executive officials. In the five extant U.S. territories, all governors are now directly elected as well, though in the past many territorial governors were historically appointed by the President of the United States. Governors can veto state bills, and in all but seven states they have the power of the line-item veto on appropriations bills (a power the President does not have). In some cases legislatures can override a gubernatorial veto by a two-thirds vote, in others by three-fifths.

In Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee, the governor's veto can be overridden by a simple majority vote, making it virtually useless. In Arkansas, a gubernatorial veto may be overridden by an absolute majority. The governor of North Carolina had no veto power until a 1996 referendum. In 47 of the 50 states, whenever there is a vacancy of one of the state's U.S. Senate seats, that state's governor has the power to appoint someone to fill the vacancy until a special election is held; the governors of Oregon, Alaska, and Wisconsin do not have this power.[4]

A state governor may give an annual State of the State address in order to satisfy a constitutional stipulation that a governor must report annually (or in older constitutions described as being "from time to time") on the state or condition of the state. Governors of states may also perform ceremonial roles, such as greeting dignitaries, conferring state decorations, issuing symbolic proclamations or att

The governor heads the government's executive branch in each state or territory and, depending on the individual jurisdiction, may have considerable control over government budgeting, the power of appointment of many officials (including many judges), and a considerable role in legislation. The governor may also have additional roles, such as that of commander-in-chief of the state's National Guard (when not federalized) and of that state's respective defense force (which is not subject to federalization). In many states and territories the governor also has partial or absolute power to commute or pardon a criminal sentence. All U.S. governors serve four-year terms except those in New Hampshire and Vermont, who serve two-year terms.

In all states, the governor is directly elected, and in most cases has considerable practical powers, though this may be moderated by the state legislature and in some cases by other elected executive officials. In the five extant U.S. territories, all governors are now directly elected as well, though in the past many territorial governors were historically appointed by the President of the United States. Governors can veto state bills, and in all but seven states they have the power of the line-item veto on appropriations bills (a power the President does not have). In some cases legislatures can override a gubernatorial veto by a two-thirds vote, in others by three-fifths.

In Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee, the governor's veto can be overridden by a simple majority vote, making it virtually useless. In Arkansas, a gubernatorial veto may be overridden by an absolute majority. The governor of North Carolina had no veto power until a 1996 referendum. In 47 of the 50 states, whenever there is a vacancy of one of the state's U.S. Senate seats, that state's governor has the power to appoint someone to fill the vacancy until a special election is held; the governors of Oregon, Alaska, and Wisconsin do not have this power.[4]

A state governor may give an annual State of the State address in order to satisfy a constitutional stipulation that a governor must report annually (or in older constitutions described as being "from time to time") on the state or condition of the state. Governors of states may also perform ceremonial roles, such as greeting dignitaries, conferring state decorations, issuing symbolic proclamations or attending the state fair. The governor may also have an official residence (see Governor's Mansion).

In a ranking of the power of the governorship in all 50 states, University of North Carolina political scientist Thad Beyle makes the distinction between "personal powers" of governors, which are factors that vary from person to person, season to season - and the "institutional powers" that are set in place by law. Examples of measurable personal factors are how large a governor's margin of victory was on election day, and where he or she stands in public opinion polls. Whether a governor has strong budget controls, appointment authority, and veto powers are examples of institutional powers.[5]

In colonial North America, governors were chosen in a variety of ways, depending on how the colony was organized. In the crown colonies of Great Britain, France, and Spain, the governor was chosen by the ruling monarch of the colonizing power, or his designees; in British colonies, the Board of Trade was often the primary decision maker. Colonies based on a corporate charter, such as the Connecticut Colony and the Massachusetts Bay Colony, elected their own governors based on rules spelled out in the charter or other colonial legislation. In proprietary colonies, such as the Province of Carolina before it became a crown colony (and was divided into North and South), governors were chosen by the Lords Proprietor who controlled the colony. In the early years of the American Revolutionary War, eleven of the Thirteen Colonies evicted (with varying levels of violence) royal and proprietary governors. The other two colonies (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had corporate charters; Connecticut Governor Jonathan Trumbull was governor before and during the war period, while in Rhode Island, Governor Joseph Wanton was removed from office in 1775 for failing to support the rebel war effort.

Before achieving statehood, many of the 50 states were territories or parts of territories. Administered by the federal government, they had governors who were appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate rather than elected by the resident population. Election of territorial governors

Before achieving statehood, many of the 50 states were territories or parts of territories. Administered by the federal government, they had governors who were appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate rather than elected by the resident population. Election of territorial governors began in Puerto Rico in 1948. The last appointed territorial governor, Hyrum Rex Lee in American Samoa, left office in 1978.

There are currently 26 states with a Republican governor and 24 states with a Democratic governor. Four Democrats (including the Mayor of the District of Columbia), one Republican, and one New Progressive also occupy territorial governorships or mayorships. No independent and other third parties currently hold a governorship.[6]

Tenure

Governors' terms by state

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ The federal district of Washington, D.C. has been led by a chief executive officer of varying titles, including governor. The current governor-equivalent of D.C. is the Mayor of the District of Columbia.

References

  1. ^ "Governors' Powers and Authority". Nga.org. Washington, D.C.: National Governors Association. 2011.
  2. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions About the Minnesota Legislature". Minnesota State Legislature.
  3. ^ Erler, Edward. "Essays on Amendment XIV: Citizenship". The Heritage Foundation.
  4. ^ "CRS Report for Congress" (PDF). Senate.gov. January 22, 2003. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  5. ^ Swanson, Stevenson (September 2, 2001). "Governors' powers ranked". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  6. ^ "2020 State & Legislative Partisan Composition" (PDF). National Conference of State Legislatures. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  7. ^ ""Stevens Thomson Mason - Background Reading"". Michigan.gov. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  8. ^ Staff, MNHS Reference. "LibGuides: Harold E. Stassen:". Mnhs.org. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  9. ^ "Candidates". Vermont Secretary of State. Retrieved 2019-02-25.
  10. ^ Schneier, Matthew (2019-01-09). "Colorado's Got a Gay Governor. Who Cares?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
  11. ^ Parks, Casey (2015-02-18). "Governor Kate Brown's bisexuality draws national commentary". oregonlive.com. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
  12. ^ "ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. December 2019. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  13. ^ "Governors' Salaries Range From $70,000 to $187,256". Pewtrusts.org. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  14. ^ "Statewide Payroll". Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  15. ^ Woodall, Hunter (2017-09-28). "As third teen joins Kansas governor race, consider this: No rule says a dog can't run". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  16. ^ Paiella, Gabriella (2017-09-28). "Kansas Gubernatorial Race Flooded With Teen Candidates". The Cut. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  17. ^ "Governor of Alabama". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  18. ^ "Article III, Alaska Constitution". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  19. ^ "Governor of Arizona". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  20. ^ "Governor of Arkansas". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  21. ^ "Governor of California". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  22. ^ "Covernor of Colorado". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-01.
  23. ^ "Governor of Connecticut". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-01.
  24. ^ "Governor of Delaware". Retrieved 2017-10-01.
  25. ^ "Governor of Florida". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-01.
  26. ^ "Governor of Georgia". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-05.
  27. ^ "Governor of Hawaii". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-02.
  28. ^ "The Executive Department, Kentucky Constitutions". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-02.
  29. ^ "Governor of Louisiana". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-04.
  30. ^ "Governor of Maine". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-05.
  31. ^ "Governor of Maryland". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-07.
  32. ^ "Chapter 2, Massachusetts Constitution". Ballotpedia.
  33. ^ "Governor of Michigan". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-07.
  34. ^ "Governor of Minnesota". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-07.
  35. ^ "Governor of Mississippi". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
  36. ^ "Governor of Missouri". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
  37. ^ "Governor of Montana". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
  38. ^ "Governor of Nebraska". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2017-10-09.
  39. ^ "Governor of Nevada". Ballotpedia. Retrieved