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A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an administration. There is a notable variety of agency types. Although usage differs, a government agency is normally distinct both from a department or ministry, and other types of public body established by government. The functions of an agency are normally executive in character, since different types of organizations (such as commissions) are most often constituted in an advisory role—this distinction is often blurred in practice however, it is not allowed.

A government agency may be established by either a national government or a state government within a federal system. The term is not normally used for an organization created by the powers of a local government body. Agencies can be established by legislation or by executive powers. The autonomy, independence and accountability of government agencies also vary widely.

History

Early examples of organizations that would now be termed a government agency include the British Navy Board, responsible for ships and supplies, which was established[1] in 1546 by King Henry VIII and the British Commissioners of Bankruptcy established[2] in 1570.

From 1933, the New Deal saw growth in US federal agencies, the "alphabet agencies" as they were used to deliver new programs created by legislation, such as the Federal Emergency Relief Administration.

From the 1980s, as part of New Public Management, several countries including Australia and the United Kingdom developed the use of agencies to improve efficiency in public services.

Australia

Canada

France

Administrative law in France refers to autorité administrative indépendante (AAI) or Independent Administrative Authorities. They tend to be prominent in the following areas of public policy;

  • Economic and financial regulation
  • Information and communication
  • Defence of citizens' rights

Independent Administrative Authorities in France may not be instructed or ordered to take specific actions by government.

Germany

Greece

The General Secretariat for Macedonia and Thrace (Greek: Γενική Γραμματεία Μακεδονίας-Θράκης), previously Ministry for Macedonia and Thrace (Greek: Υπουργείο Μακεδονίας-Θράκης) is a government agency of the Hellenic Republic that is responsible for the Greek regions of Macedonia and Thrace.

Iceland

India

The term agency in India has several meanings; for example, the Cabinet and the parliament Secretariat describes itself[3] as a "nodal agency for coordination amongst the ministries of the Govt. of India". Most notably as an international feature, what appear to be independent agencies (or apex agencies) include some that have active roles for Ministers: such as, the National Security Council, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, and the Planning Commission, which is chaired ex officio by the Prime Minister.

Russian Federation

Russia has had many government agencies throughout its history. The USSR had the secretive KGB. Today, Russian government agencies such as the FSB, FSO, and the GRU use Spetsnaz or other masked operators for any missions. Other organizations include Kremlin and presidential security.

Sweden

The Government agencies in Swede

A government agency may be established by either a national government or a state government within a federal system. The term is not normally used for an organization created by the powers of a local government body. Agencies can be established by legislation or by executive powers. The autonomy, independence and accountability of government agencies also vary widely.

Early examples of organizations that would now be termed a government agency include the British Navy Board, responsible for ships and supplies, which was established[1] in 1546 by King Henry VIII and the British Commissioners of Bankruptcy established[2] in 1570.

From 1933, the New Deal saw growth in US federal agencies, the "alphabet agencies" as they were used to deliver new programs created by legislation, such as the Federal Emergency Relief Administration.

From the 1980s, as part of New Public Management, several countries including Australia and the United Kingdom developed the use of agencies to improve efficiency in public services.

Australia

Canada

France

Administrative law in France refers to autorité administrative indépendante (AAI) or Independent Administrative Authorities. They tend to be prominent in the following areas of public policy;

  • Economic and financial regulation
  • Information and communication
  • Defence of citizens' rights

Independent Administrative Authorities in France may not be instructed or ordered to take specific actions by government.

Germany