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The Government of National Salvation
Government of National Salvation
(Serbo-Croatian: Vlada narodnog spasa / Влада народног спаса; German: Regierung der nationalen Rettung), also referred to as the Nedić's regime (Nedićev režim / Недићев режим), was the second Serbian puppet government, after the Commissioner Government, established on the Territory of the (German) Military Commander in Serbia[Note 1] during World War II. It was appointed by the German Military Commander in Serbia and operated from 29 August 1941 to October 1944. The GNS enjoyed some support.[2] The Prime Minister throughout was General Milan Nedić. The Government of National Salvation
Government of National Salvation
was evacuated from Belgrade
Belgrade
first to Sofia
Sofia
than to Budapest
Budapest
and later to Kitzbühel
Kitzbühel
in the first week of October 1944 before the German withdrawal from Serbia was complete.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Formation 1.2 Waning power 1.3 Relations with the Chetniks 1.4 Accepting refugees 1.5 Final days of the regime 1.6 After the war

2 Military

2.1 Serbian State Guard 2.2 Auxiliary formations

3 Administrative divisions 4 List of ministers 5 Education 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Sources

9.1 Books 9.2 Journals

History[edit] Formation[edit]

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Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, Germany placed Serbia proper under the authority of a military government to maintain control over important resources. Those included two major transportation routes, the Danube River
Danube River
waterway and the railroad line connecting Europe with Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Greece, along with nonferrous metals that Serbia produced. The Germans decided to set up a puppet government in order to not tie up a large amount of German manpower.[3] The first puppet government was the short-lived Commissioner Government, established on 30 May 1941, under the leadership of Milan Aćimović. He was an anti-communist and had been in contact with the German police before the war. His cabinet consisted of nine members, many of whom were former cabinet members under the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
and were known to be pro-German. However, it lacked any real power and was no more than an instrument of the Germans. As communist partisans began an insurgency against the German occupiers and the Aćimović government, Harald Turner, an SS commander in the German military administration, suggested strengthening and reforming the administration. General Milan Nedić, formerly chief of general staff of the Royal Yugoslav Army, was selected to be the head of the new government. On 29 August 1941, Nedić was installed as the prime minister following the resignation of the Commissioner Administration. His first cabinet included fifteen members. The Germans were particularly impressed with his reputation as a man of authority. They threatened to bring in Bulgarian troops to occupy the whole of Serbia, including Belgrade, if he did not accept.[4] The regime did not have any international standing even among the Axis powers. Although Heinrich Danckelmann, the Military Commander in Serbia, promised to give Nedić and his government a high degree of authority and independence, the deal was never written down, so his oral agreements were void after he was replaced by General Franz Böhme. Although Turner attempted to convince Danckellmann's successors to grant the Government of National Salvation more power, his requests were ignored. However, they did allow him to organize a Serbian State Guard
Serbian State Guard
(Srpska državna straža, SDS), unifying the Serbian gendarmerie and other formations.[5] Waning power[edit] In his first radio address on Radio Belgrade, Nedić condemned the communist-led resistance and gave them an ultimatum to put down their arms. However, Nedić soon lost control of the State Guard, when, on 22 January 1942, General August Meyszner, the Higher SS and Police Leader in Serbia, took command of it. The Government of National Salvation gradually lost more power to the Germans, who intervened in even the smallest decisions that it made. Nedić's already small following among Serbians declined even further as a result of this weakness. He attempted to resign twice, but each time he ended up changing his mind and withdrawing the resignation. Nedić also ended up reorganizing his cabinet, removing two minister on October 1942 and several more in November 1943, at which point he also took over as the interior minister.[5] Dimitrije Ljotić, the leader of one of the most effective anti-partisan detachments, the Serbian Volunteer Corps (Srpski dobrovoljački korpus, SDK), maintained some degree of influence over the prime minister, although he refused to take a government position himself. Nedić once told Turner that Ljotić would make a good successor in the event of his departure. The SDK was not part of the SS or the Wehrmacht, instead it was nominally directed by the puppet government, and was paid by the government.[6] Relations between the Serbian government and the Bulgarian occupation forces in Serbia were strained. A colonel in the Bulgarian 6th Division noted that the local population hated the Bulgarians as much as they hated the Germans.[7] Nedić frequently complained about their presence to the Germans and demanded that the Bulgarians withdrew from Serbia.[8] In the Banat, a special regime was established, administered by the local German minority. The Serbian puppet government recognized it as the civilian administration of the region, under Belgrade's nominal control. A detachment of the SDS was created there, the Banat State Guard, which recruited its members from the local ethnic Germans. It had of 94 officers and 846 privates as of March 1942.[9] In March 1942, in the face of the government's growing unpopularity, Nedić sent a memorandum to the Germans with suggestions to improve its standing. They included having elections for a head of state, forming a single national political party, giving the head of state command of the SDS, only interfering with the higher levels of the Serbian government to give them more freedom to work with the Serbian people, and withdrawing Bulgarian forces from Serbia. General Paul Bader, the new Military Commander in Serbia, had Turner speak with Nedić, pressuring the prime minister to withdraw the memorandum. Backed by the entire cabinet, Nedić refused to withdraw it and asked for the memorandum to be sent to Berlin
Berlin
for consideration. It was sent, where the German high command ignored it. Nedić tried again in September 1942, this time threatening to resign for greater effect. The Germans declined it but persuaded him to remain in office. German Wehrmacht officers in Serbia nonetheless still considered Nedić to be loyal and praised him for being a dependable man.[10] Relations with the Chetniks[edit]

Official seal.

Cooperation between the Serbian puppet government and the Chetniks began in the fall of 1941, during a major German operation in western Serbia against the partisans. The Chetniks
Chetniks
wanted to minimize Serbian casualties from German reprisals by defeating the partisans, and later wanted to gain a solid base in the Nedić regime's military and administrative apparatus, so that they could seize control of the government before the partisans at the end of the war. Many members of the Serbian government maintained contact with the Chetniks, including interior minister Milan Aćimović. He later served as the liaison between the Germans and the Chetnik leader Draža Mihailović. Several Chetnik units "legalized" themselves by serving with the quisling forces of the Serbian puppet government, but at the same time, Chetniks
Chetniks
also took part in activities against the Germans and their auxiliaries. The government's armed forces gave weapons and other supplies to the Chetniks
Chetniks
and provided them with intelligence.[11] Legalized Chetnik forces included the Pećanac Chetniks, which fought against the partisans with the Serbian government forces since August 1941. The Germans did not trust them. At the peak of their strength in May 1942, the legalized Chetniks
Chetniks
numbered at 13,400 officers, non-commissioned officers, and men. Chetnik detachments were, as with the other Serbian forces, under German command. Most legalized Chetnik detachments were dissolved in late 1942, with the last being dissolved in March 1943. Some of them joined the SDS or SDK, but the majority returned to Mihailović's illegal Chetniks.[12] The Chetniks
Chetniks
made a number of agreements with the Germans in 1943, bypassing the Serbian puppet government, which resulted in Nedić and his regime losing what support it had left among the people. Many members of his administration, including government officials, as well as military and police officers, made secret deals with the Chetniks
Chetniks
themselves. Those included Aćimović, Belgrade's mayor, Dragomir Jovanović, and General Miodrag Damjanović of the State Guard.[8] Accepting refugees[edit] One area in which the Government of National Salvation
Government of National Salvation
did have success was the acceptance of Serb refugees that fled from neighboring states, most notably the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
(NDH). The Ustaše, a Nazi-affiliated Croatian ultranationalist paramilitary organization in the NDH, expelled roughly a third of all ethnic Serbs inside the NDH, while the other two thirds of Serbs in the NDH were either murdered or forcibly converted to Roman Catholicism. The Germans transferred some Slovenes
Slovenes
to the Serbian rump state as that territory was incorporated into Nazi Germany. Other sources of refugees included Bulgarian-occupied Macedonia and the Italian governorate of Montenegro. Franz Neuhausen, the German plenipotentiary for economic affairs, estimated that there were about 420,000 refugees in Serbia. The Nedić regime created a Committee for Refugees in May 1941 to handle them, headed by Toma Maksimović, a former factory boss from Borovo. While the committee had difficulties in finding enough food, housing, and other supplies for them, the refugees were well received by the Serbian population. Food was especially difficult to provide due to the Germans exporting it to the Reich or to German forces in Greece. Most of the able-bodied refugees were employed, while children were either placed into different households or orphanages.[citation needed] German officials pointed out that transfers of people from the NDH to Serbia increased the unrest in the territory, due to the fact some refugees joined the Partisans or the Chetniks. The Serbian government, and some German officials, wanted to repatriate some Serbs to the places that they came from, but this was denied by the military administration, due to the difficulties that would be present for them in the NDH.[13] Final days of the regime[edit] As the tide turned against Germany during the war, the German occupational administration sought to ally all anti-communist forces to fight against the partisans, including Mihailović's Chetniks. Hermann Neubacher was made the special envoy of the German foreign ministry in Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1943. He had formerly worked in Romania and Greece, and sought to improve the German military position in the region by increasing the power of the Nedić regime. He planned to form a "Greater Serbian Federation", which would have included Serbia and Montenegro. He also attempted to curtail the authority of the German military in Serbia, return command of the SDS to Nedić, and to reopen the University of Belgrade. However, none of his ideas came to fruition, due to the fact that they had no support from foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, nor from anyone else in the German government. Hitler himself had no wish to strengthen the puppet government as he thought that it was unreliable. As Nedić's power decreased even further, more members of his government started working for the Chetniks.[8] The Germans' workings with the Chetniks
Chetniks
angered Nedić, who wrote a nine-page list of complaints to the Germans on 22 February 1944. The list included complaints that the Germans were now giving Mihailović more power than him. Nedić criticized the large burden of occupation costs and German interference at even the lowest levels of his administration, and the fact that none of his proposals for improving the situation were accepted. After that, the Military Commander in Serbia (Hans Felber, who replaced Bader in 1943) asked Nedić for his opinion about a change of policy towards the Chetniks, but it was also ignored. Only one of Neubacher's policy changes were successful, the easing of reprisals against the Serbian population by German forces.[8] Nedić and Mihailović met on 20 August 1944 to discuss the situation in Serbia and how they should respond to it. The two agreed that they needed more arms from the Germans for the Chetniks
Chetniks
and the SDS to fight the partisans, and were able to convince Generalfeldmarschall Maximilian von Weichs, the German commander-in-chief of southeastern Europe, to try to provide them with more weapons. However, they ultimately got very little additional equipment. In late August 1944, the partisans began an offensive against the Germans and the anti-communist Serbian forces, and the Allies began dropping supplies into Serbia. They also bombed communications lines, in an attempt to make it impossible for the German forces in Greece to link up with those in Serbia. The Chetniks
Chetniks
were forced out of the country by late September, and Soviet operations began in early October in the east. German forces and Serbian SDS troops were forced to withdraw under the pressure of multiple attacks.[8] After the war[edit] Belgrade
Belgrade
was liberated by partisans and Soviet forces in the Belgrade Offensive, which was finished on 20 October 1944. Nedić and what remained of his government fled the country in the first week of October to Austria, dissolving the regime. The command of the SDS was transferred to General Damjanović, who gave command of it to Mihailović, although they were separated in January 1945 in Bosnia. He and the other collaborators were handed over by the British to the Yugoslav communist authorities in early 1946. In early February of that year, it was reported that Nedić committed suicide by falling out of a window at a Belgrade
Belgrade
hospital.[8] Military[edit] Serbian State Guard[edit] Main article: Serbian State Guard The Government of National Salvation
Government of National Salvation
founded a military, the Serbian State Guard (Srpska državna straža or SDS, Српска државна стража). It was formed from the former Yugoslav gendarmerie regiments, was created with the approval of the German military authorities. Nedić initially had control over it as the commander-in-chief, but from 1942 the Higher SS and Police Leader
Higher SS and Police Leader
took command.[5] The SDS was also known as the Nedićevci after Milan Nedić, the prime minister of the Government of National Salvation, who eventually gained control of its operations. The Serbian State Guard
Serbian State Guard
initially numbered 13,400 men.[14] The Guard was divided into three sections: the urban police, the rural area forces, and the frontier guard. In late 1943, the Guard numbered 36,716 men.[5] In October 1944, as the Red Army
Red Army
closed on Belgrade, the SDS was transferred to Mihailović's control by a member of the fleeing Nedić administration,[8] at which point it fled north and briefly fought under German command in Slovenia before being captured by the British near the Italian-Yugoslav border in May 1945.[15] The SDS was equipped using arms and ammunition captured by the Germans from throughout Europe, and was organised as a largely static force split across five regions (oblasts): Belgrade, Kraljevo, Niš, Valjevo and Zaječar, with one battalion per region. Each region was further divided into three districts (okrugs), each of which included one or more SDS companies.[16] An independent force known as the Banat State Guard operated in the Banat region, which numbered less than one thousand men.[9] Auxiliary formations[edit] Main articles: Serbian Volunteer Corps (World War II), Pećanac Chetniks, 1st Belgrade
Belgrade
Special
Special
Combat detachment, Russian Corps, and Belgrade
Belgrade
Special
Special
Police See also: Chetniks In addition to the State Guard, a number of other formations fought in Serbia alongside the Germans. Those included the Serbian Volunteer Corps, formed in September 1941 by as the Serbian Volunteer Detachments, under Dimitrije Ljotić, a member of the fascist Yugoslav National Movement. The organization was divided into nineteen detachments, and after being renamed the Serbian Volunteer Corps, received a new structure that included companies, battalions, and regiments. It consisted of about 12,000 members, and included about 150 Croats. It was the only Serbian collaborationist formation trusted by the Germans, and was praised by German commanders for its valor in action.[6] There was also a group of Chetniks, the Pećanac Chetniks, that became "legalized" and fought for the Germans and the puppet government until being disarmed in 1943.[12] A force of White Russian volunteers was also formed, the Russian Protective Corps. It consisted of White émigrés living in Serbia that wanted to fight against the communist partisans, and included about 300 Soviet prisoners of war.[17] Administrative divisions[edit]

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Administrative subdivisions instituted by the Government of National Salvation.

Serbia's borders initially incorporated parts of the territory of five of the prewar banovinas.[18] In October 1941, the Germans ordered the Nedić government to reorganise the territory, as the existing structure was not suitable and did not meet military requirements. By means of an order issued on 4 December 1941, the German military commander adjusted the military-administrative structure to conform to German requirements.[19] As a result, the district (Serbian: okrug) subdivision (which had existed in the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Slovenes
prior to the formation of the banovinas) was restored. The Nedić government issued a decree on 23 December 1941 by which Serbia was divided into 14 districts (Serbian: okruzi) and 101 municipalities (Serbian: srezovi).[18] The District of Veliki Bečkerek
Veliki Bečkerek
(also known as The Banat) was theoretically part of Serbia, but became an autonomous district, run by the members of local ethnic German population.[20] On 27 December 1941, the heads of the districts were appointed and met with Milan Nedić, Milan Aćimović, Tanasije Dinić, and Cvetan Đorđević.

County Districts

Belgrade
Belgrade
County Belgrade, Grocka, Lazarevac, Mladenovac, Palanka, Smederevo, Sopot, Umka, Veliko Orašje

Ivanjica
Ivanjica
County Istok, Ivanjica, Podujevo, Mitrovica, Novi Pazar, Raška, Srbica, Vučitrn

Kragujevac
Kragujevac
County Aranđelovac, Gornji Milanovac
Gornji Milanovac
Gruža, Kragujevac, Orašac, Rača, Rudnik

Kraljevo
Kraljevo
County Čačak, Guča, Kraljevo, Preljina

Kruševac
Kruševac
County Aleksandrovac, Brus, Kruševac, Ražanj, Trstenik

Jagodina
Jagodina
County Ćuprija, Despotovac, Jagodina, Paraćin, Rekovac, Svilajnac, Varvarin

Leskovac
Leskovac
County Kuršumlija, Lebane, Leskovac, Prokuplje, Vladičin Han, Vlasotince

Niš
Niš
County Aleksinac, Bela Palanka, Lužnica, Niš, Petrovac, Svrljig, Žitkovac

Požarevac
Požarevac
County Golubac, Kučevo, Petrovac, Požarevac, Veliko Gradište, Žabari, Žagubica

Šabac
Šabac
County Bogatić, Krupanj, Ljubovija, Loznica, Obrenovac, Šabac, Vladimirci

Užice
Užice
County Arilje, Bajina Bašta, Čajetina, Kosjerić, Požega, Užice

Valjevo
Valjevo
County Kamenica, Mionica, Valjevo, Ub

Veliki Bečkerek
Veliki Bečkerek
County Alibunar, Bela Crkva, Jaša Tomić, Kikinda, Kovačica, Kovin, Nova Kanjiža, Novi Bečej, Pančevo, Sečanj, Veliki Bečkerek, Vršac

Zaječar
Zaječar
County Boljevac, Bor, Brza Palanka, Donji Milanovac, Kladovo, Knjaževac, Kraljevo
Kraljevo
Selo, Negotin, Salaš, Sokobanja, Zaječar

List of ministers[edit] President of the Council of Ministers

# Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of Office Notes

1

Milan Nedić (1878–1946) 29 August 1941 4 October 1944 After the war, he was captured and died after falling out of a window at a Belgrade
Belgrade
hospital.

Minister of Internal Affairs

# Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of Office Notes

1

Milan Aćimović (1898–1945) 29 August 1941 10 November 1942 He was killed by Yugoslav Partisans
Yugoslav Partisans
in May 1945.

2

Tanasije Dinić (1891–1946) 10 November 1942 5 November 1943 He was captured by Yugoslav authorities after the war and executed.

3

Milan Nedić (1878–1946) 5 November 1943 4 October 1944 He was the president of the council and interior minister concurrently from November 1943.

Minister of Construction

# Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of Office Notes

1

Ognjen Kuzmanović (1895-1967) 29 August 1941 4 October 1944 after the Government's fall he went to Germany until his death

Minister of Postal and Telegraph Affairs

# Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of Office Notes

1

Josif Kostić (1877–1960) 29 August 1941 4 October 1944 Survived the war and died in Switzerland
Switzerland
in 1960.

Minister of the Presidency Council

# Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of Office Notes

1

Momčilo Janković (1883–1944) 29 August 1941 5 October 1941 Left the government after disagreements with other ministers, executed by partisans in 1944.

Minister of Education

# Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of Office Notes

1

Miloš Trivunac (1876–1944) 29 August 1941 7 October 1941 Executed by partisans in 1944.

2

Velibor Jonić (1892–1946) 7 October 1941 4 October 1944 He was captured by Yugoslav authorities after the war and executed.

Minister of Finance

# Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of Office Notes

1

Dušan Letica (1884-1945) 29 August 1941 26 October 1943 Left the government in 1943 he was captured in Hamburg
Hamburg
by the Soviets and extradited to Yugoslavia in July 1945 was executed after the war. he and many others marked the shooting of the Yugoslav Partisan fighter Marko Ristić in 1942. he Survived a assassination attempt in Belgrade
Belgrade
on 4 August 1942 by a group of Yugoslav Partisans

2

Ljubiša M. Bojić (1912-1980) 26 October 1943 22 February 1944 Soon Left the government in 1944 and was executed by the Yugoslav communist in the summer of 1980

3

Dušan Đorđević (1880-1969) 22 February 1944 4 October 1944 Survived the war and died in Austria
Austria
1969

Minister of Labor

# Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of Office Notes

1

Panta Draškić (1881–1957) 29 August 1941 10 November 1942 Served in prison after the war in Yugoslavia, and holds the distinction of being the only member of the Nedić regime that remained in the country that did not get executed.[21]

Minister of Justice

# Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of Office Notes

1

Čedomir Marjanović (1906-1945) 29 August 1941 10 November 1942 he was captured by Americans in Vienna
Vienna
Austria
Austria
and was handed over to the Yugoslav authorities and was executed after the war.

2

Bogoljub Kujundžić (1887–1949) 10 November 1942 4 October 1944 Survived the war and died in 1949.

Minister of Social policy and People's Health

# Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of Office Notes

1

Jovan Mijušković (1886–1944) 29 August 1941 26 October 1943 He was captured by Yugoslav partisans and executed in 1944.

2

Stojimir Dobrosavljević 26 October 1943 6 November 1943 left the government in 1943 and was executed after the war

3

Tanasije Dinić (1891–1946) 6 November 1943 4 October 1944 He was captured by Yugoslav authorities after the war and executed by Yugoslav authorities .

Minister of Agriculture

# Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of Office Notes

1

Miloš Radosavljević (1889-1969) 29 August 1941 10 November 1942 Escaped Belgrade
Belgrade
and survived the war and died in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1969

2

Radosav Veselinović (1904-1945) 10 November 1942 4 October 1944 he was captured after the war and was executed

Minister of People's Economy

# Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of Office Notes

1

Mihailo Olćan (1894–1961) 29 August 1941 11 October 1942 Escaped after the war and died in Australia
Australia
in 1961.

2

Milorad Nedeljković (1883–1961) 10 November 1942 4 October 1944 Escaped after the war and died in France
France
in 1961.

Minister of Transportation

# Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of Office Notes

1

Đura Dokić 7 October 1941 10 November 1942

Education[edit] Under minister Velibor Jonić, the government abandoned the eight-year elementary school system adopted in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
and moved to a four-year program. A new curriculum was introduced:[22]

Subject I Grade II Grade III Grade IV Grade

Religious education 1 1 2 2

Serbian 11 11 7 7

Fatherland and history - - 4 6

Nature - - 5 5

Math and geometry 5 5 4 4

Singing 1 1 2 2

Physical education 2 2 2 2

Total hours 20 20 26 28

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Serbian puppet state in World War II.

Republic of Užice Italian governorate of Montenegro Independent State of Croatia

Notes[edit]

^ Official name of the occupied territory translated from German: Gebiet des Militärbefehlshaber Serbiens[1]

References[edit]

^ Hehn (1971), pp. 344-73 ^ MacDonald, David Bruce (2002). Balkan holocausts?: Serbian and Croatian victim-centred propaganda and the war in Yugoslavia. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 142. ISBN 0719064678.  ^ Tomasevich (2001), p. 175 ^ Tomasevich (2001), pp. 177-80 ^ a b c d Tomasevich (2001), pp. 182-85 ^ a b Tomasevich (2001), pp. 187-90 ^ Tomasevich (2001), pp. 200-01 ^ a b c d e f g Tomasevich (2001), pp. 222-28 ^ a b Tomasevich (2001), pp. 205-07 ^ Tomasevich (2001), pp. 210-12 ^ Tomasevich (2001), pp. 212-16 ^ a b Tomasevich (2001), pp. 194-95 ^ Tomasevich (2001), pp. 217-21 ^ MacDonald, David Bruce (2002). Balkan holocausts?: Serbian and Croatian victim-centred propaganda and the war in Yugoslavia. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 134. ISBN 0719064678.  ^ Tomasevich (2001), pp. 776-77 ^ Thomas & Mikulan 1995, p. 21. ^ Tomasevich (2001), pp. 191-93 ^ a b Brborić (2010), p. 170 ^ Tomasevich (2001), p. 74 ^ Tomasevich (2001), pp. 74-75 ^ Панта Драшкић – цена части („РТС“, 2. новембар 2015), Приступљено 2. 11. 2015. ^ Koljanin (2010), p. 407

Sources[edit] Books[edit]

Bond, Brian; Roy, Ian (1977). War and society: a yearbook of military history, Volume 2. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-85664-404-7.  Deroc, Milan (1988). British Special
Special
Operations explored: Yugoslavia in turmoil, 1941-1943, and the British response Volume 242 of East European monographs. East European Monographs, University of Michigan. ISBN 978-0-88033-139-5.  Boško N. Kostić, Za istoriju naših dana, Lille, France, 1949 Olivera Milosavljević, Potisnuta istina - Kolaboracija u Srbiji 1941–1944, Beograd, 2006 Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (2002). Serbia: The History behind the Name. London: Hurst & Company.  Ramet, Sabrina P.; Lazić, Sladjana (2011), "The Collaborationist Regime of Milan Nedić", in Ramet, Sabrina P.; Listhaug, Ola, Serbia and the Serbs in World War Two, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 17–43, ISBN 0-23027-830-2  Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: Occupation and Collaboration. 2. San Francisco: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4.  United Kingdom Naval Intelligence Division (1944). Jugoslavia: History, peoples, and administration. Michigan: University of Michigan. 

Journals[edit]

Brborić, Ivan (2010). "Ministarski savet Milana Nedića decembar 1941 - novembar 1942". Istorija 20. veka. 28 (3). pp. 169–180.  Hehn, Paul N. (1971). "Serbia, Croatia and Germany 1941-1945: Civil War and Revolution in the Balkans". Canadian Slavonic Papers. University of Alberta. 13 (4): 344–373. Retrieved 8 April 2012.  Koljanin, Dragica (2010). "U službi 'Novog poretka' - osnovno školstvo i udžbenici istorije u Srbiji (1941-1944)". Istraživanja. 21. pp. 395–415. 

v t e

Collaboration in World War II
World War II
Yugoslavia

Puppet regimes

Government of National Salvation Independent State of Croatia Independent State of Macedonia

Political organizations

Greens Slovene Covenant Ustaše Yugoslav National Movement

People

Croatian & Bosniak

Mehmed Alajbegović Andrija Artuković Ivan Babić Rafael Boban Mile Budak Eduard Bunić Fedor Dragojlov Mato Dukovac Jure Francetić Miroslav Filipović Muhamed Hadžiefendić Ivo Herenčić Božidar Kavran Vladimir Košak Džafer Kulenović Osman Kulenović Dido Kvaternik Slavko Kvaternik Vladimir Laxa Mladen Lorković Vjekoslav Luburić Mihajlo Lukić Julije Makanec Nikola Mandić Ivica Matković Vladimir Metikoš Josip Metzger Husein Miljković Ljubo Miloš Ante Nikšić Miroslav Navratil Sulejman Pačariz Ante Pavelić Stijepo Perić Viktor Pavičić Ivan Prpić Osman Rastoder Husein Rovčanin Franjo Šimić Slavko Štancer Dinko Šakić Tomislav Sertić Ivan Tomašević Ante Vokić Vjekoslav Vrančić Hasan Zvizdić

Serbian

Milan Aćimović Velibor Jonić Dragomir Jovanović Milan Kalabić Dimitrije Ljotić Kosta Mušicki Milan Nedić Mihailo Olćan Svetozar Vujković

Slovene

Franc Frakelj Ernest Peterlin Gregorij Rožman Leon Rupnik

Montenegrin

Sekula Drljević Mihailo Ivanović Novica Radović Krsto Popović

Chetniks

Petar Baćović Jezdimir Dangić Momčilo Đujić Pavle Đurišić Dobroslav Jevđević Nikola Kalabić Vojislav Lukačević Draža Mihailović Zaharije Ostojić Kosta Pećanac Bajo Stanišić Ilija Trifunović-Birčanin Ismet Popovac Fehim Musakadić

Albanian

Gajur Deralla Xhafer Deva Aćif Hadžiahmetović Xhem Hasa Rexhep Mitrovica Shaban Polluzha Mefail Shehu

Bulgarian

Ivan Mihailov Hristo Tatarchev

Military organizations

Chetnik movement

Dinara Division Lim-Sandžak Chetnik Detachment Pećanac Chetniks Blue Guard Vardar Corps

Croatian Armed Forces

Croatian Air Force

Croatian Air Force Legion

Croatian Home Guard

Croatian Legion 369th Division 373rd Division 392nd Division

Croatian Navy

Croatian Naval Legion

Green cadres Hadžiefendić Legion Sandžak Muslim militia SS Handschar SS Kama Ustaše
Ustaše
Militia

Black Legion Crusaders

SS Polizei-Selbstschutz-Regiment Sandschak

Government of National Salvation

Russian Corps Serbian State Guard Serbian Volunteer Corps

Montenegrin Volunteer Corps

1st Belgrade
Belgrade
Special
Special
Combat detachment Belgrade
Belgrade
Special
Special
Police

Slovene military organizations

Anti-Communist Volunteer Militia Legion of Death Slovene Home Guard

Italian governorate of Montenegro
Italian governorate of Montenegro
/ German occupied territory of Montenegro

Lovćen Brigade National Army of Montenegro and Herzegovina Montenegrin National Army

Albanian Kingdom (1939–43)
Albanian Kingdom (1939–43)
and Albanian Kingdom (1943–44)

Albanian Militia Balli Kombëtar Skanderbeg SS Skanderbeg Vulnetari Kosovo Regiment

Bulgarian occupation/Independent State of Macedonia

Bulgarian Action Committees IMRO MYSRO Ohrana

See also Invasion of Yugoslavia World War II
World War II
in Yugoslavia

v t e

Yugoslav factions in World War II

Allies

Partisans

  Yugoslav Partisans

People's Liberation Army of Macedonia

(Partisan faction in Macedonia

Soviet Union

  Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1944-1945)

Bulgaria

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(1944-1945)

Albania

National Liberation Movement (limited involvement, 1944–45)

Chetniks

Chetniks
Chetniks
(nominally Allied, extensively collaborated with the Axis)

Montenegrin Volunteer Corps (rogue faction of the Chetnik movement, 1945)

Axis

Germany

 Germany

Italy

 Italy (1941–43)

Albanian Kingdom (1939-1943)

Albanian Militia Skanderbeg

Hungary

 Hungary (1941–44)

Albania

Albania (1943–44)

Balli Kombëtar SS Skanderbeg Division Vulnetari Kosovo Regiment

Bulgaria

  Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(1941–44)

Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization

Croatia

 Independent State of Croatia

Armed Forces Ustaše
Ustaše
Militia Black Legion SS Handschar Division Army (Home Guard) Air Force Air Force Legion Green cadres Hadžiefendić Legion

Serbia (puppet governments)

  Government of National Salvation

Serbian State Guard Serbian Volunteer Corps

Montenegrin Volunteer Corps

Pećanac Chetniks Russian Corps

Montenegro

 Italy ( Italian governorate of Montenegro
Italian governorate of Montenegro
(1941–43))  Germany ( German occupied territory of Montenegro
German occupied territory of Montenegro
(1943–44))

Lovćen Brigade (Greens movement, 1942–44) Sandžak Muslim militia SS Polizei-Selbstschutz-Regiment Sandschak

Slovenia

Slovene Axis supporters

Slovene Home Guard Legion of Death Anti-Communist Volunteer Militia

see also Yugoslav Front and People of

.