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Executive:

Prime Minister Union Council of Ministers Cabinet Secretary Secretaries: (Defence • Finance
Finance
• Foreign • Home) Civil services All India
India
Services (IAS • IFS/IFoS • IPS)

Parliament:

Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
(Chairman) Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(Speaker)

Judiciary:

Supreme Court (Chief Justice) High courts District Courts

Elections Election Commission:

Chief Election Commissioner (Election commissioners)

General elections: 2009 2014 2019

State elections: 2017 2018 2019

Political parties

National parties State parties

National coalitions:

National Democratic Alliance (NDA) United Progressive Alliance
United Progressive Alliance
(UPA)

Federalism

Administrative divisions

State governments

Governor Chief minister Chief secretary (Principal secretaries)

Legislatures:

Vidhan Sabha Vidhan Parishad

Local governments:

Divisional commissioners District magistrates Sub-divisional magistrates

Rural bodies:

District councils Block panchayats Gram Panchayats

Urban bodies:

Municipal corporations Municipal councils Nagar panchayats

Other countries Atlas

v t e

The Government of India
India
(IAST: Bhārata Sarakāra), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in New Delhi, the capital of India.

Contents

1 Basic structure 2 Legislature 3 Executive

3.1 President 3.2 Vice president 3.3 Prime minister 3.4 Cabinet, ministries and agencies

3.4.1 Secretaries

3.5 Civil services

3.5.1 Cabinet secretary

4 Judiciary

4.1 Supreme court

5 Elections and voting 6 State and local governments 7 Finance

7.1 Taxation 7.2 Union budget

8 Issues

8.1 Corruption

9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Basic structure[edit] Modelled after the westminster system for governing the state,[1] the union government is mainly composed of the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary, in which all powers are vested by the constitution in parliament, the prime minister and the supreme court. The President of India
India
is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces whilst the elected prime minister acts as the head of the executive, and is responsible for running the union government.[2] The parliament is bicameral in nature, with the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
being the lower house, and the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
the upper house. The judiciary systematically contains an apex supreme court, 24 high courts, and several district courts, all inferior to the supreme court.[3] The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India
India
are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the civil procedure code, the penal code, and the criminal procedure code.[4] Similar to the union government, individual state governments each consist of executive, legislative and judiciary. The legal system as applicable to the union and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law.[5] The full name of the country is the Republic of India. India
India
and Bharat are equally official short names for the Republic of India
Republic of India
in the Constitution,[6] and both names appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases. Union government, central government and Bhārata Sarakāra are often used in an official and unofficial capacity to refer to the Government of India.[citation needed] Because the seat of government is in New Delhi, it is commonly used as a synonym for the central government.[citation needed] Legislature[edit] Main article: Parliament of India

Building of the Parliament of India.

The powers of the legislature in India
India
are exercised by the parliament, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
and the Lok Sabha. Of the two houses of parliament, the former is considered to be the upper house or the Council of States and consists of members appointed by the president and elected by the state and territorial legislatures. The latter is considered the lower house or the House of the people.[7] The parliament does not have complete control and sovereignty, as its laws are subject to judicial review by the supreme court.[8] However, it does exercise some control over the executive. The members of the cabinet, including the prime minister, are either chosen from parliament or elected thereto within six months of assuming office.[9] The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha.[10] The Lok Sabha is a temporary house and can only be dissolved when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house. Whereas the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
is a permanent house which can never be dissolved. The members of the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
are elected for a six-year term.[11] Executive[edit] The executive of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers.[12] President[edit] Main article: President of India The executive power is vested mainly in the President of India, as per Article 53(1) of the constitution. The president has all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 53(1). The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the prime minister, who leads the council of ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution of India. The council of ministers remains in power during the 'pleasure' of the president. However, in practice, the council of ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a president were to dismiss the council of ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the council of ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it holds the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha. The president is responsible for appointing many high officials in India. These high officials include the governors of the 29 states; the chief justice; other judges of the supreme court and high courts on the advice of other judges; the Attorney general; the Comptroller and Auditor General; the Chief Election Commissioner and other election commissioners; the chairman and members of the Union Public Service Commission; the officers of the All India
India
Services (IAS, IFoS and IPS) and central civil services in group 'A'; and the ambassadors and high commissioners to other countries on the recommendations of the cabinet.[13][14] The president, as the head of state, also receives the credentials of ambassadors from other countries, whilst the prime minister, as head of government, receives credentials of high commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition. The president is the de jure commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.[15] The President of India
President of India
can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person for one time, particularly in cases involving punishment of death. The decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the prime minister or the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
majority. In most other cases, however, the president exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the prime minister.[16] Vice president[edit] Main article: Vice President of India The vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India
India
after the president.The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the president and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president.The vice president also has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha.[17] The vice president is elected indirectly by members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both the houses of the parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting is by secret ballot conducted by the election commission. Prime minister[edit] Main article: Prime Minister of India

The Rashtrapati Bhawan
Rashtrapati Bhawan
complex, with North and South Block housing the Prime Minister's Office, Cabinet Secretariat, Ministry of Defence, and others.

The Prime Minister of India, as addressed in the Constitution of India, is the chief of the government, chief adviser to the president, head of the council of ministers and the leader of the majority party in the parliament. The prime minister leads the executive of the Government of India. The prime minister is the senior member of cabinet in the executive of government in a parliamentary system. The prime minister selects and can dismiss other members of the cabinet; allocates posts to members within the Government; is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet and is responsible for bringing a proposal of legislation. The resignation or death of the prime minister dissolves the cabinet. The prime minister is appointed by the president to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive. Cabinet, ministries and agencies[edit] Main articles: Union Council of Ministers and List of Indian government agencies

The organizational structure of a department of the Government of India.

The Cabinet of India
India
includes the prime minister and his cabinet ministers.[18] Each minister must be a member of one of the houses of the parliament. The cabinet is headed by the prime minister, and is advised by the cabinet secretary, who also acts as the head of the Indian Administrative Service
Indian Administrative Service
and other civil services. Other ministers are either as union cabinet ministers, who are heads of the various ministries; or ministers of state, who are junior members who report directly to one of the cabinet ministers, often overseeing a specific aspect of government; or ministers of state (independent charges), who do not report to a cabinet minister. As per article 88 of the constitution, every minister shall have the right to speak in, and to take part in the proceedings of, either house, any joint sitting of the houses, and any committee of parliament of which he may be named a member, but shall not be entitled to a vote in the house where he is not a member. Secretaries[edit] Main article: Secretary to Government of India A secretary to the Government of India, a civil servant, generally an Indian Administrative Service
Indian Administrative Service
(IAS) officer,[19][20][21][22] is the administrative head of the ministry or department, and is the principal adviser to the minister on all matters of policy and administration within the ministry/department.[23][24] Secretaries to the Government of India
India
rank 23rd on Indian order of precedence.[25][26][27][28] Secretaries at the higher level are assisted by one or many additional secretaries, who are further assisted by joint secretaries.[24] At the middle they are assisted by directors/deputy secretaries and under secretaries.[24] At the lower level, there are section officers, assistant section officers, upper division clerks, lower division clerks and other secretarial staff.[24]

Ministries and departments of the Government of India

Ministry Department(s)

President's Secretariat

Vice President's Secretariat

Prime Minister's Office Atomic Energy

Space

Cabinet Secretariat

Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare

Agricultural Research and Education

Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries

AYUSH

Chemicals and Fertilizers Chemicals and Petrochemicals

Fertilizers

Pharmaceuticals

Civil Aviation

Coal

Commerce and Industry Commerce

Industrial Policy and Promotion

Communications Posts

Telecommunications

Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution Consumer Affairs

Food and Public Distribution

Corporate Affairs

Culture

Defence Defence

Defence Production

Defence Research and Development

Ex-servicemen Welfare

Development of North Eastern Region

Drinking Water and Sanitation

Earth Sciences

Electronics and Information Technology

Environment, Forest and Climate Change

External Affairs

Finance Economic Affairs

Expenditure

Financial Services

Investment and Public Asset Management

Revenue

Food Processing Industries

Health and Family Welfare Health and Family Welfare

Health Research

Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises Heavy Industry

Public Enterprises

Home Affairs Border Management

Internal Security

Jammu Kashmir Affairs

Home

Official Language

States

Housing and Urban Affairs

Human Resource Development Higher Education

School Education and Literacy

Information and Broadcasting

Labour and Employment

Law and Justice Justice

Legal Affairs

Legislative

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

Mines

Minority Affairs

New and Renewable Energy

NITI Aayog

Panchayati Raj

Parliamentary Affairs

Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions Personnel and Training

Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances

Pension and Pensioners' Welfare

Petroleum and Natural Gas

Power

Railways

Road Transport and Highways

Rural Development Land Resources

Rural Development

Science and Technology Biotechnology

Science and Technology

Scientific and Industrial Research

Shipping

Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

Social Justice and Empowerment Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities

Social Justice and Empowerment

Statistics and Programme Implementation

Steel

Textiles

Tourism

Tribal Affairs

Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation

Women and Child Development

Youth Affairs and Sports Sports

Youth Affairs

Total

Ministries Departments

58 93

Civil services[edit] Main article: Civil Services of India The Civil Services of India
India
are the civil services and the permanent bureaucracy of India. The executive decisions are implemented by the Indian civil servants. In the parliamentary democracy of India, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are the ministers. These ministers are accountable to the legislatures which are also elected by the people on the basis of universal adult suffrage. The ministers are indirectly responsible to the people themselves. But the handful of ministers are not expected to deal personally with the various problems of modern administration. Thus the ministers lay down the policy and it is for the civil servants to enforce it. Cabinet secretary[edit] Main article: Cabinet Secretary of India The cabinet secretary (IAST: Maṃtrimaṇḍala Saciva) is the top-most executive official and senior-most civil servant of the Government of India. The cabinet secretary is the ex-officio head of the Civil Services Board, the Cabinet Secretariat, the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and head of all civil services under the rules of business of the government. The cabinet secretary is generally the senior-most officer of the Indian Administrative Service. The cabinet secretary ranks 11th on the Indian order of precedence.[25][26][27][28] The cabinet secretary is under the direct charge of the prime minister. Judiciary[edit] Main article: Judiciary
Judiciary
of India India's independent union judicial system began under the British, and its concepts and procedures resemble those of Anglo-Saxon countries. The Supreme Court of India
Supreme Court of India
consists of the chief justice and 30 associate justices, all appointed by the president on the advice of the Chief Justice of India. The jury trials were abolished in India
India
in the early 1960s, after the famous case KM Nanavati v. State of Maharashtra, for reasons of being vulnerable to media and public pressure, as well as to being misled. Unlike its United States counterpart, the Indian justice system consists of a unitary system at both state and union level. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of India, high courts at the state level, and district courts and sessions courts at the district level. Supreme court[edit] Main article: Supreme Court of India

Building of the Supreme Court of India.

The Supreme Court of India
Supreme Court of India
is situated in New Delhi, the capital region of India. The supreme court is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review. Consisting of the Chief Justice of India
Chief Justice of India
and 30 sanctioned other judges, it has extensive powers in the form of original, appellate and advisory jurisdictions.[29] As the final court of appeal of the country, it takes up appeals primarily against verdicts of the high courts of various states of the Union and other courts and tribunals. It safeguards fundamental rights of citizens and settles disputes between various governments in the country. As an advisory court, it hears matters which may specifically be referred to it under the constitution by the president. It also may take cognisance of matters on its own (or 'suo moto'), without anyone drawing its attention to them. The law declared by the supreme court becomes binding on all courts within India
India
and also by the union and state governments.[30] Per Article 142, it is the duty of the President to enforce the decrees of the supreme court. In addition, Article 32 of the constitution gives an extensive original jurisdiction to the supreme court in regard to enforcing fundamental rights. It is empowered to issue directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari to enforce them. The supreme court has been conferred with power to direct transfer of any civil or criminal case from one state high court to another state high court, or from a court subordinate to another state high court and the supreme court. Although the proceedings in the supreme court arise out of the judgment or orders made by the subordinate courts, of late the supreme court has started entertaining matters in which interest of the public at large is involved. This may be done by any individual or group of persons either by filing a writ petition at the filing counter of the court, or by addressing a letter to the Chief Justice of India, highlighting the question of public importance for redress. These are known as public interest litigations.[31] Elections and voting[edit] Main articles: Elections in India
India
and Politics of India See also: Election Commission of India India
India
has a quasi-federal form of government, called "union" or "central" government,[32] with elected officials at the union, state and local levels. On a national level, the head of government, the prime minister, is appointed by the President of India
President of India
amongst the party which won the majority seats in Lok Sabha. The members of the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
are directly elected for a term of five years by universal adult suffrage through first-past-the-post voting system. All (except 12 members who are nominated by the president) of the Rajya Sabha, which represents the states, are elected by the members of State legislative assemblies by proportional representation. India
India
is currently the largest democracy in the world, with around 834 million eligible voters, as of 2014.[33] State and local governments[edit] Main articles: State governments of India, Local government § India, and Union territory State governments in India
India
are the governments ruling States of India and the chief minister heads the state government. Power is divided between union government and state governments. State government's legislature is bicameral in 7 states and unicameral in the rest. Lower house is elected with 5 years term, while in upper house 1/3 of the total members in the house gets elected every 2 years with 6-year term. Local government function at the basic level. It is the third level of government apart from union and state governments. It consists of panchayats in rural areas and municipalities in urban areas. They are elected directly or indirectly by the people. Finance[edit] See also: Reserve Bank of India Taxation[edit] Main article: Taxation in India

Reserve Bank of India's headquarters in Mumbai, India's financial capital

India
India
has a three-tier tax structure, wherein the constitution empowers the union government to levy income tax, tax on capital transactions (wealth tax, inheritance tax), sales tax, service tax, customs and excise duties and the state governments to levy sales tax on intrastate sale of goods, tax on entertainment and professions, excise duties on manufacture of alcohol, stamp duties on transfer of property and collect land revenue (levy on land owned). The local governments are empowered by the state government to levy property tax and charge users for public utilities like water supply, sewage etc.[34] More than half of the revenues of the union and state governments come from taxes, of which 3/4 come from direct taxes. More than a quarter of the union government's tax revenues is shared with the state governments.[35] The tax reforms, initiated in 1991, have sought to rationalise the tax structure and increase compliance by taking steps in the following directions:

Reducing the rates of individual and corporate income taxes, excises, customs and making it more progressive Reducing exemptions and concessions Simplification of laws and procedures Introduction of permanent account number (PAN) to track monetary transactions 21 of the 29 states introduced value added tax (VAT) on 1 April 2005 to replace the complex and multiple sales tax system[34][36]

The non-tax revenues of the central government come from fiscal services, interest receipts, public sector dividends, etc., while the non-tax revenues of the States are grants from the central government, interest receipts, dividends and income from general, economic and social services.[37] Inter-state share in the union tax pool is decided by the recommendations of the Finance
Finance
Commission to the president. Total tax receipts of Centre and State amount to approximately 18% of national GDP. This compares to a figure of 37–45% in the OECD. Union budget[edit] Main article: Union budget of India The Finance
Finance
minister of India
India
usually presents the annual union budget in the parliament on the last working day of February. However, for the F.Y. 2017-18, this tradition had been changed. Now budget will be presented on the 1st day of February. The budget has to be passed by the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
before it can come into effect on 1 April, the start of India's fiscal year. The Union budget is preceded by an economic survey which outlines the broad direction of the budget and the economic performance of the country for the outgoing financial year[38] India's non-development revenue expenditure had increased nearly five-fold in 2003–04 since 1990–91 and more than tenfold since 1985–1986. Interest payments are the single largest item of expenditure and accounted for more than 40% of the total non-development expenditure in the 2003–04 budget. Defense expenditure increased fourfold during the same period and has been increasing because of India's desire to project its military prowess beyond South Asia. In 2007, India's defence spending stood at US$26.5 billion. Issues[edit] Corruption[edit] Main article: Corruption in India Several ministers are accused of corruption and nearly a quarter of the 543 elected members of parliament had been charged with crimes, including murder, in 2009.[39] Many of the biggest scandals since 2010 have involved high level government officials, including cabinet ministers and chief ministers, such as the 2010 Commonwealth Games scam (₹70,000 crore (equivalent to ₹1.1 trillion or US$17 billion in 2017)), the Adarsh Housing Society scam, the Coal Mining Scam (₹1.86 lakh crore (equivalent to ₹3.0 trillion or US$45 billion in 2017)), the mining scandal in Karnataka and the cash for vote scandal. See also[edit]

India
India
portal

Foreign relations of India National Portal
Portal
of India National Social-media Portal Parliamentary democracy

References[edit]

^ Subramanian, K. (June 17, 2014). "A prime ministerial form of government". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. OCLC 13119119. Retrieved March 9, 2018.  ^ "Government of India, Structure of Government India". www.elections.com. 2018-01-08.  ^ "Constitution of India's definition of India". Indiagovt.in.  ^ "Legal services India
India
on Criminal laws in India". www.legalservicesindia.com.  ^ "Structure of Indian Legal System: Orignal Orign and Development -- (Dheeraj kumar tiwari BB.A.LL.B. (1st year) Siddhartha Law College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand)". International Journal of Law and Legal Jurisprudence Studies. Retrieved 2017-05-19.  ^ A. M., Buckley (2012). India. Edina, Minnesota: ABDO Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1617876257. OCLC 767886738.  ^ Cultural Perspectives on Youth Justice: Connecting Theory, Policy and International Practise. p. 186. ISBN 1137433973. Retrieved 10 May 2017.  ^ "Parliament's actions subject to judicial review: court". The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-07-19.  ^ "Indian Constitution And Parliamentary Government Law Teacher". Retrieved 2017-07-20.  ^ Laxmikanth. Governance In India. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 9780071074667.  ^ "Our Parliament". webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 2017-07-20.  ^ Arnull, Elaine; Fox, Darrell (2016-06-29). Cultural Perspectives on Youth Justice: Connecting Theory, Policy and International Practice. Springer. ISBN 9781137433978.  ^ Pratiyogita Darpan (March 2007). Pratiyogita Darpan. Pratiyogita Darpan. p. 60. Retrieved 10 May 2012.  ^ Bakshi, Parvinrai Mulwantrai (2010). The Constitution of India
India
(10th ed.). New Delhi: Universal Law Pub. Co. p. 48. ISBN 978-8175348400. OCLC 551377953.  ^ Oldenburg, Philip (31 August 2010). India, Pakistan, and Democracy: Solving the Puzzle of Divergent Paths. Taylor & Francis. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-415-78018-6. Retrieved 3 May 2012.  ^ Kumar; Rajesh. Universal's Guide to the Constitution of India
India
Pg no. 72. ^ "Important India
India
functions of vicepresident".  ^ Cabinet Ministers (as on 26.05.2014). Cabsec.nic.in. Retrieved on 6 December 2013. Archived 27 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Tikku, Aloke (January 15, 2016). "Parity between IAS and non-IAS? The IAS will get to decide". Hindustan Times. Retrieved August 13, 2017.  ^ "Non-IAS bureaucrats now eligible for secretary-level posts". The Asian Age. January 18, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2017.  ^ "Need Pay Parity With IAS Officers, Say Officials Of 20 Civil Services". NDTV. June 30, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2017.  ^ Dastidar, Avishek G (January 14, 2017). "Alleging bias, non-IAS officers petition PM Modi". The Indian Express. Retrieved August 13, 2017.  ^ Laxmikanth, M. (2014). Governance in India
India
(2nd Edition). Noida: McGraw Hill Education. pp. 3.1–3.10. ISBN 978-9339204785.  ^ a b c d "Central Secretariat Manual of Office Procedure - 14th Edition (2015)" (PDF). Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension. p. 6. Retrieved 15 November 2016.  ^ a b "Order of Precedence" (PDF). Rajya Sabha. President's Secretariat. July 26, 1979. Retrieved September 24, 2017.  ^ a b "Table of Precedence" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. President's Secretariat. July 26, 1979. Retrieved September 24, 2017.  ^ a b "Table of Precedence". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. President's Secretariat. Retrieved September 24, 2017.  ^ a b Maheshwari, S.R. (2000). Indian Administration (6th Edition). New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Ltd. ISBN 9788125019886.  ^ "Rule of law index 2016". Retrieved 13 January 2018.  ^ "History of Supreme Court of India" (PDF). Supreme Court of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.  ^ "PIL". LegalServicesIndia. Retrieved 10 May 2017.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.  ^ D'Ambrogio, Enrico. "India: the biggest democracy in the world" (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service. Retrieved 21 September 2017.  ^ a b Bernardi, Luigi; Fraschini, Angela (2005). "Tax System And Tax Reforms In India". Working paper n. 51.  ^ Tax revenue was 88% of total union government revenue in 1950–51 and has come down to 73% in 2003–04, as a result of increase in non-tax revenue. Tax revenues were 70% of total state government revenues in 2002 to 2003. Indirect taxes were 84% of the union governments total tax revenue and have come down to 62% in 2003–04, mostly because of cuts in import duties and rationalisation. The states share in union government's tax revenue is 28.0% for the period 2000 to 2005 as per the recommendations of the eleventh finance commission. In addition, states that do not levy sales tax on sugar, textiles and tobacco, are entitled to 1.5% of the proceeds.Datt, Ruddar; Sundharam, K.P.M. (2005). Indian Economy. S.Chand. pp. 938, 942, 946. ISBN 81-219-0298-3.  ^ "Indif_real_GDP_per_capitaa says 21 of 29 states to launch new tax". Daily Times. 25 March 2005. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009.  ^ Datt, Ruddar; Sundharam, K.P.M. "55". Indian Economy. pp. 943–945.  ^ "Union Budget 2017-18". www.ibef.org. Retrieved 2017-07-21.  ^ Washington Post:When the Little Ones Run the Show (quote from the New Delhi
New Delhi
based Association for Democratic Reform) retrieved 14 May 2009

Further reading[edit]

Subrata K. Mitra and V.B. Singh (1999). Democracy
Democracy
and Social Change in India: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National Electorate. New Delhi: Sage Publications. ISBN 81-7036-809-X ( India
India
HB), ISBN 0-7619-9344-4 (US HB).

External links[edit]

Official Portal
Portal
of the Indian Government

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Universities in India Medical colleges in India Law colleges in India Engineering colleges in India

Ethnic relations Healthcare

Hospitals in India

Languages Literacy Poverty Prisons Religion Socio-economic issues Standard of living Water supply
Water supply
and sanitation Crime

Culture

Arts and entertainment Architecture Blogging Cinema Comics

Webcomics

Cuisine

wine

Dance Dress Folklore Festivals Literature Media

television

Martial arts Music Public holidays Sport

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Government of India

Constitution

Constitution Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties Federalism
Federalism
( Union List State List • Concurrent List)

Executive

Union Government Prime Minister (list) Cabinet Ministers President (list) Vice President (list) Civil Services All India
India
Services (IAS • IFS/IFoS • IPS) Cabinet Secretary Secretaries (Defence • Finance
Finance
• Foreign • Home) State governments Chief Minister (list) Chief Secretary Governors (list)

Legislative

Parliament Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(Speaker) Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
(Chairman) Vidhan Sabha Vidhan Parishad Leader of the Opposition

Judiciary

Supreme Court (Chief Justice) High Courts District Courts

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Modi ministry

Prime Minister: Narendra Modi

Cabinet Ministers

Agriculture and Farmers Welfare

Radha Mohan Singh

Chemicals and Fertilizers

Ananth Kumar

Civil Aviation

Suresh Prabhu

Commerce and Industry

Suresh Prabhu

Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution

Ram Vilas Paswan

Corporate Affairs

Arun Jaitley

Defence

Nirmala Sitharaman

Drinking Water and Sanitation

Uma Bharati

Earth Sciences

Harsh Vardhan

Electronics and Information Technology

Ravi Shankar Prasad

External Affairs

Sushma Swaraj

Finance

Arun Jaitley

Food Processing Industry

Harsimrat Kaur Badal

Coal

Piyush Goyal

Environment, Forest and Climate Change

Harsh Vardhan

Health and Family Welfare

Jagat Prakash Nadda

Heavy Industry and Public Enterprises

Anant Geete

Home Affairs

Rajnath Singh

Human Resource Development

Prakash Javadekar

Information and Broadcasting

Smriti Irani

Law and Justice

Ravi Shankar Prasad

Overseas Indian Affairs

Sushma Swaraj

Panchayati Raj

Narendra Singh Tomar

Parliamentary Affairs

Ananth Kumar

Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions

Narendra Modi

Petroleum and Natural Gas

Dharmendra Pradhan

Railways

Piyush Goyal

Rural Development

Narendra Singh Tomar

Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

Dharmendra Pradhan

Science and Technology

Harsh Vardhan

Social Justice and Empowerment

Thaawar Chand Gehlot

Space

Narendra Modi

Statistics and Programme Implementation

D. V. Sadananda Gowda

Steel

Chaudhary Birender Singh

Shipping and Road Transport and Highways

Nitin Gadkari

Textiles

Smriti Irani

Tribal Affairs

Jual Oram

Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation

Nitin Gadkari

Women and Child Development

Maneka Gandhi

Minority Affairs

Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi

Mines

Narendra Singh Tomar

Ministers of State (Independent Charge)

AYUSH

Shripad Yasso Naik

Communications

Manoj Sinha

Culture

Mahesh Sharma

Development of North Eastern Region

Jitendra Singh

Labour and Employment

Santosh Kumar Gangwar

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

Giriraj Singh

New and Renewable Energy

Raj Kumar Singh

Planning

Rao Inderjit Singh

Power

Raj Kumar Singh

Tourism

Alphons Kannanthanam

Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation

Hardeep Singh Puri

Youth Affairs and Sports

Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore

Ministers of State

Agriculture and Farmers Welfare

Parsottambhai Rupala S. S. Ahluwalia Sudarshan Bhagat

Atomic Energy

Jitendra Singh

Chemicals and Fertilizers

Mansukh L. Mandaviya

Civil Aviation

Jayant Sinha

Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Disturbution

Chhotu Ram Chaudhary

Corporate Affairs

Arjun Ram Meghwal

Defence

Subhash Ramrao Bhamre

Drinking Water and Sanitation

Ramesh Jigajinagi

Earth Sciences

Y. S. Chowdary

Electronics and IT

P. P. Choudhary

External Affairs

M. J. Akbar V. K. Singh

Finance

Arjun Ram Meghwal Santosh Gangwar

Food Processing Industry

Sadhvi Niranjan Jyoti

Health and Family Welfare

Anupriya Patel Faggan Singh Kulaste

Heavy Industry and Public Enterprises

G. M. Siddeshwara

Home Affairs

Hansraj Ahir Kiren Rijiju

Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation

Babul Supriyo Rao Inderjit Singh

Human Resource Development

Mahendra Nath Pandey Upendra Kushwaha

Information and Broadcasting

Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore

Law and Justice

P P Choudhary

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

Haribhai Parthibhai Chaudhary Giriraj Singh

Minority Affairs

Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi

Overseas Indian Affairs

V. K. Singh

Panchayati Raj

Parsottambhai Rupala

Parliamentary Affairs

Arjun Ram Meghwal Vijay Goel

Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions

Jitendra Singh

Prime Minister's Office

Jitendra Singh

Railways

Manoj Sinha Rajen Gohain

Road Transport and Highways

Mansukh L. Mandaviya Pon Radhakrishnan

Rural Development

Ram Kripal Yadav

Science and Technology

Y. S. Chowdary

Social Justice and Empowerment

Krishan Pal Gurjar Ramdas Athawale Vijay Sampla

Steel

Vishnudeo Sai

Shipping

Mansukh L. Mandaviya Pon Radhakrishnan

Space

Jitendra Singh

Textiles

Ajay Tamta

Tribal Affairs

Jasvantsinh Sumanbhai Bhabhor

Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation

Arjun Ram Meghwal Satya Pal Singh

Women and Child Development

Maneka Gandhi

Urban Development

Babul Supriyo Rao Inderjit Singh

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Governments of Asia

Sovereign states

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus East Timor (Timor-Leste) Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus Palestine South Ossetia Taiwan

Dependencies and other territories

British Indian Ocean Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Macau

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Government ministries of India

President (List) • Government of India
India
• Prime Minister (List • Office) • Deputy Prime Minister • Council of Ministers

Current

Agriculture and Farmers Welfare AYUSH Chemicals and Fertilizers Civil Aviation Coal Commerce and Industry Communications Consumer Affairs Culture Defence Drinking Water and Sanitation Earth Sciences Electronics and Information Technology Environment, Forest and Climate Change External Affiars Finance Food Processing Industries Health and Family Welfare Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises Home Affairs Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation Human Resource Development Information and Broadcasting Labour and Employment Law and Justice Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Mines Minority Affairs New and Renewable Energy North East Panchayati Raj Parliamentary Affairs Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions Petroleum Power Railways Road Transport and Highways Rural Development Science and Technology Shipping Skill Development and Entrepreneurship Social Justice and Empowerment Statistics and Programme Implementation Steel Textiles Tourism Tribal Affairs Urban Development Water Resources Women and Child Development

Defunct

Communications and Information Technology Overseas Indian Affairs Surface Transport

Ministers

Defence External Affairs Finance Health and Family Welfare Home Affairs Human Resource Development Information and Broadcasting Labour and Employment Law and Justice North Eastern Region Parliamentary Affairs Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions Railways Science and Technology Tribal Affairs

Secretaries

Cabinet Defence Fi

.