The Info List - Gorizia

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[ɡoˈrittsja]  listen (help·info) (Slovene: Gorica, colloquially stara Gorica 'old Gorizia',[1][2] German: Görz, Friulian: Guriza) is a town and comune in northeastern Italy, in the autonomous region of Friuli
Venezia Giulia. It is located at the foot of the Julian Alps, bordering Slovenia. It is the capital of the Province of Gorizia
Province of Gorizia
and a local center of tourism, industry, and commerce. Since 1947, a twin town of Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
has developed on the other side of the modern-day Italian–Slovenian border. The entire region was subject to territorial dispute between Italy
and Yugoslavia after World War II: after the new boundaries were established in 1947 and the old town was left to Italy, Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
was built on the Yugoslav side. Taken together, the two towns constitute a conurbation, which also includes the Slovenian municipality of Šempeter-Vrtojba. Since May 2011, these three towns are joined in a common trans-border metropolitan zone, administered by a joint administration board.[3] Gorizia
is located at the confluence of the Isonzo
and Vipava Valleys. It lies on a plain overlooked by the Gorizia
Hills. Sheltered from the north by a mountain ridge, Gorizia
is protected from the cold bora wind, which affects most of the neighbouring areas. The town thus enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
throughout the year, making it a popular resort. The name of the town comes from the Slovene word gorica 'little hill', which is a very common toponym in Slovene-inhabited areas.[4]


1 History

1.1 Middle Ages 1.2 Habsburg
rule 1.3 World War I 1.4 Gorizia
in the Kingdom of Italy 1.5 Post-war partition and return to Italy

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Main sights 4 Border crossings 5 Historical demography 6 Culture and education 7 Religion 8 Sports 9 Notable natives and residents

9.1 Authors 9.2 Artists and architects 9.3 Politicians and public servants 9.4 Religious figures 9.5 Scholars and scientists 9.6 Sportspeople 9.7 Others

10 International relations

10.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] Middle Ages[edit] Further information: County of Görz Originating as a watchtower or a prehistoric castle controlling the fords of the river Isonzo, Gorizia
first emerged as a small village not far from the former Via Gemina, the Roman road
Roman road
linking Aquileia and Emona
(the modern Ljubljana). The name of Gorizia
was recorded for the first time in a document dated April 28, 1001, in which the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III
Otto III
donated the castle and the village of Goriza to the Patriarch of Aquileia
John II and to Count Verihen Eppenstein
of Friuli. The document referred to Gorizia
as "the village known as Goriza in the language of the Slavs" ("Villa quae Sclavorum lingua vocatur Goriza").

The medieval center of Gorizia

Count Meinhard of the Bavarian Meinhardiner noble lineage, with possessions around Lienz
in Tyrol, is mentioned as early as 1107; as a vogt of the Patriarchate of Aquileia
he was enfeoffed with large estates in the former March of Friuli, including the town of Gorizia, and as early as 1127 called himself Graf von Görz. The borders of the county changed frequently in the following four centuries due to frequent wars with Aquileia
and other counties, and also to the subdivision of the territory in two main nuclei: one around the upper Drava
near Lienz, the other centered on Gorizia
itself. Between the 12th century and early 16th century, the town served as the political and administrative centre of this essentially independent County of Gorizia, which at the height of its power comprised the territory of the present-day regions of Goriška, south-east Friuli, the Karst Plateau, central Istria
and East Tyrol. From the 11th century, the town had two different layers of development: the upper castle district and the village beneath it. The first played a political-administrative role and the second a rural-commercial role.

The Leopold Gate, built in the late 17th century in honour of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor

rule[edit] See also: Inner Austria, Gorizia
and Gradisca, Austrian Littoral, Austrian Riviera, and Italian irredentism In 1500, the dynasty of the Counts of Gorizia
died out and their County passed to Austrian Habsburg
rule, after a short occupation by the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
in the years 1508 and 1509. Under Habsburg dominion, the town spread out at the foot of the castle. Many settlers from northern Italy
moved there and started their commerce. Gorizia developed into a multi-ethnic town, in which Friulian, Venetian, German and the Slovene language
Slovene language
were spoken. In mid-16th century, Gorizia
emerged as a centre of Protestant Reformation, which was spreading from the neighbouring north-eastern regions of Carniola
and Carinthia. The prominent Slovene Protestant preacher Primož Trubar
Primož Trubar
also visited and preached in the town. By the end of the century, however, Catholic Counter-Reformation
had gained force in Gorizia, led by the local dean Janez Tavčar, who later became bishop of Ljubljana. Tavčar was also instrumental in bringing the Jesuit order
Jesuit order
to the town, which played a role in the education and cultural life in Gorizia
thereafter. Gorizia
was at first part of the County of Görz
County of Görz
and since 1754, the capital of the Princely County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
and Gradisca. In ecclesiastical matters, after the suppression of the Patriarchate of Aquileia
in 1751, the Archdiocese of Gorizia
Archdiocese of Gorizia
was established as its legal successor on the territory of the Habsburg
Monarchy. Gorizia thus emerged as a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
religious centre. The archdiocese of Gorizia
coverws a large territory, extending to the Drava
river to the north and the Kolpa
to the east, with the dioceses of Trieste, Trento, Como
and Pedena subject to the authority of the archbishops of Gorizia. A new town quarter developed around the Cathedral where many treasures from the Basilica of Aquileia
were transferred. Many new villas were built conveying to the town the typical late Baroque appearance, which characterized it up to World War I. A synagogue was built within the town walls, too, which was another example of Gorizia's relatively tolerant multi-ethnic nature. During the Napoleonic Wars, Gorizia
was incorporated to the French Illyrian Provinces
Illyrian Provinces
between 1809 and 1813. After the restoration of the Austrian rule, the Gorizia
and its County were incorporated in the administrative unit known as the Kingdom of Illyria. During this period, Gorizia
emerged as a popular summer residence of the Austrian nobility, and became known as the "Austrian Nice". Members of the former French ruling Bourbon family, deposed by the July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830, also settled in the town, including the last Bourbon monarch Charles X
Charles X
who spent his last years in Gorizia. Unlike in most neighbouring areas, the revolutionary spring of nations of 1848 passed almost unnoticed in Gorizia, thus reaffirming its reputation of a calm and loyal provincial town.

The Strassoldo Palace, residence of the Bourbon family
Bourbon family
in exile

at the beginning of the 20th century (Austria-Hungary)

In 1849, the County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
was included in the Austrian Littoral, along with Trieste
and Istria. In 1861, the territory was reorganized as the Princely County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
and Gradisca and granted a high degree of regional autonomy. At that time, Gorizia
was a multiethnic town; Italian and Venetian, Slovene, Friulian
and German were all spoken in the town centre, while in the suburbs Slovene and Friulian prevailed. Although some tensions between the Italian- Friulian
and the Slovene population existed, the town continued to maintain a relatively tolerant climate in which both Slovene and Italian-Friulian culture flourished. On the eve of World War I, Gorizia
had around 31,000 inhabitants and was the 3rd largest city in the Austrian Littoral, following Trieste and Pula (Pola). Another 14,000 people lived in the suburbs, making it among the most populous urban agglomerations in the Alpe-Adria area, ahead of Klagenfurt, Marienberg, Salzburg, Bozen
or Trento. Within the city limits, about 48% of the population spoke Italian or Friulian, with 35% Slovene speakers. In the suburbs, the Slovene speakers prevailed, with 77% versus only 21% speaking Italian/Friulian. World War I[edit] Main articles: Italian Front (World War I)
Italian Front (World War I)
and Battles of the Isonzo Gorizia
was not on the frontline during the first 10 months of World War I, but the first Gorizian victim of the war occurred as early as August 10, 1914, when countess Lucy Christalnigg
Lucy Christalnigg
was shot by Landsturmer guards while driving her car on a mission for the Austrian Red Cross.[5] Italy
entered World War I
World War I
on the Allied side and conflict with Austria-Hungary
began on May 24, 1915. The hills west of Gorizia
soon became a scenery of fierce battles between the Italian and Austro-Hungarian Army. The town itself was seriously damaged and most of its inhabitants were evacuated by early 1916. The Italian Army conquered Gorizia
during the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo
in August 1916, with the front line moving to the eastern outskirts of the town. With the Battle of Caporetto
Battle of Caporetto
in October and November 1917, when the Central Powers
Central Powers
pushed the Italians back to the Piave River, the town returned to Austro-Hungarian control. After the Battle of Caporetto, the political life in Austria-Hungary resumed and Gorizia
became the focus of three competing political camps: the unified Slovene nationalist parties that demanded a semi-independent Yugoslav state under the House of Habsburg, the Friulian
conservatives and Christian Socialists
Christian Socialists
who demanded a separate and autonomous Eastern Friuli
within an Austrian confederation, and the underground Italian irredentist movement working for the unification with Italy. At the end of World War I, in late October 1918, the Slovenes
unilaterally declared an independent State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, while the Friulians continued to demand an autonomous region under Habsburg
rule. Gorizia
became a contested town. In early November 1918, it was occupied by Italian troops again, which immediately dissolved the two competing authorities and introduced their own civil administration. Gorizia
in the Kingdom of Italy[edit] Further information: Julian March In the first years of Italian administration, Gorizia
was included in the Governorate of the Julian March
Julian March
(1918–1919). In 1920, the town and the whole region became officially part of Italy. The autonomous County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
and Gradisca was dissolved in 1922, and in 1924 it was annexed to the Province of Udine
Province of Udine
(then called the Province of Friuli). In 1927 Gorizia
became a provincial capital within the Julian March adiministrative region. During the fascist regime, all Slovene organizations were dissolved and the public use of Slovene language was prohibited. Underground Slovene organizations, with an anti-Fascist and often irredentist agenda, such as the militant insurrectionist organization TIGR, were established as a result. Many Slovenes
fled to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
and to South America, especially to Argentina. Many of these emigrants became prominent in their new environments. Very few Slovene-speaking intellectuals and public figures decided to stay in the town, and those few who did, like the writer France Bevk, were subject to persecution. The town, heavily damaged during World War I, was rebuilt in the 1920s according to the plans laid out by the local architect Max Fabiani. Several rationalist buildings were built during this period, including some fine examples of Fascist architecture. The borders of the town were expanded, absorbing the suburbs of Salcano (Solkan), Podgora, Lucinico, and San Pietro di Gorizia
(Šempeter pri Gorici), as well as the predominantly rural settlements of Vertoiba (Vrtojba), Boccavizza (Bukovica) and Sant'Andrea (Štandrež). According to the Italian census of 1921, the expanded town had around 47,000 inhabitants, among whom 45.5% were native Slovene, 33% Italian (mostly Venetian), and 20.5% Friulian
speakers. Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
visited the town twice: in 1938 and in 1942. After the Italian armistice
Italian armistice
in September 1943, the town was shortly occupied by the Slovene partisan resistance, but soon fell under Nazi German administration. Between 1943 and 1945 it was incorporated into the Operational Zone Adriatic Littoral. The town was briefly occupied by the Yugoslav Army in May and June 1945. With the arrival of the Yugoslav partisans
Yugoslav partisans
in Gorizia
in May 1945 a fierce repression began against the opponents, or potential opponents of the regime. At least 1,048 Italian civilians and military disappeared.[6] According to some historians, many of the killings and violence suffered by the Italian ethnic group in Gorizia
(and the rest of Friuli
and Venezia Giulia) by the Yugoslav army were perpetrated as part of an ethnic cleansing practiced by Tito. Soon the administration was transferred to the Allies who ruled the town for more than two years, amidst fierce ethnic and political turmoil. Post-war partition and return to Italy[edit]

See also Morgan Line, Treaty of Osimo

On September 15, 1947, the town came back to Italy
again. Several peripherical districts of the Gorizia
municipality (Solkan, Pristava, Rožna Dolina, Kromberk, Šempeter pri Gorici, Vrtojba, Stara Gora, Ajševica, Volčja Draga, Bukovica, Vogrsko) were handed over to the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, together with the vast majority of the former Province of Gorizia. Around a half of the pre-war area of the municipality of Gorizia, with an approximate 20% of the population, were annexed to Yugoslavia. The national border was drawn just off the town centre, putting Gorizia
into a peripheral zone. Several landmarks of the town, such as the Kostanjevica Monastery/ Convento di Castagnevizza, Kromberk
Castle/ Castello Coronini, the Sveta Gora/ Monte Santo pilgrimage site, the old Jewish cemetery, and the northern railway station (Transalpina Railway station), remained on the other side of the border. In 1948, the authorities of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia
(with president Josip Broz Tito's special support) started building a new town called "Nova Gorica" ("New Gorizia") on their side of the border. From the late 1940s onward, Gorizia
gave refuge to thousands of Istrian Italians
Istrian Italians
that had to flee the regions annexed to Yugoslavia. Many of those settled in the town, and had a role in shaping its post-war national and political identity. Though a border city, Gorizia
was only in part crossed by the border with Yugoslavia. Some important old buildings once belonging to Gorizia
were included in the Yugoslav territory: these include the old railway station of the Transalpina line that connected Trieste
to Villach, as well as the Kostanjevica Monastery/ Convento di Castagnevizza, Kromberk
Castle/ Castello Coronini, the Sveta Gora/ Monte Santo pilgrimage site, the old Jewish
cemetery. Although the situation in Gorizia
was often compared with that of Berlin
during the Cold War, Italy
and Yugoslavia
had good relations regarding Gorizia. These included cultural and sporting events that favoured the spirit of harmonious coexistence that remained in place after Yugoslavia broke up in 1991. With the breakup of Yugoslavia, the frontier remained as the division between Italy
and Slovenia
until the implementation of the Schengen Agreement by Slovenia
on December 21, 2007. Geography[edit] Climate[edit]

Climate data for Gorizia

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.3 (43.3) 7.9 (46.2) 12.5 (54.5) 16.4 (61.5) 21.8 (71.2) 25.2 (77.4) 27.8 (82) 27.7 (81.9) 23.7 (74.7) 18.1 (64.6) 11.6 (52.9) 7.2 (45) 17.18 (62.93)

Daily mean °C (°F) 3.3 (37.9) 4.7 (40.5) 8.3 (46.9) 12.0 (53.6) 17.1 (62.8) 20.5 (68.9) 23.0 (73.4) 22.6 (72.7) 18.9 (66) 13.8 (56.8) 7.8 (46) 4.0 (39.2) 13.0 (55.4)

Average low °C (°F) −0.1 (31.8) 0.8 (33.4) 4.1 (39.4) 7.8 (46) 12.7 (54.9) 16.1 (61) 18.3 (64.9) 17.7 (63.9) 14.3 (57.7) 9.6 (49.3) 4.0 (39.2) 0.6 (33.1) 8.8 (47.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 49.6 (1.953) 46.8 (1.843) 60.1 (2.366) 76.3 (3.004) 77.6 (3.055) 70.5 (2.776) 69.6 (2.74) 68.5 (2.697) 89.2 (3.512) 101.2 (3.984) 83.4 (3.283) 60.2 (2.37) 853 (33.583)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.0 5.2 5.7 8.3 8.2 8.6 5.9 6.1 5.9 6.7 5.8 5.9 78.3

Average relative humidity (%) 82 78 75 74 71 72 70 69 74 77 80 81 75.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 77.8 100.4 144.5 179.7 228.1 249.9 285.7 261.3 210.4 144.0 99.8 62.4 2,044

Source: MeteoAM (sun and humidity 1961–1990)[7][8]

Main sights[edit]

The castle, built within the medieval walls, was once the seat of the administrative and judiciary power of the county. It is divided into the Corte dei Lanzi (with foundings of a high tower demolished in the 16th century), the Palazzetto dei Conti (13th century) and the Palazzetto Veneto. The Lanzi were the armed guards, the term being an Italian form of Landsknecht. The palatine chapel, entitled to Saint Bartholomew
houses canvases of the Venetian school of painting and traces of Renaissance
frescoes. There is also a Museum of the Goritian Middle Ages. The Cathedral (originally erected in the 14th century), like many of the city's buildings, was almost entirely destroyed during World War I.[9] It has been rebuilt following the forms of the 1682 edifice, a Baroque
church with splendid stucco decoration. A Gothic chapel of San Acatius is annexed to the nave. The church of Gorizia
of St. Ignatius of Loyola, built by the Jesuits in 1680–1725. It has a single nave with precious sculptures at the altars of the side chapels. In the presbytery Christoph Tausch painted a Glory of St. Ignatius in 1721. The Palazzo Attems Petzenstein (19th century), designed by Nicolò Pacassi. Saint Roch's Church. Palazzo Cobenzl, today seat of the archbishops. The Counts of Lantieri's house, which housed emperors and popes in its history. The Palazzo Coronini Cronberg, including an art gallery. Transalpina railway square, divided by an international border. The Department of International and Diplomatic Sciences of the University of Trieste, hosted in the "Seminario Minore", is an academic course in foreign affairs.

The Victory Square (Piazza della Vittoria), is the traditional center of the town

Saint Ignatius's Church



Holy Spirit Chapel

The Coronini Mansion


Border crossings[edit]

Informal border crossing on Transalpina Square

The Italy- Slovenia
border runs by the edge of Gorizia
and Nova Gorica and there are several border crossings between the cities. The ease of movement between the two parts of town have depended very much on the politics of both countries, ranging from strict controls to total free movement since December 21, 2007 when Slovenia
joined the Schengen area. Designated border crossings are (Gorizia-Nova Gorica):

Casa Rossa-Rožna Dolina: main international crossing checkpoint Via San Gabriele-Erjavčeva ulica: previously only for local traffic with passes, nearest crossing to Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
center Via del Rafut-Pristava: previously only for local traffic with passes San Pietro (Via Vittorio Veneto)/ Šempeter pri Gorici
Šempeter pri Gorici
( Goriška
ulica) Transalpina Square: open pedestrian square dissected by the border that was once fenced. The square was never an official crossing and signboards were erected to prohibit people from crossing square from one side to the other The major highway crossing at Sant'Andrea- Vrtojba
is located nearby to the south of the city.

Historical demography[edit] The chart shows the historical development of the population of Gorizia
from the late 18th century to the eve of World War I, according to official Austrian censuses. The figures show the population of the municipality of Gorizia
in the boundiaries of the time. The criteria for the definition of the ethnical structure were changing over the years: in 1789, only the religious affiliation of the population was taken into account; in 1869 the ethnic affiliation was also recorded, with Jews
counted as a separate category; in 1880 the category of ethnicity was replaced by the mother tongue, and from 1890 to 1910 only the "language of everyday communication" (German: Umgangsprache) was recorded. After 1869, the Jews
were only recorded as a religious community, under the official category of "Israelites". The data below refer to the population within the current borders of the city:

Census[10][11] Ethnic structure

Year Population Italians Slovenes Germans Jews

1789 7,639 n.a. n.a. n.a. 3.9%

1850 10,581 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1857 13,297 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

1869 16,659 66.6% 21.0% 10.8% 1.8%

1880 26,080 59.4% 25.7% 8.4% (1.4%)

1890 27,521 60.8% 26.5% 4.8% n.a.

1910 38,279 45.3% 39.6% 8.9% (0.9%)

1921 39,829 60.8% 37.1% n.a. n.a.

1924 45,540 70.6% 28.5% n.a. n.a.

1936 52,065 68.1% 30.0% n.a. n.a.

Culture and education[edit] Although the majority of the population identifies with the Italian culture, Gorizia
is a center of Friulian
and Slovene culture. Before 1918, the tri-lingual Gorizia
Grammar School was one of the most important educational institutions in the Slovene Lands
Slovene Lands
and for the Italians in the Austrian Littoral.[citation needed] Nowadays, Gorizia
hosts several important scientific and educational institutions. The University of Trieste, the University of Udine
University of Udine
and the University of Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
all have part of their campuses and faculties located in Gorizia. Gorizia
is also the site of a choral competition, the "C. A. Seghizzi" International Choir Competition, which is a member of the European Grand Prix for Choral Singing. Religion[edit]

Gorizia's synagogue

The majority of the population of Gorizia
is of Roman Catholic denomination. The town is the seat of the Archbishop of Gorizia, who was one of the three legal descendants of the Patriarchate of Aquileia (along with the Patriarchate of Venice
Patriarchate of Venice
and the Archdiocese of Udine). Between mid-18th century and 1920, Gorizia
was thus the center of a Metropolitan bishopric that comprised the Dioceses of Ljubljana, Trieste, Poreč-Pula and Krk. Several important religious figures lived and worked in Gorizia
during this period, including Cardinal Jakob Missia, Bishop Frančišek Borgia Sedej, theologians Anton Mahnič and Josip Srebrnič, and Franciscan
monk and philologian Stanislav Škrabec. There are many important Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
sacral buildings in the area, among them the sancturies of Sveta Gora
Sveta Gora
("Holy Mountain") and the Kostanjevica Monastery, both of which are now located in Slovenia. Until 1943, Gorizia
was also home of a small but significant Jewish minority.[citation needed] Most of its members however perished in the Holocaust. A Lutheran community exists in Gorizia. Sports[edit] The city was host of the EuroBasket 1979. Notable natives and residents[edit] Authors[edit]

France Bevk
France Bevk
(1890–1970), writer, Poet and translator Andrej Budal
Andrej Budal
(1889–1972), Writer and translator Simon Gregorčič
Simon Gregorčič
(1844–1906), poet Julius Kugy
Julius Kugy
(1858–1944), Writer and mountaineer Paolo Maurensig (b. 1943), novelist Fulvio Melia
Fulvio Melia
(b. 1956), author Lorenzo Da Ponte
Lorenzo Da Ponte
(b. 1749), poet, libretist

Artists and architects[edit]

Franz Caucig
Franz Caucig
(1755–1828), Painter Tullio Crali (1910–2000), Futurist artist Max Fabiani
Max Fabiani
(1865–1962), Architect Gojmir Anton Kos
Gojmir Anton Kos
(1896–1970), Painter Antonio Lasciac
Antonio Lasciac
(1856–1946), Architect Rodolfo Lipizer (1895–1974), Violinist Nicolò Pacassi
Nicolò Pacassi
(1716–1790), Architect Veno Pilon
Veno Pilon
(1896–1970), Painter Carlo Tavagnutti (b. 1929), photographer Jožef Tominc
Jožef Tominc
(1790–1866), Painter

Politicians and public servants[edit]

Engelbert Besednjak
Engelbert Besednjak
(1894–1968), politician Darko Bratina (1942–1997), Slovene Italian politician, sociologist, and film critic Baron Anton von Doblhoff-Dier
Baron Anton von Doblhoff-Dier
(1800–1872), Austrian statesman Carlo Favetti (1819–1892), Italian liberal nationalist politician and poet Josip Ferfolja (1880–1958), Slovene Social Democrat politician, lawyer and human rights activist Anton Füster
Anton Füster
(1808–1881), Austrian revolutionary activist, author and pedagogue Karel Lavrič
Karel Lavrič
(1818–1876), Slovene politician and lawyer Tomaž Marušič
Tomaž Marušič
(b. 1932), Slovenian politician and lawyer Bogumil Vošnjak
Bogumil Vošnjak
(1882–1955), Yugoslav liberal politician, lawyer, historian

Religious figures[edit]

Anton Mahnič
Anton Mahnič
(1850–1920), Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
bishop, author and political activist Isaac Samuel Reggio (1784–1855), Scholar and Rabbi Janez Svetokriški
Janez Svetokriški
(1647–1714), Franciscan
monk and preacher

Scholars and scientists[edit]

Graziadio Isaia Ascoli
Graziadio Isaia Ascoli
(1829–1907), Linguist Franco Basaglia
Franco Basaglia
(1924–1980), Psychiatrist Martin Baučer
Martin Baučer
(1595–1668), historian Václav Bělohradský
Václav Bělohradský
(b. 1944), philosopher Milko Brezigar (1886–1958), Economist Johannes Christian Brunnich
Johannes Christian Brunnich
(1866–1931), Chemist Nello Cristianini (born 1968) Scientist Jonathan Kaye (linguist) (born 1942), Linguist Milko Kos
Milko Kos
(1892–1972), historian Branko Marušič
Branko Marušič
(b. 1942), historian Pietro Andrea Mattioli
Pietro Andrea Mattioli
(1501–1577), Naturalist Fulvio Melia
Fulvio Melia
(b. 1956), Astrophysicist Carlo Michelstaedter (1887–1910), philosopher Avgust Pirjevec
Avgust Pirjevec
(1887–1944), Literary historian and librarian Carlo Rubbia
Carlo Rubbia
(b. 1934), Physicist
and Nobel laureate Jožko Šavli
Jožko Šavli
(1943–2011), historian Vladimir Truhlar (1912–1977), Poet and theologian


Paolo Camossi (b. 1974), Triple Jumper Matej Černič
Matej Černič
(1978), Volleyball player Barbara Lah (b. 1972), Triple jumper Armen Petrosyan (b. 1986), Kickboxer Giorgio Petrosyan (b. 1985), Kickboxer Gianmarco Pozzecco
Gianmarco Pozzecco
(b. 1972), Basketball player Edoardo Reja
Edoardo Reja
(b. 1945), Football coach and player Sergio Susmel (b. 1923), Football player Luca Tomasig (b. 1983), Football player Francesco Vida (1903–1984), Military officer and skier Paolo Vidoz (b. 1970), Boxer Elnardo Webster (b. 1969), American football player


Lojze Bratuž
Lojze Bratuž
(1902–1937), Composer and Anti-fascist martyr Lucy Christalnigg
Lucy Christalnigg
(1872–1914) Red Cross worker Charles X
Charles X
of France (1757–1836), Last Bourbon king of France Ferdo Delak
Ferdo Delak
(1905–1968), Slovene—Croatian stage director Nora Gregor
Nora Gregor
(1901–1949), actress Sergej Mašera (1912–1941), Lieutenant of the Yugoslav Royal Navy and national hero of Yugoslavia Arturo Reggio (1863–1917), Italian chess master Edvard Rusjan
Edvard Rusjan
(1886–1911), Aircraft constructor and pilot Karl von Scherzer
Karl von Scherzer
(1821–1903), Explorer and natural scientist

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Gorizia
is twinned with:

Kielce, Poland Klagenfurt, Austria Lienz, Austria Venlo, Netherlands Zalaegerszeg, Hungary

See also[edit]

Castle Gorizia
Centrale railway station A.S. Pro Gorizia


^ Meinhof, Ulrike Hanna (2002). Living (with) Borders: Identity Discourses on East-West Borders in Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate. p. 50.  ^ Fidermuc, Katarina (May 14, 2017). "Za železnico lahko hkrati stojiš v dveh Goricah". Delo. Retrieved December 27, 2017.  ^ di Francesco Fain. "Patto Gorizia- Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
c-e la firma – Cronaca" (in Italian). Il Piccolo. Retrieved 2012-08-25.  ^ Snoj, Marko. 2009. Etimološki slovar slovenskih zemljepisnih imen. Ljubljana: Modrijan and Založba ZRC, p. 144. ^ L'ultima estate, Nello Cristianini, 2014 – ISBN 978-1495363924 ^ L’ELENCO DEI MILLE DEPORATI IN SLOVENIA NEL 1945 ^ . Italian Air Force National Meteorological Service http://clima.meteoam.it/AtlanteClim2/pdf/(105). Retrieved 5 December 2013.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "Tabella CLINO". MeteoAM. Retrieved 22 June 2013.  ^ World War I
World War I
photo of the destroyed cathedral, by Jindřich Bišický, from [1]. ^ Branko Marušič, Pregled politične zgodovine Slovencev na Goriškem (Nova Gorica: Goriški muzej, 2005) ^ http://www.sistory.si/publikacije/prenos/?urn=SISTORY:ID:836

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gorizia.

has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Görz.

di Gorizia
Official Homepage Pictures of Gorizia
and information in English language Gorizia
oggi: news from Gorizia Giovanni Maria Cassini (1791). "Lo Stato Veneto da terra diviso nelle sue provincie, seconda parte che comprede porzioni del Dogado del Trevisano del Friuli
e dell' Istria". Rome: Calcografia camerale.  (Map of Gorizia

v t e

– Venezia Giulia · Comuni of the Province of Gorizia

Capriva del Friuli Cormons Doberdò del Lago Dolegna del Collio Farra d'Isonzo Fogliano Redipuglia Gorizia Gradisca d'Isonzo Grado Mariano del Friuli Medea Monfalcone Moraro Mossa Romans d'Isonzo Ronchi dei Legionari Sagrado San Canzian d'Isonzo San Floriano del Collio San Lorenzo Isontino San Pier d'Isonzo Savogna d'Isonzo Staranzano Turriaco Villesse

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312805365 GND: 4071921-2 SUDOC: 029195047 BNF: