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Gorilla Glass is a brand of specialized toughened glass developed and manufactured by Corning, now in its fifth generation,[1] designed to be thin, light and damage-resistant. Gorilla Glass is unique to Corning, but close equivalents exist, including Asahi Glass Co. Dragontrail and Schott AG Xensation.[2][3] The alkali-aluminosilicate sheet glass is used primarily as cover glass for portable electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable media players, portable computer displays, and television screens.[4] It is manufactured in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, US; Asan, Korea;[5] and Taiwan. The glass gains its surface strength, ability to contain flaws, and crack-resistance by being immersed in a proprietary, hot potassium salt ion-exchange bath. Corning experimented with chemically strengthened glass in 1960, as part of a "Project Muscle" initiative. Within a few years they had developed a "muscled glass"[6] marketed as Chemcor. The product was used until the early 1990s in commercial and industrial applications, including automotive, aviation and pharmaceutical uses,[6] notably in approximately one hundred 1968 Dodge Dart and Plymouth Barracuda racing cars, where minimizing the vehicle's weight was essential.[7] Experimentation was revived in 2005, investigating whether the glass could be made thin enough for use in consumer electronics. It was brought into commercial use when Apple asked Corning for a thin, toughened glass to be used in its new iPhone.[8][9] As of October 2017, some five billion devices globally contain Gorilla Glass.[10] While dominating its market, Gorilla Glass faces varying competition from rivals such as Dragontrail and sapphire glass.[10]

Contents

1 Development 2 Manufacture 3 Related Corning glass technologies 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Development[edit]

Version Announced

1 February 2008[11]

2 January 2012[12]

3 January 2013[13]

4 November 2014

5 July 2016

SR+ August 2016[14]

Corning further developed the material for a variety of smartphones and other consumer electronics devices for a range of companies.[15][16][17] The manufacturer markets the material's primary properties as its high scratch-resistance (protective coating) and its hardness (with a Vickers hardness test rating of 622 to 701),[18] which allows the glass to be thin without fragility. It can be recycled.[15] By 2010, the glass had been used in approximately 20% of mobile handsets worldwide, about 200 million units.[19] The second generation, called "Gorilla Glass 2", was introduced in 2012. On October 24, 2012, Corning announced that over one billion mobile devices used Gorilla Glass.[20] Gorilla Glass 2 is 20% thinner than the original Gorilla Glass.[21] Gorilla Glass 3 was introduced at CES 2013. According to Corning, the material is up to three times more scratch-resistant than the previous version, with enhanced ability to resist deep scratches that typically weaken glass.[22] The promotional material for Gorilla Glass 3 claims that it is 40% more scratch-resistant, in addition to being more flexible.[23] The design of Gorilla Glass 3 was Corning's first use of atomic-scale modeling before the material was melted in laboratories, with the prediction of the optimal composition obtained through the application of rigidity theory.[24] When Gorilla Glass 3 was announced Corning indicated that areas for future improvements included reducing reflectivity and susceptibility to fingerprint smudges, and changing the surface treatments and the way it is finished.[21] Antimicrobial Gorilla Glass with ionic silver, which is antibacterial, incorporated into its surface was demonstrated in early 2014.[25] Gorilla Glass 4, with better damage resistance and capability to be made thinner with the same performance as its predecessor, was announced at the end of 2014.[26] Gorilla Glass 5 was first used on the Samsung Galaxy Note 7 in 2016.[27] Gorilla Glass SR+ was first used on the Samsung Gear S3 smartwatch in 2016.[28] Gorilla Glass has also addressed the automobile market. Ford Motor Company announced it will be using the material for the front and rear windshields on its Ford GT sports car beginning in 2016.[29] Manufacture[edit] During its manufacture, the glass is toughened by ion exchange. The material is immersed in a molten alkaline potassium salt at a temperature of approximately 400 °C (750 °F),[30] wherein smaller sodium ions in the glass are replaced by larger potassium ions from the salt bath. The larger ions occupy more volume and thereby create a surface layer of high residual compressive stress, giving the glass surface increased strength, ability to contain flaws,[31] and overall crack-resistance,[32] making it resistant to damage from everyday use.[30] Related Corning glass technologies[edit] On October 26, 2011, Corning announced the commercial launch of Lotus Glass, designed for OLED and next-generation LCD displays.[33] The intrinsic thermal consistency of Lotus Glass allows it to retain its shape and quality during high-temperature processing. Decreased compaction and variation during the crystallization and activation step further reduce stress and distortions to the substrate. This enables tighter design rules in advanced backplanes for higher resolution and faster response time.[34] According to Corning, Gorilla Glass is specifically a cover glass for the exterior of display devices while Lotus Glass is designed as a glass substrate to be used within liquid crystal display panels. In other words, a product could use both Gorilla Glass and Lotus Glass.[35] On February 2, 2012, Corning Incorporated and Samsung Mobile Display Co., Ltd. signed an agreement to establish a new equity venture for the manufacture of specialty glass substrates for the OLED device market in Korea. The joint venture is based on Lotus Glass.[36] Lotus XT Glass became available in 2013.[37] In 2012, Corning introduced Willow Glass,[38] a flexible glass based on borosilicate glass,[39] launched for use as a display substrate. See also[edit]

List of devices with Gorilla Glass

References[edit]

^ "Corning's new Gorilla Glass 5 is meant to survive epic smartphone drops". The Verge, July 20, 2016, Lauren Goode. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017.  ^ "Gorilla Glass maker unveils ultra-thin and flexible Willow Glass". Physics News. Archived from the original on 2013-11-06. Retrieved 2013-11-01.  ^ "Xensation". Schott. Archived from the original on 2013-11-03. Retrieved 2013-11-01.  ^ "FAQs". Gorilla Glass. Corning. March 10, 2012. Archived from the original on October 28, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2013.  ^ "Corning Announces Transfer of Corning® Gorilla® Glass Production". Corning. March 6, 2014. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-12.  ^ a b Pogue, David (December 9, 2010). "Gorilla Glass, the Smartphone's Unsung Hero". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013.  ^ Isaacson, Walter (2011). "36 – The iPhone: Three Revolutionary Products in One". Steve Jobs. Simon & Schuster. pp. 471–72. ISBN 978-1-4516-4853-9.  ^ "Glass vendor Corning to receive $200 million from Apple's new fund". idownloadblog.com. Archived from the original on November 14, 2017. Retrieved November 14, 2017. [In 2005,] Corning CEO Wendell Weeks gave Steve Jobs a demonstration of his company’s glass material. Jobs was impressed and decided to use Corning’s glass protection for the original iPhone, as explained in Walter Isaacson’s authorized biography of the late Apple co-founder  ^ Isaacson, Walter (2011). Walter Isaacson Great Innovators e-book boxed set: Steve Jobs, Benjamin Franklin, Einstein. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-7760-7. Archived from the original on 2018-05-10.  ^ a b "One of the world's oldest products faces the digital future". The Economist. 12 October 2017. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017.  ^ "Corning Extends Fusion Process to Tackle Touch-Screen Applications" (Press release). 8 February 2008. Archived from the original on 26 September 2008.  ^ "Corning Unveils New Gorilla® Glass 2" (Press release). 9 January 2012. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017.  ^ Dante D'Orazio (3 January 2013). "Corning Gorilla Glass 3 to be three times more scratch resistant than previous generation". The Verge. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017.  ^ "Corning introduces Gorilla Glass SR+ for wearables". Android Authority. 31 August 2016. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017.  ^ a b "FAQs". Gorilla Glass. Corning. Archived from the original on 2010-12-09. Retrieved 2001-10-08.  ^ Nusca, Andrew (December 22, 2009). "The science behind stronger display glass on your phone, computer". SmartPlanet. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.  ^ "Full Products List". Gorilla Glass. Corning. Archived from the original on 2013-05-24. Retrieved 2012-01-13.  ^ "Gorilla Glass" (PDF). Technical Materials. Corning. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-29. Retrieved 2012-02-27.  ^ Ulanoff, Lance (January 12, 2011). "Why Is Gorilla Glass So Strong?". PC Magazine. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012. Retrieved February 17, 2012.  ^ News release, Corning, Oct 24, 2012, archived from the original on 2012-10-26 . ^ a b "Corning, After Thinning Out Gorilla Glass, Makes New Generation Tougher". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2013-11-03. Retrieved 2013-11-01.  ^ "Gorilla Glass". Corning. Archived from the original on 2013-10-28. Retrieved 2013-11-01.  ^ Lidsky, David (2013-02-11). "Corning". Most innovative companies. Fast Company. Archived from the original on 2013-10-20. Retrieved 2013-11-01.  ^ Wray, Peter. "Gorilla Glass 3 explained (and it is a modeling first for Corning!)". Ceramic Tech Today. The American Ceramic Society. Archived from the original on 2014-01-26.  ^ "Corning Unveils World's First Antimicrobial Cover". Archived from the original on 2014-12-15.  ^ "Mobile Phones, Smartphones, Slates, Tablets, Notebooks, Wearables and other devices with Gorilla Glass - Corning Gorilla Glass" (PDF). www.corninggorillaglass.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-01-31.  ^ "The Galaxy Note 7 is the first phone with Gorilla Glass 5". androidcentral.com. 2016-08-02. Archived from the original on 2016-08-28. Retrieved 2016-09-01.  ^ "Samsung Gear S3 watches get bigger screens and batteries". BBC. 2016-08-31. Archived from the original on 2016-08-31. Retrieved 2016-09-01.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-12-25. Retrieved 2015-12-16.  ^ a b "How It's Made: Ion-exchange process". Gorilla Glass. Corning. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2013.  ^ "What Stresses Gorilla Glass Makes It Stronger". Inside Science, Sophie Bushwick, February 4, 2015. Archived from the original on February 5, 2015.  ^ Walton, Donnell; Amin, Jaymin; Shashdhar, Naga (12 July 2010), Electronic Design - Specialty Glass: a new design element in consumer electronics (PDF), Corning, archived (PDF) from the original on 25 December 2014 . ^ "Corning Unveils Corning Lotus Glass for High-Performance Displays – New composition enables OLED and next generation liquid crystal displays". Corning. Oct 25, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-15.  ^ "Corning Lotus Glass and Gorilla Glass 2". CA: Gizmo. Archived from the original on October 29, 2014.  ^ "Corning Lotus Glass to compliment Gorilla Glass". Smart keitai. October 26, 2011. Archived from the original on January 16, 2012.  ^ "Corning and Samsung Mobile Display Form New OLED Glass Venture – New business expands Corning's long-standing collaboration with Samsung" (press release). Corning. 2012-02-02. Archived from the original on 2013-10-15. Retrieved 2013-11-01.  ^ "Corning: Corning Lotus XT Glass, May 2013". corning.com. Archived from the original on 2015-03-12.  ^ McEntegart, Jane (4 June 2012). "Tom's Hardware, Gorilla Glass Maker Corning Debuts Flexible Willow Glass". Tom’s hardware. Retrieved 2013-11-01.  ^ "Willow Glass (2014 fact sheet)" (fact sheet). Corning. 2014. 

External links[edit]

Official website Lotus Glass (product page), Corning . Why Glass Breaks on YouTube

v t e

Glass makers and brands

Contemporary companies

Anchor Hocking Arc International Ardagh Group Armashield Asahi Aurora Glass Foundry Aventas group Baccarat Berengo Studio Blenko Glass Company Bodum Bormioli Rocco Borosil Caithness Glass Cox & Barnard Corning Dartington Crystal Daum Edinburgh Crystal Effetre International Fanavid Fenton Art Glass Company Firozabad glass industry Flabeg Franz Mayer Glava Glaverbel Guardian Industries Hadeland Hardman & Co. Heaton, Butler and Bayne Holmegaard Glassworks Holophane Hoya Kingdom of Crystal Kokomo Opalescent Glass Works Kosta Glasbruk Libbey-Owens-Ford Liuli Gongfang Iittala Luoyang Johns Manville Mats Jonasson Målerås Moser Glass Mosser Glass Nippon Sheet Glass Ohara Orrefors Osram Owens Corning Owens-Illinois Paşabahçe Pauly & C. - Compagnia Venezia Murano Phu Phong Pilkington PPG Industries Preciosa Riedel Rona Royal Leerdam Crystal Saint-Gobain Saint-Louis Şişecam Schott Sterlite Optical Technologies Steuben Swarovski Tyrone Crystal Val Saint Lambert Verrerie of Brehat Waterford Watts & Co. World Kitchen Xinyi Glass Zwiesel

Historic companies

Bakewell Glass Belmont Glass Company Boston and Sandwich Glass Company Brockway Glass Carr Lowrey Glass Company Cambridge Glass Chance Brothers Clayton and Bell Dugan Glass Company Duncan & Miller Dunbar Glass Fostoria Glass Company General Glass Industries Gus Crystal Alexander Gibbs Grönvik glasbruk Hartford City Glass Company Hazel-Atlas Heisey Hemingray Glass Company J. H. Hobbs, Brockunier and Company Knox Glass Bottle Company Lavers, Barraud and Westlake Manufacture royale de glaces de miroirs Millersburg Glass Company Morris & Co. Nachtmann Northwood Glass Company Novelty Glass Company Old Dominion Glass Company James Powell and Sons Ravenhead Glass The Root Glass Company Seneca Glass Company Shrigley and Hunt Sneath Glass Company Venini & C. Ward and Hughes Westmoreland Glass Company Wheaton Industries Whitall Tatum Company White Glass Company Worshipful Company

Glassmakers

John Adams Richard M. Atwater Frederick Carder Irving Wightman Colburn Henry Crimmel Friedrich Henry Clay Fry A. H. Heisey Edward D. Libbey Dante Marioni Antonio Neri Michael Joseph Owens Alastair Pilkington Flavio Poli Salviati Otto Schott Henry William Stiegel S. Donald Stookey Lino Tagliapietra W. E. S. Turner Tomasz Urbanowicz Paolo Venini John M. Whitall

Trademarks and brands

Activ Bohemian glass Bomex Duran Endural Burmese glass Chevron bead Corelle CorningWare Cranberry glass Cristallo Dragontrail Favrile Fire-King Forest glass Gorilla Glass Macor Millefiori Murano glass Opaline glass Peking glass Pyrex Rona Ravenhead Glass Satsuma Kiriko cut glass Tiffany glass Visions Vitrite Vitrolite Vycor Waterford Crystal Wood's glass Zerodur

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