Glass is a brand of specialized toughened glass developed and
manufactured by Corning, now in its fifth generation, designed to
be thin, light and damage-resistant. Gorilla
Glass is unique to
Corning, but close equivalents exist, including Asahi
Schott AG Xensation.
The alkali-aluminosilicate sheet glass is used primarily as cover
glass for portable electronic devices, including mobile phones,
portable media players, portable computer displays, and television
screens. It is manufactured in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, US; Asan,
Korea; and Taiwan.
The glass gains its surface strength, ability to contain flaws, and
crack-resistance by being immersed in a proprietary, hot potassium
salt ion-exchange bath.
Corning experimented with chemically strengthened glass in 1960, as
part of a "Project Muscle" initiative. Within a few years they had
developed a "muscled glass" marketed as Chemcor. The product was
used until the early 1990s in commercial and industrial applications,
including automotive, aviation and pharmaceutical uses, notably in
approximately one hundred 1968
Dodge Dart and Plymouth Barracuda
racing cars, where minimizing the vehicle's weight was essential.
Experimentation was revived in 2005, investigating whether the glass
could be made thin enough for use in consumer electronics. It was
brought into commercial use when Apple asked Corning for a thin,
toughened glass to be used in its new iPhone.
As of October 2017, some five billion devices globally contain Gorilla
Glass. While dominating its market, Gorilla
Glass faces varying
competition from rivals such as
Dragontrail and sapphire glass.
3 Related Corning glass technologies
4 See also
6 External links
Corning further developed the material for a variety of smartphones
and other consumer electronics devices for a range of
The manufacturer markets the material's primary properties as its high
scratch-resistance (protective coating) and its hardness (with a
Vickers hardness test
Vickers hardness test rating of 622 to 701), which allows the
glass to be thin without fragility. It can be recycled.
By 2010, the glass had been used in approximately 20% of mobile
handsets worldwide, about 200 million units. The second
generation, called "Gorilla
Glass 2", was introduced in 2012. On
October 24, 2012, Corning announced that over one billion mobile
devices used Gorilla Glass. Gorilla
Glass 2 is 20% thinner than
the original Gorilla Glass.
Glass 3 was introduced at CES 2013. According to Corning, the
material is up to three times more scratch-resistant than the previous
version, with enhanced ability to resist deep scratches that typically
weaken glass. The promotional material for Gorilla
Glass 3 claims
that it is 40% more scratch-resistant, in addition to being more
flexible. The design of Gorilla
Glass 3 was Corning's first use of
atomic-scale modeling before the material was melted in laboratories,
with the prediction of the optimal composition obtained through the
application of rigidity theory.
Glass 3 was announced Corning indicated that areas for
future improvements included reducing reflectivity and susceptibility
to fingerprint smudges, and changing the surface treatments and the
way it is finished. Antimicrobial Gorilla
Glass with ionic silver,
which is antibacterial, incorporated into its surface was demonstrated
in early 2014.
Glass 4, with better damage resistance and capability to be
made thinner with the same performance as its predecessor, was
announced at the end of 2014.
Glass 5 was first used on the
Samsung Galaxy Note 7
Samsung Galaxy Note 7 in
Glass SR+ was first used on the
Samsung Gear S3
Samsung Gear S3 smartwatch in
Glass has also addressed the automobile market. Ford Motor
Company announced it will be using the material for the front and rear
windshields on its
Ford GT sports car beginning in 2016.
During its manufacture, the glass is toughened by ion exchange. The
material is immersed in a molten alkaline potassium salt at a
temperature of approximately 400 °C (750 °F), wherein
smaller sodium ions in the glass are replaced by larger potassium ions
from the salt bath. The larger ions occupy more volume and thereby
create a surface layer of high residual compressive stress at the
surface, giving the glass surface increased strength, ability to
contain flaws, and overall crack-resistance, making it
resistant to damage from everyday use.
Related Corning glass technologies
On October 26, 2011, Corning announced the commercial launch of Lotus
Glass, designed for
OLED and next-generation LCD displays. The
intrinsic thermal consistency of Lotus
Glass allows it to retain its
shape and quality during high-temperature processing. Decreased
compaction and variation during the crystallization and activation
step further reduce stress and distortions to the substrate. This
enables tighter design rules in advanced backplanes for higher
resolution and faster response time. According to Corning, Gorilla
Glass is specifically a cover glass for the exterior of display
devices while Lotus
Glass is designed as a glass substrate to be used
within liquid crystal display panels. In other words, a product could
use both Gorilla
Glass and Lotus Glass. On February 2, 2012,
Corning Incorporated and Samsung Mobile Display Co., Ltd. signed an
agreement to establish a new equity venture for the manufacture of
specialty glass substrates for the
OLED device market in Korea. The
joint venture is based on Lotus Glass. Lotus XT
available in 2013.
In 2012, Corning introduced Willow Glass, a flexible glass based
on borosilicate glass, launched for use as a display substrate.
List of devices with Gorilla Glass
^ "Corning's new Gorilla
Glass 5 is meant to survive epic smartphone
drops". The Verge, July 20, 2016, Lauren Goode.
Glass maker unveils ultra-thin and flexible Willow Glass".
Physics News. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
^ "Xensation". Schott. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
^ "FAQs". Gorilla Glass. Corning. March 10, 2012. Retrieved November
^ "Corning Announces Transfer of Corning® Gorilla® Glass
Production". Corning. March 6, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
^ a b Pogue, David (December 9, 2010). "Gorilla Glass, the
Smartphone's Unsung Hero". The New York Times.
^ Isaacson, Walter (2011). "36 – The iPhone: Three Revolutionary
Products in One". Steve Jobs. Simon & Schuster. pp. 471–72.
Glass vendor Corning to receive $200 million from Apple's new
fund". idownloadblog.com. Retrieved November 14, 2017. [In 2005,]
Corning CEO Wendell Weeks gave Steve Jobs a demonstration of his
company’s glass material. Jobs was impressed and decided to use
Corning’s glass protection for the original iPhone, as explained in
Walter Isaacson’s authorized biography of the late Apple
^ Isaacson, Walter (2011). Walter Isaacson Great Innovators e-book
boxed set: Steve Jobs, Benjamin Franklin, Einstein. Simon and
Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-7760-7.
^ a b "One of the world's oldest products faces the digital future".
The Economist. 12 October 2017.
^ "Corning Extends Fusion Process to Tackle Touch-Screen Applications"
(Press release). 8 February 2008. Archived from the original on 26
^ "Corning Unveils New Gorilla®
Glass 2" (Press release). 9 January
^ Dante D'Orazio (3 January 2013). "Corning Gorilla
Glass 3 to be
three times more scratch resistant than previous generation". The
^ "Corning introduces Gorilla
Glass SR+ for wearables". Android
Authority. 31 August 2016.
^ a b "FAQs". Gorilla Glass. Corning. Retrieved 2001-10-08.
^ Nusca, Andrew (December 22, 2009). "The science behind stronger
display glass on your phone, computer". SmartPlanet. Retrieved 8
^ "Full Products List". Gorilla Glass. Corning. Retrieved
^ "Gorilla Glass" (PDF). Technical Materials. Corning. p. 2.
^ Ulanoff, Lance (January 12, 2011). "Why Is Gorilla
Strong?". PC Magazine. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
^ News release, Corning, Oct 24, 2012 .
^ a b "Corning, After Thinning Out Gorilla Glass, Makes New Generation
Tougher". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
^ "Gorilla Glass". Corning. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
^ Lidsky, David (2013-02-11). "Corning". Most innovative companies.
Fast Company. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
^ Wray, Peter. "Gorilla
Glass 3 explained (and it is a modeling first
for Corning!)". Ceramic Tech Today. The American Ceramic
^ "Corning Unveils World's First Antimicrobial Cover".
Glass 4 product information sheet
^ "The Galaxy Note 7 is the first phone with Gorilla
androidcentral.com. 2016-08-02. Retrieved 2016-09-01.
Samsung Gear S3
Samsung Gear S3 watches get bigger screens and batteries". BBC.
2016-08-31. Retrieved 2016-09-01.
^ a b "How It's Made: Ion-exchange process". Gorilla Glass. Corning.
Retrieved 9 December 2013.
^ "What Stresses Gorilla
Glass Makes It Stronger". Inside Science,
Sophie Bushwick, February 4, 2015.
^ Walton, Donnell; Amin, Jaymin; Shashdhar, Naga (12 July 2010),
Electronic Design - Specialty Glass: a new design element in consumer
electronics (PDF), Corning .
^ "Corning Unveils Corning Lotus
Glass for High-Performance Displays
– New composition enables
OLED and next generation liquid crystal
displays". Corning. Oct 25, 2011.
^ "Corning Lotus
Glass and Gorilla
Glass 2". CA: Gizmo. Archived from
the original on October 29, 2014.
^ "Corning Lotus
Glass to compliment Gorilla Glass". Smart keitai.
October 26, 2011.
^ "Corning and Samsung Mobile Display Form New
Glass Venture –
New business expands Corning's long-standing collaboration with
Samsung" (press release). Corning. 2012-02-02. Retrieved
^ Corning: Corning Lotus XT Glass, May 2013
^ McEntegart, Jane (4 June 2012). "Tom's Hardware, Gorilla
Corning Debuts Flexible Willow Glass". Tom’s hardware. Retrieved
Glass (2014 fact sheet)" (fact sheet). Corning. 2014.
Glass (product page), Corning .
Glass Breaks on YouTube
Glass makers and brands
Cox & Barnard
Firozabad glass industry
Hardman & Co.
Heaton, Butler and Bayne
Kingdom of Crystal
Mats Jonasson Målerås
Nippon Sheet Glass
Pauly & C. - Compagnia Venezia Murano
Royal Leerdam Crystal
Sterlite Optical Technologies
Val Saint Lambert
Verrerie of Brehat
Watts & Co.
Boston and Sandwich
Clayton and Bell
Duncan & Miller
J. H. Hobbs, Brockunier and Company
Glass Bottle Company
Lavers, Barraud and Westlake
Manufacture royale de glaces de miroirs
Morris & Co.
James Powell and Sons
Shrigley and Hunt
Venini & C.
Ward and Hughes
Whitall Tatum Company
Richard M. Atwater
Irving Wightman Colburn
Henry Clay Fry
A. H. Heisey
Edward D. Libbey
Michael Joseph Owens
Henry William Stiegel
S. Donald Stookey
W. E. S. Turner
John M. Whitall
Satsuma Kiriko cut glass
List of defunct gla