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Google
Google
Books (previously known as Google
Google
Book
Book
Search and Google
Google
Print and by its codename Project Ocean)[1] is a service from Google
Google
Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google
Google
has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.[2] Books are provided either by publishers and authors, through the Google
Google
Books Partner Program, or by Google's library partners, through the Library Project.[3] Additionally, Google
Google
has partnered with a number of magazine publishers to digitize their archives.[4][5] The Publisher Program was first known as ' Google
Google
Print' when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair
Frankfurt Book Fair
in October 2004. The Google Books Library Project, which scans works in the collections of library partners and adds them to the digital inventory, was announced in December 2004. The Google
Google
Books initiative has been hailed for its potential to offer unprecedented access to what may become the largest online body of human knowledge[6][7] and promoting the democratization of knowledge.[8] But it has also been criticized for potential copyright violations,[8][9] and lack of editing to correct the many errors introduced into the scanned texts by the OCR process. As of October 2015, the number of scanned book titles was over 25 million, but the scanning process has slowed down in American academic libraries.[10][11] Google
Google
estimated in 2010 that there were about 130 million distinct titles in the world,[12][13] and stated that it intended to scan all of them.[12]

Contents

1 Details 2 Scanning of books 3 Website functionality 4 Ngram Viewer 5 Content issues and criticism

5.1 Scanning errors 5.2 Errors in metadata 5.3 Language issues 5.4 Google
Google
Books versus Google
Google
Scholar

6 Library partners

6.1 Initial partners 6.2 Additional partners

7 History

7.1 Status

8 Legal issues 9 Similar projects 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Details[edit] Results from Google
Google
Books show up in both the universal Google
Google
Search as well as in the dedicated Google
Google
Books search website (books.google.com). In response to search queries, Google
Google
Books allows users to view full pages from books in which the search terms appear, if the book is out of copyright or if the copyright owner has given permission. If Google believes the book is still under copyright, a user sees "snippets" of text around the queried search terms. All instances of the search terms in the book text appear with a yellow highlight. The four access levels used on Google
Google
Books are:[14]

Full view: Books in the public domain are available for "full view" and can be downloaded for free. In-print books acquired through the Partner Program are also available for full view if the publisher has given permission, although this is rare. Preview: For in-print books where permission has been granted, the number of viewable pages is limited to a "preview" set by a variety of access restrictions and security measures, some based on user-tracking. Usually, the publisher can set the percentage of the book available for preview.[15] Users are restricted from copying, downloading or printing book previews. A watermark reading "Copyrighted material" appears at the bottom of pages. All books acquired through the Partner Program are available for preview. Snippet view: A 'snippet view' – two to three lines of text surrounding the queried search term – is displayed in cases where Google
Google
does not have permission of the copyright owner to display a preview. This could be because Google
Google
cannot identify the owner or the owner declined permission. If a search term appears many times in a book, Google
Google
displays no more than three snippets, thus preventing the user from viewing too much of the book. Also, Google
Google
does not display any snippets for certain reference books, such as dictionaries, where the display of even snippets can harm the market for the work. Google maintains that no permission is required under copyright law to display the snippet view.[16] No preview: Google
Google
also displays search results for books that have not been digitized. As these books have not been scanned, their text is not searchable and only the metadata information such as the title, author, publisher, number of pages, ISBN, subject and copyright information, and in some cases, a table of contents and book summary is available. In effect, this is similar to an online library card catalog.[3]

In response to criticism from groups such as the American Association of Publishers and the Authors Guild, Google
Google
announced an opt-out policy in August 2005, through which copyright owners could provide a list of titles that it did not want scanned, and Google
Google
would respect the request. Google
Google
also stated that it would not scan any in-copyright books between August and 1 November 2005, to provide the owners with the opportunity to decide which books to exclude from the Project. Thus, Google
Google
provides a copyright owner with three choices with respect to any work:[16]

It can participate in the Partner Program to make a book available for preview or full view, in which case it would share revenue derived from the display of pages from the work in response to user queries. It can let Google
Google
scan the book under the Library Project and display snippets in response to user queries. It can opt out of the Library Project, in which case Google
Google
will not scan the book. If the book has already been scanned, Google
Google
will reset its access level as 'No preview'.

Most scanned works are no longer in print or commercially available.[17] In addition to procuring books from libraries, Google
Google
also obtains books from its publisher partners, through the "Partner Program" – designed to help publishers and authors promote their books. Publishers and authors submit either a digital copy of their book in EPUB
EPUB
or PDF format, or a print copy to Google, which is made available on Google
Google
Books for preview. The publisher can control the percentage of the book available for preview, with the minimum being 20%. They can also choose to make the book fully viewable, and even allow users to download a PDF copy. Books can also be made available for sale on Google
Google
Play.[3] Unlike the Library Project, this does not raise any copyright concerns as it is conducted pursuant to an agreement with the publisher. The publisher can choose to withdraw from the agreement at any time.[16] For many books, Google
Google
Books displays the original page numbers. However, Tim Parks, writing in The New York Review of Books
The New York Review of Books
in 2014, noted that Google
Google
had stopped providing page numbers for many recent publications (likely the ones acquired through the Partner Program) "presumably in alliance with the publishers, in order to force those of us who need to prepare footnotes to buy paper editions."[18] Scanning of books[edit] The project began in 2002 under the codename Project Ocean. Google co-founder Larry Page
Larry Page
had always had an interest in digitizing books. When he and Marissa Mayer
Marissa Mayer
began experimenting with book scanning in 2002, it took 40 minutes for them to digitize a 300-page book. But soon after the technology had been developed to the extent that scanning operators could scan up to 6000 pages an hour.[19] Google
Google
established designated scanning centers to which books were transported by trucks. The stations could digitize at the rate of 1,000 pages per hour. The books were placed in a custom-built mechanical cradle that adjusted the book spine in place for the scanning. An array of lights and optical instruments were used – including four cameras, two directed at each half of the book, and a range-finding LIDAR
LIDAR
that overlaid a three-dimensional laser grid on the book’s surface to capture the curvature of the paper. A human operator would turn the pages by hand and operate the cameras through a foot pedal. The system was made efficient since there was no need to flatten the book pages or align them perfectly. The crude images were worked upon by de-warping algorithms that used the LIDAR
LIDAR
data to process the images. Optical character recognition (OCR) software were developed to process the raw images to text. Algorithms were also created to extract page numbers, footnotes, illustrations and diagrams.[19] Many of the books are scanned using a customized Elphel
Elphel
323 camera[20][21] at a rate of 1,000 pages per hour.[22] A patent awarded to Google
Google
in 2009 revealed that Google
Google
had come up with an innovative system for scanning books that uses two cameras and infrared light to automatically correct for the curvature of pages in a book. By constructing a 3D model of each page and then "de-warping" it, Google is able to present flat-looking pages without having to really make the pages flat, which requires the use of destructive methods such as unbinding or glass plates to individually flatten each page, which is inefficient for large scale scanning.[23][24] Website functionality[edit] Each book on Google
Google
Books has an associated "About this book" page which displays analytical information regarding the book such as a word map of the most used words and phrases, a selection of pages, list of related books, list of scholarly articles and other books that cite the book, and tables of content.[a] This information is collated through automated methods, and sometimes data from third-party sources is used.[25] This information provides an insight into the book, particularly useful when only a snippet view is available. The list of related books can often contain irrelevant entries.[26] In some cases, a book summary and information about the author is also displayed. The page also displays bibliographic information, which can be exported as citations in BibTeX, EndNote
EndNote
and RefMan formats. Registered users logged in with their Google
Google
accounts can post reviews for books on this page. Google
Google
Books also displays reviews from Goodreads
Goodreads
alongside these reviews.[26] For books still in print, the site provides links to the website of the publisher and booksellers. Google
Google
Books can retrieve scanned books from URLs based on the ISBN, LCCN and OCLC record numbers. The 'About this book' page of a book with the ISBN123456789 can be linked as books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN123456789. For some books, Google
Google
also provides the ability to link directly to the front cover, title page, copyright page, table of contents, index, and back cover of a book, by using an appropriate parameter. For example, the front cover of a book with the OCLC number 17546826 can be linked as books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC17546826&printsec=frontcover[27] Signed-in users can create a personalized collection or a "library" of books, using the "My Library" feature. Organized through "bookshelves", books can be added to the library using a button that appears along with search results or from the "Overview" page of books. The library can be shared with friends by making bookshelves publicly visible and sharing the private library URL. Users can also import a list of books to the library using their ISBN
ISBN
or ISSN numbers. There are four default bookshelves which cannot be renamed: "Favorites", "Reading now", "To read" and "Have read".[28][29] The library also has default bookshelves ("Purchased", "Reviewed", "My Books on Google
Google
Play", "Recently viewed", "Browsing history", and "Books for you") to which books get added automatically. Users cannot add or remove books from these bookshelves. Ngram Viewer[edit] Main article: Google
Google
Ngram Viewer The Ngram Viewer is a service connected to Google
Google
Books that graphs the frequency of word usage across their book collection. The service is important for historians and linguists as it can provide an inside look into human culture through word use throughout time periods.[30] This program has fallen under criticism because of metadata errors used in the program.[31] Content issues and criticism[edit] The project has received criticism that its stated aim of preserving orphaned and out-of-print works is at risk due to scanned data having errors and the problems being not solved.[32][33] Google
Google
allows users to report errors in books at the website support.google.com/books/partner/troubleshooter/2983879. Scanning errors[edit]

A hand scanned in a Google
Google
book

The scanning process is subject to errors. For example, some pages may be unreadable, upside down, or in the wrong order. Scholars have even reported crumpled pages, obscuring thumbs and fingers, and smeared or blurry images.[34] On this issue, a declaration from Google
Google
at the end of scanned books says:

“ The digitization at the most basic level is based on page images of the physical books. To make this book available as an ePub formated file we have taken those page images and extracted the text using Optical Character Recognition (or OCR for short) technology. The extraction of text from page images is a difficult engineering task. Smudges on the physical books' pages, fancy fonts, old fonts, torn pages, etc. can all lead to errors in the extracted text. Imperfect OCR is only the first challenge in the ultimate goal of moving from collections of page images to extracted-text based books. Our computer algorithms also have to automatically determine the structure of the book (what are the headers and footers, where images are placed, whether text is verse or prose, and so forth). Getting this right allows us to render the book in a way that follows the format of the original book. Despite our best efforts you may see spelling mistakes, garbage characters, extraneous images, or missing pages in this book. Based on our estimates, these errors should not prevent you from enjoying the content of the book. The technical challenges of automatically constructing a perfect book are daunting, but we continue to make enhancements to our OCR and book structure extraction technologies.[35]

As of 2009 Google
Google
stated that they would start using ReCAPTCHA
ReCAPTCHA
to help fix the errors found in Google
Google
Book
Book
scanning’s. This method would only improve scanned words that are hard to recognize because of the scanning process and cannot solve errors such as turned pages or blocked words.[36] Errors in metadata[edit] Scholars have frequently reported rampant errors in the metadata information on Google
Google
Books – including misattributed authors and erroneous dates of publication. Geoffrey Nunberg, a linguist researching on the changes in word usage over time noticed that a search for books published before 1950 and containing the word "internet" turned up an unlikely 527 results. Woody Allen is mentioned in 325 books ostensibly published before he was born. Google
Google
responded to Nunberg by blaming the bulk of errors on the outside contractors.[31] Other metadata errors reported include publication dates before the author's birth (e.g. 182 works by Charles Dickens prior to his birth in 1812); incorrect subject classifications (an edition of Moby Dick found under "computers", a biography of Mae West classified under "religion"), conflicting classifications (10 editions of Whitman's Leaves of Grass all classified as both "fiction" and "nonfiction"), incorrectly spelled titles, authors, and publishers (Moby Dick: or the White "Wall"), and metadata for one book incorrectly appended to a completely different book (the metadata for an 1818 mathematical work leads to a 1963 romance novel).[37][38]

"A review of the author, title, publisher, and publication year metadata elements for 400 randomly selected Google
Google
Books records was undertaken. The results show 36% of sampled books in the digitization project contained metadata errors. This error rate is higher than one would expect to find in a typical library online catalog.".[39]

"The overall error rate of 36.75% found in this study suggests that Google
Google
Books’ metadata has a high rate of error. While “major” and “minor” errors are a subjective distinction based on the somewhat indeterminate concept of “findability”, the errors found in the four metadata elements examined in this study should all be considered major."[40]

Metadata
Metadata
errors based incorrect scanned date makes research using the Google
Google
Books Project database difficult. Google
Google
has shown only limited interest in cleaning up these errors.[41] Language issues[edit] Some European politicians and intellectuals have criticized Google's effort on linguistic imperialism grounds. They argue that because the vast majority of books proposed to be scanned are in English, it will result in disproportionate representation of natural languages in the digital world. German, Russian, French, and Spanish, for instance, are popular languages in scholarship. The disproportionate online emphasis on English, however, could shape access to historical scholarship, and, ultimately, the growth and direction of future scholarship. Among these critics is Jean-Noël Jeanneney, the former president of the Bibliothèque nationale de France.[42] Google
Google
Books versus Google
Google
Scholar[edit] While Google
Google
Books has digitized large numbers of journal back issues, its scans do not include the metadata required for identifying specific articles in specific issues. This has led the makers of Google
Google
Scholar to start their own program to digitize and host older journal articles (in agreement with their publishers).[43] Library partners[edit] The Google
Google
Books Library Project is aimed at scanning and making searchable the collections of several major research libraries.[44] Along with bibliographic information, snippets of text from a book are often viewable. If a book is out of copyright and in the public domain, the book is fully available to read or download.[14] In-copyright books scanned through the Library Project are made available on Google
Google
Books for snippet view. Regarding the quality of scans, Google
Google
acknowledges that they are "not always of sufficiently high quality" to be offered for sale on Google
Google
Play. Also, because of supposed technical constraints, Google
Google
does not replace scans with higher quality versions that may be provided by the publishers.[27] The project is the subject of the Authors Guild
Authors Guild
v. Google
Google
lawsuit, filed in 2005 and ruled in favor of Google
Google
in 2013, and again, on appeal, in 2015. Copyright
Copyright
owners can claim the rights for a scanned book and make it available for preview or full view (by "transferring" it to their Partner Program account), or request Google
Google
to prevent the book text from being searched.[27] The number of institutions participating in the Library Project has grown since its inception.[45] The University of Mysore
University of Mysore
has been mentioned in many media reports as being a library partner,[46][47] although it is not listed as a partner by Google.[48] Initial partners[edit]

Notice about the project at Michigan University Library

Harvard University, Harvard University
Harvard University
Library[49]

The Harvard University
Harvard University
Library and Google
Google
conducted a pilot throughout 2005. The project continued, with the aim of increasing online access to the holdings of the Harvard University
Harvard University
Library, which includes more than 15.8 million volumes. While physical access to Harvard's library materials is generally restricted to current Harvard students, faculty, and researchers, or to scholars who can come to Cambridge, the Harvard- Google
Google
Project has been designed to enable both members of the Harvard community and users everywhere to discover works in the Harvard collection.

University of Michigan, University of Michigan
University of Michigan
Library[50]

As of March 2012, 5.5 million volumes were scanned.[51]

New York Public Library[52]

In this pilot program, NYPL is working with Google
Google
to offer a collection of its public domain books, which will be scanned in their entirety and made available for free to the public online. Users will be able to search and browse the full text of these works. When the scanning process is complete, the books may be accessed from both The New York Public Library's website and from the Google
Google
search engine.[52]

University of Oxford, Bodleian Library[53] Stanford
Stanford
University, Stanford University
Stanford University
Libraries
Libraries
(SULAIR)[54]

Additional partners[edit] Other institutional partners have joined the project since the partnership was first announced:

Austrian National Library[55] Bavarian State Library[56] Bibliothèque municipale de Lyon[57] Big Ten Academic Alliance[58] Columbia University, Columbia University
Columbia University
Library System[59] Complutense University of Madrid[56][60] Cornell University, Cornell University
Cornell University
Library[61] Ghent University, Ghent University
Ghent University
Library/Boekentoren[56][62] Keio University, Keio Media Centers (Libraries)[63] National Library of Catalonia, Biblioteca de Catalunya[64] Princeton University, Princeton University
Princeton University
Library[65] University of California, California Digital Library[66] University of Lausanne, Cantonal and University Library of Lausanne[56][67] University of Mysore, Mysore University Library

It was reported in 2007 that Google
Google
had agreed to digitizing some 800,000 texts at the University of Mysore
University of Mysore
– including 100,000 manuscripts written on both paper and palm leaves.[68] However, there has been no update on the status of the project since then.

University of Texas at Austin, University of Texas Libraries[69]

The partnership was for digitizing the library's Latin American collection – about half a million volumes.[51]

University of Virginia, University of Virginia
University of Virginia
Library[70] University of Wisconsin–Madison, University of Wisconsin Libraries[71]

As of March 2012, about 600,000 volumes had been scanned.[51]

History[edit] 2002: A group of team members at Google
Google
officially launch the “secret ‘books’ project.”[72] Google
Google
founders Sergey Brin
Sergey Brin
and Larry Page
Larry Page
came up with the idea that later became Google
Google
Books while still graduate students at Stanford
Stanford
in 1996. The history page on the Google
Google
Books website describes their initial vision for this project: “in a future world in which vast collections of books are digitized, people would use a ‘web crawler’ to index the books’ content and analyze the connections between them, determining any given book’s relevance and usefulness by tracking the number and quality of citations from other books.”[72] This team visited the sites of some of the larger digitization efforts at that time including the Library of Congress’s American Memory
American Memory
Project, Project Gutenberg, and the Universal Library to find out how they work, as well as the University of Michigan, Page’s alma mater, and the base for such digitization projects as JSTOR
JSTOR
and Making of America. In a conversation with the at that time University President Mary Sue Coleman, when Page found out that the University’s current estimate for scanning all the library’s volumes was 1,000 years, Page reportedly told Coleman that he “believes Google
Google
can help make it happen in six."[72] 2003: The team works to develop a high-speed scanning process as well as software for resolving issues in odd type sizes, unusual fonts, and "other unexpected peculiarities."[72] December 2004: Google
Google
signaled an extension to its Google
Google
Print initiative known as the Google
Google
Print Library Project.[45] Google announced partnerships with several high-profile university and public libraries, including the University of Michigan, Harvard (Harvard University Library), Stanford
Stanford
(Green Library), Oxford (Bodleian Library), and the New York Public Library. According to press releases and university librarians, Google
Google
planned to digitize and make available through its Google
Google
Books service approximately 15 million volumes within a decade. The announcement soon triggered controversy, as publisher and author associations challenged Google's plans to digitize, not just books in the public domain, but also titles still under copyright. September–October 2005: Two lawsuits against Google
Google
charge that the company has not respected copyrights and has failed to properly compensate authors and publishers. One is a class action suit on behalf of authors ( Authors Guild
Authors Guild
v. Google, Sept. 20 2005) and the other is a civil lawsuit brought by five large publishers and the Association of American Publishers. (McGraw Hill v. Google, Oct. 19 2005)[9][73][74][75][76][77] November 2005: Google
Google
changed the name of this service from Google Print to Google
Google
Book
Book
Search.[78] Its program enabling publishers and authors to include their books in the service was renamed Google
Google
Books Partner Program,[79] and the partnership with libraries became Google Books Library Project. 2006: Google
Google
added a "download a pdf" button to all its out-of-copyright, public domain books. It also added a new browsing interface along with new "About this Book" pages.[72] August 2006: The University of California
University of California
System announced that it would join the Books digitization project. This includes a portion of the 34 million volumes within the approximately 100 libraries managed by the System.[80] September 2006: The Complutense University of Madrid
Complutense University of Madrid
became the first Spanish-language library to join the Google
Google
Books Library Project.[81] October 2006: The University of Wisconsin–Madison
University of Wisconsin–Madison
announced that it would join the Book
Book
Search digitization project along with the Wisconsin Historical Society
Wisconsin Historical Society
Library. Combined, the libraries have 7.2 million holdings.[82] November 2006: The University of Virginia
University of Virginia
joined the project. Its libraries contain more than five million volumes and more than 17 million manuscripts, rare books and archives.[83] January 2007: The University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Austin
announced that it would join the Book
Book
Search digitization project. At least one million volumes would be digitized from the university's 13 library locations. March 2007: The Bavarian State Library
Bavarian State Library
announced a partnership with Google
Google
to scan more than a million public domain and out-of-print works in German as well as English, French, Italian, Latin, and Spanish.[84] May 2007: A book digitizing project partnership was announced jointly by Google
Google
and the Cantonal and University Library of Lausanne.[85] May 2007: The Boekentoren
Boekentoren
Library of Ghent University
Ghent University
announced that it would participate with Google
Google
in digitizing and making digitized versions of 19th century books in the French and Dutch languages available online.[86] June 2007: The Committee on Institutional Cooperation
Committee on Institutional Cooperation
(rebranded as the Big Ten Academic Alliance
Big Ten Academic Alliance
in 2016) announced that its twelve member libraries would participate in scanning 10 million books over the course of the next six years.[58] July 2007: Keio University
Keio University
became Google's first library partner in Japan
Japan
with the announcement that they would digitize at least 120,000 public domain books.[87] August 2007: Google
Google
announced that it would digitize up to 500,000 both copyrighted and public domain items from Cornell University Library. Google
Google
would also provide a digital copy of all works scanned to be incorporated into the university's own library system.[88] September 2007: Google
Google
added a feature that allows users to share snippets of books that are in the public domain. The snippets may appear exactly as they do in the scan of the book, or as plain text.[89] September 2007: Google
Google
debuted a new feature called "My Library" which allows users to create personal customized libraries, selections of books that they can label, review, rate, or full-text search.[90] December 2007: Columbia University
Columbia University
was added as a partner in digitizing public domain works.[91] May 2008: Microsoft
Microsoft
tapered off and planned to end its scanning project, which had reached 750,000 books and 80 million journal articles.[92] October 2008: A settlement was reached between the publishing industry and Google
Google
after two years of negotiation. Google
Google
agreed to compensate authors and publishers in exchange for the right to make millions of books available to the public.[9][93] November 2008: Google
Google
reached the 7 million book mark for items scanned by Google
Google
and by their publishing partners. 1 million were in full preview mode and 1 million were fully viewable and downloadable public domain works. About five million were out of print.[17][94][95] December 2008: Google
Google
announced the inclusion of magazines in Google Books. Titles include New York Magazine, Ebony, and Popular Mechanics[96][97] February 2009: Google
Google
launched a mobile version of Google
Google
Book
Book
Search, allowing iPhone and Android phone users to read over 1.5 million public domain works in the US (and over 500,000 outside the US) using a mobile browser. Instead of page images, the plain text of the book is displayed.[98] May 2009: At the annual BookExpo convention in New York, Google signaled its intent to introduce a program that would enable publishers to sell digital versions of their newest books direct to consumers through Google.[99] December 2009: A French court shut down the scanning of copyrighted books published in France, saying this violated copyright laws. It was the first major legal loss for the scanning project.[100] April 2010: Visual artists were not included in the previous lawsuit and settlement, are the plaintiff groups in another lawsuit, and say they intend to bring more than just Google
Google
Books under scrutiny. "The new class action," read the statement, "goes beyond Google's Library Project, and includes Google's other systematic and pervasive infringements of the rights of photographers, illustrators and other visual artists."[101] May 2010: It was reported that Google
Google
would launch a digital book store called Google
Google
Editions.[102] It would compete with Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Apple and other electronic book retailers with its own e-book store. Unlike others, Google
Google
Editions would be completely online and would not require a specific device (such as kindle, Nook, or iPad). June 2010: Google
Google
passed 12 million books scanned.[12] August 2010: It was announced that Google
Google
intends to scan all known existing 129,864,880 books within a decade, amounting to over 4 billion digital pages and 2 trillion words in total.[12] December 2010: Google
Google
eBooks ( Google
Google
Editions) was launched in the US.[103] December 2010: Google
Google
launched the Ngram Viewer, which collects and graphs data on word usage across its book collection.[30] March 2011: A federal judge rejected the settlement reached between the publishing industry and Google.[104] March 2012: Google
Google
passed 20 million books scanned.[105][106] March 2012: Google
Google
reached a settlement with publishers.[107] January 2013: The documentary Google
Google
and the World Brain was shown at the Sundance Film Festival.[108] November 2013: Ruling in Authors Guild
Authors Guild
v. Google, US District Judge Denny Chin sides with Google, citing fair use.[109] The authors said they would appeal.[110] October 2015: The appeals court sided with Google, declaring that Google
Google
did not violate copyright law.[111] According to the New York Times, Google
Google
has scanned more than 25 million books.[10] April 2016: The US Supreme Court declined to hear the Authors Guild's appeal, which means the lower court's decision stood, and Google
Google
would be allowed to scan library books and display snippets in search results without violating the law.[112] Status[edit] Google
Google
has been quite secretive regarding its plans on the future of the Google
Google
Books project. Scanning operations had been slowing down since at least 2012, as confirmed by the librarians at several of Google's partner institutions. At University of Wisconsin, the speed had reduced to less than half of what it was in 2006. However, the librarians have said that the dwindling pace could be a natural result of maturation of the project – initially stacks of books were entirely taken up for scanning whereas now Google
Google
only needed to consider the ones that have not been scanned already.[51] The company's own Google
Google
Books history page ends in 2007, and the Google Books blog was merged into the Google
Google
Search blog in 2012.[113] Despite winning the decade-long litigation in 2017, The Atlantic
The Atlantic
has said that Google
Google
has "all but shut down its scanning operation."[19] In April 2017, Wired reported that there were only a few Google employees working on the project, and new books were still being scanned, but at a significantly lower rate. It commented that the decade-long legal battle had caused Google
Google
to lose its ambition.[113] Legal issues[edit] Further information: Authors Guild
Authors Guild
v. Google Through the project, library books were being digitized somewhat indiscriminately regardless of copyright status, which led to a number of lawsuits against Google. By the end of 2008, Google
Google
had reportedly digitized over seven million books, of which only about one million were works in the public domain. Of the rest, one million were in copyright and in print, and five million were in copyright but out of print. In 2005, a group of authors and publishers brought a major class-action lawsuit against Google
Google
for infringement on the copyrighted works. Google
Google
argued that it was preserving "orphaned works" – books still under copyright, but whose copyright holders could not be located.[114] The Authors Guild
Authors Guild
and Association of American Publishers separately sued Google
Google
in 2005 for its book project, citing "massive copyright infringement."[citation needed] Google
Google
countered that its project represented a fair use and is the digital age equivalent of a card catalog with every word in the publication indexed.[9] The lawsuits were consolidated, and eventually a settlement was proposed. The settlement received significant criticism on a wide variety of grounds, including antitrust, privacy, and inadequacy of the proposed classes of authors and publishers. The settlement was eventually rejected,[115] and the publishers settled with Google
Google
soon after. The Authors Guild
Authors Guild
continued its case, and in 2011 their proposed class was certified. Google
Google
appealed that decision, with a number of amici asserting the inadequacy of the class, and the Second Circuit rejected the class certification in July 2013, remanding the case to the District Court for consideration of Google's fair use defense.[116] In 2015 Authors Guild
Authors Guild
filed another appeal against Google
Google
to be considered by the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York. Google
Google
won the case unanimously based on the argument that they were not showing people the full texts but instead snippets, and they are not allowing people to illegally read the book.[117] In a report, courts stated that they did not infringe on copyright laws, as they were protected under the fair use clause.[118] Authors Guild
Authors Guild
tried again in 2016 to appeal the decision and this time took their case to be considered by the Supreme Court. The case was rejected, leaving the Second Circuit's decision on the case intact, meaning that Google
Google
did not violate copyright laws.[119] This case also set a precedent for other case similar in regards to fair use laws as it further clarified the law and expands it. Such clarification is important in the new digital age as it affects other scanning projects similar to Google.[117] Other lawsuits followed the Authors Guild's lead. In 2006 a German lawsuit, previously filed, was withdrawn.[120] In June 2006, Hervé de la Martinière,[121] a French publisher known as La Martinière and Éditions du Seuil,[122] announced its intention to sue Google France.[123] In 2009, the Paris Civil Court awarded 300,000 EUR (approximately 430,000 USD) in damages and interest and ordered Google to pay 10,000 EUR
EUR
a day until it removes the publisher's books from its database.[122][124] The court wrote, " Google
Google
violated author copyright laws by fully reproducing and making accessible" books that Seuil owns without its permission[122] and that Google
Google
"committed acts of breach of copyright, which are of harm to the publishers".[121] Google
Google
said it will appeal.[122] Syndicat National de l'Edition, which joined the lawsuit, said Google
Google
has scanned about 100,000 French works under copyright.[122] In December 2009, Chinese author Mian Mian filed a civil lawsuit for $8,900 against Google
Google
for scanning her novel, Acid Lovers. This is the first such lawsuit to be filed against Google
Google
in China.[125] Also, in November that year, the China Written Works Copyright
Copyright
Society (CWWCS) accused Google
Google
of scanning 18,000 books by 570 Chinese writers without authorization. Google
Google
agreed on Nov 20 to provide a list of Chinese books it had scanned, but the company refused to admit having "infringed" copyright laws.[126] In March 2007, Thomas Rubin, associate general counsel for copyright, trademark, and trade secrets at Microsoft, accused Google
Google
of violating copyright law with their book search service. Rubin specifically criticized Google's policy of freely copying any work until notified by the copyright holder to stop.[127] Google
Google
licensing of public domain works is also an area of concern due to using of digital watermarking techniques with the books. Some published works that are in the public domain, such as all works created by the U.S. Federal government, are still treated like other works under copyright, and therefore locked after 1922.[128] Similar projects[edit]

Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". It was founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart and is the oldest digital library. As of October 3, 2015, Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
reached 50,000 items in its collection. Internet Archive
Internet Archive
is a non-profit which digitizes over 1000 books a day, as well as mirrors books from Google
Google
Books and other sources. As of May 2011, it hosted over 2.8 million public domain books, greater than the approximate 1 million public domain books at Google Books.[129] Open Library, a sister project of Internet Archive, lends 80,000 scanned and purchased commercial ebooks to the visitors of 150 libraries.[130] HathiTrust
HathiTrust
maintains HathiTrust
HathiTrust
Digital Library since October 13, 2008,[131] which preserves and provides access to material scanned by Google, some of the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
books, and some scanned locally by partner institutions. As of May 2010, it includes about 6 million volumes, over 1 million of which are public domain (at least in the US). Microsoft
Microsoft
funded the scanning of 300,000 books to create Live Search Books in late 2006. It ran until May 2008, when the project was abandoned[132] and the books were made freely available on the Internet Archive.[133] Europeana
Europeana
links to roughly 10 million digital objects as of 2010, including video, photos, paintings, audio, maps, manuscripts, printed books, and newspapers from the past 2,000 years of European history from over 1,000 archives in the European Union.[134][135] Gallica
Gallica
from the French National Library links to about 4,000,000 digitized books, newspapers, manuscripts, maps and drawings, etc. Created in 1997, the digital library continues to expand at a rate of about 5000 new documents per month. Since the end of 2008, most of the new scanned documents are available in image and text formats. Most of these documents are written in French. Wikisource Runivers

See also[edit]

Literature portal

A9.com, Amazon.com's book search Book
Book
Rights Registry Digital library List of digital library projects Universal library

Notes[edit]

^ A sample "About this book" page of a book can be viewed at books.google.com/books?uid=104498140124963532048

References[edit]

^ Love, Dylan. "An Inside Look At One Of Google's Most Controversial Projects". Business Insider. Retrieved 21 October 2017.  ^ The basic Google
Google
book link is found at https://books.google.com/. The "advanced" interface allowing more specific searches is found at https://books.google.com/advanced_book_search ^ a b c "Where do these books come from?". Google
Google
Books Help. Google. Retrieved 10 November 2014.  ^ Mark O'Neill (28 January 2009). "Read Complete Magazines Online in Google
Google
Books". Make Use Of.  ^ "About Magazines search". Google
Google
Books Help. Google. Retrieved 13 January 2015.  ^ Bergquist, Kevin (2006-02-13). " Google
Google
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Copyright
infringement suits against Google
Google
and their settlement: " Copyright
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Accord Would Make Millions More Books Available Online". Google
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Google
Books: A Complex and Controversial Experiment" – via NYTimes.com.  ^ "What Ever Happened to Google
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Google
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Google
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Google
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Google
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Google
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Google
announced in December 2004 that it would digitally scan the books of five major research libraries to make their contents searchable, the promise of a universal library was resurrected. ... From the days of Sumerian clay tablets till now, humans have "published" at least 32 million books, 750 million articles and essays, 25 million songs, 500 million images, 500,000 movies, 3 million videos, TV shows and short films and 100 billion public Web pages.  ^ Stephen Shankland (4 May 2009). " Patent
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Geoffrey Nunberg
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Book
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Jean-Noël Jeanneney
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Google
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Google
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Google
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Google
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Google
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Stanford University
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Google
Book
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Google
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Google
Book
Book
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Columbia University
Libraries
Libraries
Becomes Newest Partner in Google
Google
Book Search Library Project". Columbia University
Columbia University
Libraries. 2007-12-13. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ "Complutense Universidad + Google" (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-28.  ^ " Cornell University
Cornell University
Library becomes newest partner in Google
Google
Book Search Library Project". Cornell University
Cornell University
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Ghent University
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Keio University
to partner with Google, Inc. for digitalization and release of its library collection to the world For "Formation of Knowledge of the digital era"" (PDF). Keio University. 2007-07-06. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ " Google
Google
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Google
(in French) Archived 2007-12-14 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Anderson, Nate (2007-05-22). " Google
Google
to scan 800,000 manuscripts, books from Indian university". Ars Technica.  ^ "The University of Texas Libraries
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to Digitize Books". The University of Texas Libraries. 2007-01-19. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ Wood, Carol, S. (2006-11-14). "U.Va. Library Joins the Google
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Google
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v. Google
Google
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Authors Guild
Sues Google, Citing "Massive Copyright
Copyright
Infringement"". Authors Guild. Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2007-04-11.  ^ Gilbert, Alorie (2005-10-19). "Publishers sue Google
Google
over book search project". CNET
CNET
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Google
Inc., Defendant" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-07-13. Retrieved 2007-10-05.  PDF file of the complaint. SD. N.Y. Case No. 05-CV-8881-JES. ^ Jen Grant (November 17, 2005). "Judging Book
Book
Search by its cover" (blog). Googleblog.  ^ "Library partners". Google
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books. Retrieved 2013-02-27.  ^ Colvin, Jennifer. "UC libraries partner with Google
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to Make Hundreds of Thousands of Books Available Online". Google. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ "New release: UW-Madison Joins Google's Worldwide Book
Book
Digitization Project". University of Wisconsin-Madison. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ "The University of Virginia
University of Virginia
Library Joins the Google
Google
Books Library Project". Google. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ Mills, Elinor. "Bavarian library joins Google
Google
book search project". Cnet. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ Reed, Brock. "La Bibliothèque, C'est Google" (Wired Campus Newsletter), Chronicle of Higher Education. May 17, 2007. ^ " Google
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Google
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Cornell University
Library becomes newest partner in Google
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Cornell University
Library. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ Tungare, Manas. "Share and enjoy". Google
Google
Books Search. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ Google
Google
Books.  ^ Stricker, Gabriel. " Columbia University
Columbia University
joins the Google
Google
Book
Book
Search Library Project". Google
Google
Books Search. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ Helft, Miguel (May 24, 2008). " Microsoft
Microsoft
Will Shut Down Book
Book
Search Program". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-24. Microsoft
Microsoft
said it had digitized 750,000 books and indexed 80 million journal articles.  ^ Cohen, Noam (February 1, 2009). "Some Fear Google's Power in Digital Books". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-02. Today, that project is known as Google
Google
Book
Book
Search and, aided by a recent class-action settlement, it promises to transform the way information is collected: who controls the most books; who gets access to those books; how access will be sold and attained.  ^ "Massive EU online library looks to compete with Google". Agence France-Presse. November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-24. Google, one of the pioneers in this domain on the other hand, claims to have seven million books available for its " Google
Google
Book
Book
Search" project, which saw the light of day at the end of 2004.  ^ Rich, Motoko (January 4, 2009). " Google
Google
Hopes to Open a Trove of Little-Seen Books". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-01-05. The settlement may give new life to copyrighted out-of-print books in a digital form and allow writers to make money from titles that had been out of commercial circulation for years. Of the seven million books Google
Google
has scanned so far, about five million are in this category.  ^ " Google
Google
updates search index with old magazines". MSNBC. Associated Press. December 10, 2008. Retrieved June 29, 2009. As part of its quest to corral more content published on paper, Google
Google
Inc. has made digital copies of more than 1 million articles from magazines that hit the newsstands decades ago.  ^ "Official Google
Google
Blog: Search and find magazines on Google
Google
Book Search". Official Google
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Blog.  ^ "1.5 million books in your pocket". Inside Google
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Books. Google. 5 February 2009.  ^ Rich, Motoko (2009-06-01). "Preparing to Sell E-Books, Google
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Takes on Amazon". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-05-31.  ^ Faure, Gaelle (December 19, 2009). "French court shuts down Google Books project". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-12-19.  ^ O'Dell, Jolie. " Google
Google
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Google
Readies Its E-Book Plan, Bringing in a New Sales Approach". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ " Google
Google
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Google
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Google
and the world brain - Polar Star Films". Google
Google
and the world brain - Polar Star Films.  ^ " Google
Google
Books ruled legal in massive win for fair use".  ^ "Siding With Google, Judge Says Book
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Google
book-scanning project legal, says U.S. appeals court". Reuters.  ^ US Supreme Court Rejects Challenge to Google
Google
Book-Scanning Project April 18, 2016 ^ a b Scott Rosenberg (11 April 2017). "How Google
Google
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Google
and the Future of Books". The New York Review of Books.  ^ 770 F.Supp.2d 666 (SDNY March 22, 2011). ^ Authors Guild
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v. Google, 2d Cir. July 1, 2013. ^ a b "U.S. Appeals Court Rules Google
Google
Book
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Scanning Is Fair Use". Retrieved 2016-09-20.  ^ " Authors Guild
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Google
over French books". BBC News. December 18, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-18.  ^ " Google
Google
Faces Chinese Lawsuit Over Digital Book
Book
Project".  ^ "Writer sues Google
Google
for copyright infringement". China Daily. Retrieved March 20, 2012.  ^ Thomas Claburn (March 6, 2007). " Microsoft
Microsoft
Attorney Accuses Google Of Copyright
Copyright
Violations". InformationWeek.  ^ Robert B. Townsend, Google
Google
Books: Is It Good for History?, Perspectives (September 2007). ^ The number of Public Domain books at Google
Google
Books can be calculated by looking at the number of Public Domain books at HathiTrust, which is the academic mirror of Google
Google
Books. As of May 2010 HathiTrust
HathiTrust
had over 1 million Public Domain books. ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
and Library Partners Develop Joint Collection of 80,000+ eBooks To Extend Traditional In-Library Lending Model". San Francisco. February 22, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-26. During a library visit, patrons with an OpenLibrary.org account can borrow any of these lendable eBooks using laptops, reading devices or library computers.  ^ "languagehat.com : TRUST HATHI, NOT GOOGLE".  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
starts online library in challenge to Google
Google
Books". AFP. Melbourne. 2006-12-08. Retrieved 2008-11-24. Microsoft
Microsoft
launched an online library in a move that pits the world's biggest software company against Google's controversial project to digitize the world's books.  ^ Xio, Christina. " Google
Google
Books-An Other Popular Service By Google". Retrieved 4 August 2012. Few years back the Microsoft
Microsoft
abandoned the project and now all the books are freely available at the Internet archive.  ^ http://version1.europeana.eu/[permanent dead link] ^ Snyder, Chris (November 20, 2008). "Europe's Answer to Google
Google
Book Search Crashes on Day 1". Wired. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 

Further reading[edit]

Anna Lauren Hoffmann (2016). " Google
Google
Books, Libraries, and Self-Respect: Information Justice beyond Distributions". Library Quarterly. doi:10.1086/684141.  Jeanneney, Jean-Noël (2008). Google
Google
and the Myth of Universal Knowledge: A View from Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

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