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Good Friday
Good Friday
is a Christian holiday[1][2] commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus
Jesus
and His death at Calvary. It is observed during Holy Week
Holy Week
as part of the Paschal Triduum
Paschal Triduum
on the Friday preceding Easter
Easter
Sunday, and may coincide with the Jewish observance of Passover. It is also known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, and Black Friday.[3][4][5] Members of many Christian denominations, including the Anglican, Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran, Methodist, Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
and Reformed
Reformed
traditions, observe Good Friday
Good Friday
with fasting and church services.[6][7][8] The date of Good Friday
Good Friday
varies from one year to the next on both the Gregorian and Julian calendars. Eastern and Western Christianity disagree over the computation of the date of Easter
Easter
and therefore of Good Friday. Good Friday
Good Friday
is a widely instituted legal holiday around the world, including in most Western countries and 12 U.S. states.[9] Some countries, such as Germany, have laws prohibiting certain acts, such as dancing and horse racing, that are seen as profaning the solemn nature of the day.[10][11]

Contents

1 Name

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Other languages

2 Biblical accounts 3 In Eastern and Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
Christianity

3.1 Matins of Holy and Great Friday 3.2 Royal Hours 3.3 Vespers of Holy and Great Friday 3.4 Matins of Holy and Great Saturday

4 In the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church

4.1 Day of Fasting 4.2 Services on the day 4.3 Liturgy 4.4 Stations of the Cross 4.5 Acts of Reparation
Acts of Reparation
to Jesus
Jesus
Christ

5 Anglican
Anglican
Communion 6 Lutheran
Lutheran
Church 7 Other mainstream Protestant
Protestant
traditions 8 Associated customs

8.1 Australia and New Zealand 8.2 Canada 8.3 Cuba 8.4 Hong Kong 8.5 Ireland 8.6 Malaysia 8.7 Malta 8.8 Philippines 8.9 Spain 8.10 United Kingdom 8.11 United States

9 Calculating the date 10 Cultural references 11 Criticism from non-observers 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Name[edit] Etymology[edit] A common folk etymology incorrectly claims "Good Friday" is a corruption of "God Friday". The term in fact comes from the sense "pious, holy" of the word good.[12] The Oxford English Dictionary also gives other examples with the sense "of a day or season observed as holy by the church" as an archaic sense of good (good, adj. 8c) as in good tide meaning "Christmas" or "Shrove Tuesday", and Good Wednesday meaning the Wednesday in Holy Week.[13] Other languages[edit] In German-speaking countries, Good Friday
Good Friday
is generally referred to as Karfreitag (Kar from Old High German
Old High German
kara‚ "bewail", "grieve"‚ "mourn", Freitag for "Friday"): Mourning Friday. The Kar prefix is a cognate of the English word "care" in the sense of cares and woes; it meant mourning. The day is also known as Stiller Freitag ("Silent Friday") and Hoher Freitag ("High Friday, Holy Friday"). In the Nordic countries it is called "The Long Friday". In Greek and Hungarian, Good Friday is generally referred to as Great Friday (Μεγάλη Περασκευή, Nagypéntek). Biblical accounts[edit] Main articles: Passion (Christianity), Crucifixion
Crucifixion
of Jesus, and Sayings of Jesus
Jesus
on the cross

The Judas
Judas
Kiss by Gustave Doré, 1866

Part of a series on

Death and Resurrection of Jesus

Passion

Last Supper Arrest Trial

Pilate's court Flagellation Mocking Crown of thorns Via Dolorosa

Crucifixion
Crucifixion
and Death Burial Resurrection

Empty tomb

Appearances

Noli me tangere Road to Emmaus Great Commission Ascension

Hypotheses

Instrument of crucifixion Resurrection Stolen body Swoon Vision Lost body

Holy Week

Palm Sunday Maundy Thursday Good Friday Holy Saturday Easter
Easter
Sunday

Related

Substitutionary atonement Crucifixion
Crucifixion
darkness Roza Bal Talpiot Tomb Islamic view

Portals: Christianity
Christianity
Bible

v t e

According to the accounts in the Gospels, the royal soldiers, guided by Jesus' disciple Judas
Judas
Iscariot, arrested Jesus
Jesus
in the Garden of Gethsemane. Judas
Judas
received money (30 pieces of silver) (Matthew 26:14–16) for betraying Jesus
Jesus
and told the guards that whomever he kisses is the one they are to arrest. Following his arrest, Jesus
Jesus
was taken to the house of Annas, the father-in-law of the high priest, Caiaphas. There he was interrogated with little result and sent bound to Caiaphas
Caiaphas
the high priest where the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
had assembled (John 18:1–24). Conflicting testimony against Jesus
Jesus
was brought forth by many witnesses, to which Jesus
Jesus
answered nothing. Finally the high priest adjured Jesus
Jesus
to respond under solemn oath, saying "I adjure you, by the Living God, to tell us, are you the Anointed One, the Son of God?" Jesus
Jesus
testified ambiguously, "You have said it, and in time you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Almighty, coming on the clouds of Heaven." The high priest condemned Jesus
Jesus
for blasphemy, and the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
concurred with a sentence of death (Matthew 26:57–66). Peter, waiting in the courtyard, also denied Jesus
Jesus
three times to bystanders while the interrogations were proceeding just as Jesus
Jesus
had predicted. In the morning, the whole assembly brought Jesus
Jesus
to the Roman governor Pontius Pilate
Pontius Pilate
under charges of subverting the nation, opposing taxes to Caesar, and making himself a king (Luke 23:1–2). Pilate authorized the Jewish leaders to judge Jesus
Jesus
according to their own law and execute sentencing; however, the Jewish leaders replied that they were not allowed by the Romans to carry out a sentence of death (John 18:31). Pilate questioned Jesus
Jesus
and told the assembly that there was no basis for sentencing. Upon learning that Jesus
Jesus
was from Galilee, Pilate referred the case to the ruler of Galilee, King Herod, who was in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
for the Passover
Passover
Feast. Herod questioned Jesus
Jesus
but received no answer; Herod sent Jesus
Jesus
back to Pilate. Pilate told the assembly that neither he nor Herod found Jesus
Jesus
to be guilty; Pilate resolved to have Jesus
Jesus
whipped and released (Luke 23:3–16). Under the guidance of the chief priests, the crowd asked for Barabbas, who had been imprisoned for committing murder during an insurrection. Pilate asked what they would have him do with Jesus, and they demanded, "Crucify him" (Mark 15:6–14). Pilate's wife had seen Jesus
Jesus
in a dream earlier that day, and she forewarned Pilate to "have nothing to do with this righteous man" (Matthew 27:19). Pilate had Jesus
Jesus
flogged and then brought him out to the crowd to release him. The chief priests informed Pilate of a new charge, demanding Jesus
Jesus
be sentenced to death "because he claimed to be God's son." This possibility filled Pilate with fear, and he brought Jesus
Jesus
back inside the palace and demanded to know from where he came (John 19:1–9).

Antonio Ciseri's depiction of Ecce Homo
Ecce Homo
with Jesus
Jesus
and Pontius Pilate, 19th century

Coming before the crowd one last time, Pilate declared Jesus
Jesus
innocent and washed his own hands in water to show he had no part in this condemnation. Nevertheless, Pilate handed Jesus
Jesus
over to be crucified in order to forestall a riot (Matthew 27:24–26) and ultimately to keep his job. The sentence written was " Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, King of the Jews." Jesus
Jesus
carried his cross to the site of execution (assisted by Simon of Cyrene), called the "place of the Skull", or "Golgotha" in Hebrew and in Latin "Calvary". There he was crucified along with two criminals (John 19:17–22). Jesus
Jesus
agonized on the cross for six hours. During his last three hours on the cross, from noon to 3 pm, darkness fell over the whole land.[14] Jesus
Jesus
spoke from the cross, quoting the messianic Psalm
Psalm
22: "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" With a loud cry, Jesus
Jesus
gave up his spirit. There was an earthquake, tombs broke open, and the curtain in the Temple was torn from top to bottom. This tear, according to Christian tradition, signified a removal of restriction of the common Jews from the Temple's "Holiest of Holies", and that God's people now could, themselves, communicate directly with their advocate before God, Jesus
Jesus
the Christ, rather than needing the Temple's High Priest as an intercessor. The centurion on guard at the site of crucifixion declared, "Truly this was God's Son!" (Matthew 27:45–54) Joseph of Arimathea, a member of the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
and secret follower of Jesus, who had not consented to his condemnation, went to Pilate to request the body of Jesus
Jesus
(Luke 23:50–52). Another secret follower of Jesus
Jesus
and member of the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
named Nicodemus
Nicodemus
brought about a hundred-pound weight mixture of spices and helped wrap the body of Jesus
Jesus
(John 19:39–40). Pilate asked confirmation from the centurion of whether Jesus
Jesus
was dead (Mark 15:44). A soldier pierced the side of Jesus
Jesus
with a lance causing blood and water to flow out (John 19:34), and the centurion informed Pilate that Jesus
Jesus
was dead (Mark 15:45). Joseph of Arimathea
Joseph of Arimathea
took Jesus' body, wrapped it in a clean linen shroud, and placed it in his own new tomb that had been carved in the rock (Matthew 27:59–60) in a garden near the site of crucifixion. Nicodemus
Nicodemus
(John 3:1) also brought 75 pounds of myrrh and aloes, and placed them in the linen with the body, in keeping with Jewish burial customs (John 19:39–40). They rolled a large rock over the entrance of the tomb (Matthew 27:60). Then they returned home and rested, because Shabbat
Shabbat
had begun at sunset (Luke 23:54–56). Matt. 28:1 "After the Shabbat, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb". i.e. "After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week,.......". "He is not here; he has risen, just as he said..........".(Matt. 28:6) On the third day, which is now known as Easter
Easter
Sunday (or Pascha), Jesus
Jesus
rose from the dead. In Eastern and Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
Christianity[edit]

Icon
Icon
of the Crucifixion, 16th century, by Theophanes the Cretan (Stavronikita Monastery, Mount Athos)

Byzantine Christians ( Eastern Christians
Eastern Christians
who follow the Rite of Constantinople: Orthodox Christians and Greek-Catholics) call this day "Great and Holy Friday", or simply "Great Friday".[15] Because the sacrifice of Jesus
Jesus
through his crucifixion is commemorated on this day, the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
(the sacrifice of bread and wine) is never celebrated on Great Friday, except when this day coincides with the Great Feast
Great Feast
of the Annunciation, which falls on the fixed date of 25 March (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, 25 March currently falls on 7 April of the modern Gregorian Calendar). Also on Great Friday, the clergy no longer wear the purple or red that is customary throughout Great Lent,[16] but instead don black vestments. There is no "stripping of the altar" on Holy and Great Thursday as in the West; instead, all of the church hangings are changed to black, and will remain so until the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
on Great Saturday. The faithful revisit the events of the day through public reading of specific Psalms
Psalms
and the Gospels, and singing hymns about Christ's death. Rich visual imagery and symbolism as well as stirring hymnody are remarkable elements of these observances. In the Orthodox understanding, the events of Holy Week
Holy Week
are not simply an annual commemoration of past events, but the faithful actually participate in the death and resurrection of Jesus.

Each hour of this day is the new suffering and the new effort of the expiatory suffering of the Savior. And the echo of this suffering is already heard in every word of our worship service – unique and incomparable both in the power of tenderness and feeling and in the depth of the boundless compassion for the suffering of the Savior. The Holy Church opens before the eyes of believers a full picture of the redeeming suffering of the Lord beginning with the bloody sweat in the Garden of Gethsemane
Garden of Gethsemane
up to the crucifixion on Golgotha. Taking us back through the past centuries in thought, the Holy Church brings us to the foot of the cross of Christ erected on Golgotha, and makes us present among the quivering spectators of all the torture of the Savior.[17]

Great and Holy Friday is observed as a strict fast, and adult Byzantine Christians are expected to abstain from all food and drink the entire day to the extent that their health permits. "On this Holy day neither a meal is offered nor do we eat on this day of the crucifixion. If someone is unable or has become very old [or is] unable to fast, he may be given bread and water after sunset. In this way we come to the holy commandment of the Holy Apostles
Apostles
not to eat on Great Friday."[17] Matins of Holy and Great Friday[edit] The Byzantine Christian observance of Holy and Great Friday, which is formally known as The Order of Holy and Saving Passion of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ, begins on Thursday night with the Matins of the Twelve Passion Gospels. Scattered throughout this Matins service are twelve readings from all four of the Gospels which recount the events of the Passion from the Last Supper
Last Supper
through the Crucifixion
Crucifixion
and burial of Jesus. Some churches have a candelabrum with twelve candles on it, and after each Gospel
Gospel
reading one of the candles is extinguished.

Good Friday
Good Friday
cross from the Catholicon at Holy Trinity Monastery, Meteora, Greece

The first of these twelve readings John 13:31–18:1 is the longest Gospel
Gospel
reading of the liturgical year, and is a concatenation from all four Gospels. Just before the sixth Gospel
Gospel
reading, which recounts Jesus
Jesus
being nailed to the cross, a large cross is carried out of the sanctuary by the priest, accompanied by incense and candles, and is placed in the center of the nave (where the congregation gathers)Sēmeron Kremātai Epí Xýlou:

Today He who hung the earth upon the waters is hung upon the Cross (three times). He who is King of the angels is arrayed in a crown of thorns. He who wraps the Heavens in clouds is wrapped in the purple of mockery. He who in Jordan set Adam free receives blows upon His face. The Bridegroom of the Church is transfixed with nails. The Son of the Virgin is pierced with a spear. We venerate Thy Passion, O Christ (three times). Show us also Thy glorious Resurrection.[18][19]

The readings are:

John 13:31–18:1-Christ's last sermon, Jesus
Jesus
prays for the apostles. John 18:1–18:28-The agony in the garden, the mockery and denial of Christ. Matthew 26:57–26:75-The mockery of Christ, Peter denies Christ. John 18:28–19:16-Pilate questions Jesus, Jesus
Jesus
is condemned, Jesus is mocked by the Romans. Matthew 27:3–27:32- Judas
Judas
commits suicide, Jesus
Jesus
is condemned, Jesus mocked by the Romans, Simon of Cyrene
Simon of Cyrene
compelled to carry the cross. Mark 15:16–15:32- Jesus
Jesus
dies. Matthew 27:33–27:54- Jesus
Jesus
dies. Luke 23:32–23:49- Jesus
Jesus
dies. John 19:25–19:37- Jesus
Jesus
dies. Mark 15:43–15:47- Joseph of Arimathea
Joseph of Arimathea
buries Christ. John 19:38–19:42- Joseph of Arimathea
Joseph of Arimathea
buries Christ. Matthew 27:62–27:66-The Jews set a guard.

During the service, all come forward to kiss the feet of Christ on the cross. After the Canon, a brief, moving hymn, The Wise Thief is chanted by singers who stand at the foot of the cross in the center of the nave. The service does not end with the First Hour, as usual, but with a special dismissal by the priest:

May Christ our true God, Who for the salvation of the world endured spitting, and scourging, and buffeting, and the Cross, and death, through the intercessions of His most pure Mother, of our holy and God-bearing fathers, and of all the saints, have mercy on us and save us, for He is good and the Lover of mankind.

Royal Hours[edit]

Vigil
Vigil
during the Service of the Royal Hours.

Main article: Royal Hours The next day, in the forenoon on Friday, all gather again to pray the Royal Hours, a special expanded celebration of the Little Hours (including the First Hour, Third Hour, Sixth Hour, Ninth Hour and Typica) with the addition of scripture readings (Old Testament, Epistle
Epistle
and Gospel) and hymns about the Crucifixion
Crucifixion
at each of the Hours (some of the material from the previous night is repeated). This is somewhat more festive in character, and derives its name of "Royal" from both the fact that the Hours are served with more solemnity than normal, commemorating Christ the King who humbled himself for the salvation of mankind, and also from the fact that this service was in the past attended by the Emperor and his court.[citation needed] Vespers of Holy and Great Friday[edit]

The crucified Christ, just before the Deposition from the Cross
Deposition from the Cross
and the placing of the Epitaphios in the Sepulcher.

In the afternoon, around 3 pm, all gather for the Vespers of the Taking-Down from the Cross, commemorating the Deposition from the Cross. The Gospel
Gospel
reading is a concatenation taken from all four of the Gospels. During the service, the body of Christ (the soma) is removed from the cross, as the words in the Gospel
Gospel
reading mention Joseph of Arimathea, wrapped in a linen shroud, and taken to the altar in the sanctuary.

The epitaphios ("winding sheet"), depicting the preparation of the body of Jesus
Jesus
for burial

Near the end of the service an epitaphios or "winding sheet" (a cloth embroidered with the image of Christ prepared for burial) is carried in procession to a low table in the nave which represents the Tomb of Christ; it is often decorated with an abundance of flowers. The epitaphios itself represents the body of Jesus
Jesus
wrapped in a burial shroud, and is a roughly full-size cloth icon of the body of Christ. Then the priest may deliver a homily and everyone comes forward to venerate the epitaphios. In the Slavic practice, at the end of Vespers, Compline is immediately served, featuring a special Canon of the Crucifixion
Crucifixion
of our Lord and the Lamentation of the Most Holy Theotokos
Theotokos
by Symeon the Logothete.[citation needed] Matins of Holy and Great Saturday[edit]

The Epitaphios being carried in procession in a church in Greece.

On Friday night, the Matins of Holy and Great Saturday, a unique service known as The Lamentation at the Tomb (Epitáphios Thrēnos) is celebrated. This service is also sometimes called Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Matins. Much of the service takes place around the tomb of Christ in the center of the nave.[citation needed] A unique feature of the service is the chanting of the Lamentations or Praises (Enkōmia), which consist of verses chanted by the clergy interspersed between the verses of Psalm 119
Psalm 119
(which is, by far, the longest psalm in the Bible). The Enkōmia are the best-loved hymns of Byzantine hymnography, both their poetry and their music being uniquely suited to each other and to the spirit of the day. They consist of 185 tercet antiphons arranged in three parts (stáseis or "stops"), which are interjected with the verses of Psalm
Psalm
119, and nine short doxastiká ("Gloriae") and Theotókia (invocations to the Virgin Mary). The three stáseis are each set to its own music, and are commonly known by their initial antiphons: Ἡ ζωὴ ἐν τάφῳ, "Life in a grave", Ἄξιον ἐστί, "Worthy it is", and Αἱ γενεαὶ πᾶσαι, "All the generations". Musically they can be classified as strophic, with 75, 62, and 48 tercet stanzas each, respectively. The climax of the Enkōmia comes during the third stásis, with the antiphon "Ō glyký mou Éar", a lamentation of the Virgin for her dead Child ("O, my sweet spring, my sweetest child, where has your beauty gone?"). The author(s) and date of the Enkōmia are unknown. Their High Attic linguistic style suggests a dating around the 6th century, possibly before the time of St. Romanos the Melodist.[citation needed]

The Epitaphios mounted upon return of procession, at an Orthodox Church in Adelaide, Australia.

At the end of the Great Doxology, while the Trisagion
Trisagion
is sung, the epitaphios is taken in procession around the outside the church, and is then returned to the tomb. Some churches observe the practice of holding the epitaphios at the door, above waist level, so the faithful most bow down under it as they come back into the church, symbolizing their entering into the death and resurrection of Christ. The epitaphios will lay in the tomb until the Paschal Service early Sunday morning. In some churches, the epitaphios is never left alone, but is accompanied 24 hours a day by a reader chanting from the Psalter.[citation needed] The Troparion
Troparion
(hymn of the day) of Good Friday
Good Friday
is:

The noble Joseph, when he had taken down Thy most pure Body from the tree, wrapped it in fine linen, and anointed it with spices, and placed it in a new tomb. Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit, both now and ever, and unto ages of ages. Amen. The angel came to the myrrh-bearing women at the tomb and said: Myrrh
Myrrh
is fitting for the dead, but Christ has shown Himself a stranger to corruption.

In the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church[edit] Day of Fasting[edit]

Crucifix
Crucifix
prepared for veneration

The Catholic
Catholic
Church regards Good Friday
Good Friday
and Holy Saturday
Holy Saturday
as the Paschal fast, in accord with Article 110 of Sacrosanctum Concilium.[20] In the Latin Church, a fast day is understood as having only one full meal and two collations (a smaller repast, the two of which together do not equal the one full meal)[21][22] – although this may be observed less stringently on Holy Saturday
Holy Saturday
than on Good Friday.[20] In countries where Good Friday
Good Friday
is not a day of rest from work, the afternoon liturgical service is usually put off until a few hours after the recommended time of 3 pm.[citation needed] Services on the day[edit] The Roman Rite
Roman Rite
has no celebration of Mass between the Lord's Supper on Holy Thursday evening and the Easter
Easter
Vigil
Vigil
unless a special exemption is granted for rare solemn or grave occasions by the Vatican or the local bishop. The only sacraments celebrated during this time are Baptism
Baptism
(for those in danger of death), Penance, and Anointing of the Sick.[23] While there is no celebration of the Eucharist, it is distributed to the faithful only in the Service of the Passion of the Lord, but can also be taken at any hour to the sick who are unable to attend this service.[24] After the Lord's Supper any candlesticks and altar cloths, cross or crosses are removed leaving it bare so that they may be returned in-ceremony on Easter
Easter
Sunday which memorialises the day of Christ's resurrection.[25] It is also customary to empty the holy water fonts in preparation of the blessing of the water at the Easter
Easter
Vigil.[26] Traditionally, no bells are rung on Good Friday or Holy Saturday
Holy Saturday
until the Easter
Easter
Vigil.[27] The Celebration of the Passion of the Lord takes place in the afternoon, ideally at three o'clock, but for pastoral reasons a later hour may be chosen.[28] The vestments used are red (more commonly) or black (more traditionally).[29] Before 1970, vestments were black except for the Communion part of the rite when violet was used.[30] Before 1955 black was used throughout.[31] If a bishop or abbot celebrates, he wears a plain mitre (mitra simplex).[32] Liturgy[edit] See also: Good Friday
Good Friday
prayer for the Jews

Communion from the Blessed Sacrament
Sacrament
on Good Friday
Good Friday
(Our Lady of Lourdes, Philadelphia)

The Good Friday
Good Friday
liturgy consists of three parts: the Liturgy
Liturgy
of the Word, the Veneration of the Cross, and Holy Communion.

The Liturgy of the Word
Liturgy of the Word
consists of the clergy and assisting ministers entering in complete silence, without any singing. They then silently make a full prostration. This signifies the abasement (the fall) of (earthly) humans.[33][34] It also symbolizes the grief and sorrow of the Church.[35] Then follows the Collect
Collect
prayer, and the reading or chanting of Isaiah 52:13–53:12, Hebrews 4:14–16, 5:7–9, and the Passion account from the Gospel
Gospel
of John, traditionally divided between three deacons,[36] yet usually divided between the celebrant, one or two singers or readers, and the congregation which speaks the part of the "crowd". This part of the liturgy concludes with the orationes sollemnes, a series of prayers for the Church, the Pope, the clergy and laity of the Church, those preparing for baptism, the unity of Christians, the Jewish people, those who do not believe in Christ, those who do not believe in God, those in public office, those in special need.[37] After each prayer intention, the deacon calls the faithful to kneel for a short period of private prayer; the celebrant then sums up the prayer intention with a Collect-style prayer. The Adoration of the Cross has a crucifix, not necessarily the one that is normally on or near the altar at other times of the year, solemnly unveiled and displayed to the congregation, and then venerated by them, individually if possible and usually by kissing the wood of the cross, while hymns and the Improperia
Improperia
("Reproaches") with the Trisagion
Trisagion
hymn are chanted.[38] Holy Communion
Holy Communion
is done according to a rite based on that of the final part of Mass, beginning with the Our Father, but omitting the ceremony of "Breaking of the Bread" and its related chant, the "Agnus Dei". The Eucharist, consecrated at the Evening Mass of the Lord's Supper
Mass of the Lord's Supper
on Holy Thursday, is distributed at this service.[39] Before the reform of Pope Pius XII, only the priest received Communion in the framework of what was called the "Mass of the Presanctified", which included the usual Offertory prayers, with the placing of wine in the chalice, but which omitted the Canon of the Mass.[31] The priest and people then depart in silence, and the altar cloth is removed, leaving the altar bare except for the crucifix and two or four candlesticks.[40]

Stations of the Cross[edit]

The Way of the Cross, celebrated at the Colosseum
Colosseum
in Rome on Good Friday

Rome: canopy erected at the "Temple of Venus and Rome" during the "Way of the Cross" ceremony

In addition to the prescribed liturgical service, the Stations of the Cross are often prayed either in the church or outside, and a prayer service may be held from midday to 3.00 pm, known as the Three Hours' Agony. In countries such as Malta, Italy, Philippines, Puerto Rico and Spain, processions with statues representing the Passion of Christ are held.[citation needed] In Rome, since the papacy of Saint
Saint
John Paul II, the heights of the Temple of Venus and Roma
Temple of Venus and Roma
and their position opposite the main entrance to the Colosseum
Colosseum
have been used to good effect as a public address platform. This may be seen in the photograph below where a red canopy has been erected to shelter the Pope as well as an illuminated cross, on the occasion of the Way of the Cross
Way of the Cross
ceremony. The Pope, either personally or through a representative, leads the faithful through meditations on the stations of the cross while a cross is carried from there to the Colosseum.[citation needed] In Polish churches, a tableau of Christ's Tomb is unveiled in the sanctuary. Many of the faithful spend long hours into the night grieving at the Tomb, where it is customary to kiss the wounds on the Lord's body. A life-size figure of Jesus
Jesus
lying in his tomb is widely visited by the faithful, especially on Holy Saturday. The tableaux may include flowers, candles, figures of angels standing watch, and the three crosses atop Mt Calvary, and much more. Each parish strives to come up with the most artistically and religiously evocative arrangement in which the Blessed Sacrament, draped in a filmy veil, is prominently displayed.[citation needed] Acts of Reparation
Acts of Reparation
to Jesus
Jesus
Christ[edit] Main article: Acts of Reparation
Acts of Reparation
to Jesus
Jesus
Christ

El Greco's Jesus
Jesus
Carrying the Cross, 1580

The Roman Catholic
Catholic
tradition includes specific prayers and devotions as acts of reparation for the sufferings and insults that Jesus suffered during his Passion on Good Friday. These Acts of Reparation to Jesus
Jesus
Christ do not involve a petition for a beneficiary, but aim to "repair the sins" against Jesus. Some such prayers are provided in the Raccolta
Raccolta
Catholic
Catholic
prayer book (approved by a Decree of 1854, and published by the Holy See
Holy See
in 1898) which also includes prayers as Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary.[41][42][43][44] In his encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor
Miserentissimus Redemptor
on reparations, Pope Pius XI called Acts of Reparation
Acts of Reparation
to Jesus
Jesus
Christ a duty for Catholics and referred to them as "some sort of compensation to be rendered for the injury" with respect to the sufferings of Jesus.[45] Pope John Paul II
John Paul II
referred to Acts of Reparation
Acts of Reparation
as the "unceasing effort to stand beside the endless crosses on which the Son of God continues to be crucified".[46] Anglican
Anglican
Communion[edit] The 1662 Book of Common Prayer
Prayer
did not specify a particular rite to be observed on Good Friday
Good Friday
but local custom came to mandate an assortment of services, including the Seven Last Words from the Cross
Seven Last Words from the Cross
and a three-hour service consisting of Matins, Ante-communion (using the Reserved Sacrament
Sacrament
in high church parishes) and Evensong. In recent times,[when?] revised editions of the Prayer
Prayer
Book and Common Worship have re-introduced pre-Reformation forms of observance of Good Friday corresponding to those in today's Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church, with special nods to the rites that had been observed in the Church of England prior to the Henrican, Edwardian and Elizabethan reforms, including Creeping to the Cross.[citation needed] Lutheran
Lutheran
Church[edit]

The chancel of this Lutheran
Lutheran
church is adorned with black paraments on Good Friday, the liturgical colour associated with Good Friday
Good Friday
in the Lutheran
Lutheran
Churches.

In Lutheran
Lutheran
tradition from the 16th to the 20th century, Good Friday was the most important religious holiday, and abstention from all worldly works was expected. During that time, Lutheranism
Lutheranism
had no restrictions on the celebration of the Eucharist
Eucharist
on Good Friday; on the contrary, it was a prime day on which to receive the Eucharist, and services were often accentuated by special music such as the St Matthew Passion by Johann Sebastian Bach.[47] More recently, Lutheran
Lutheran
liturgical practice has recaptured Good Friday as part of the larger sweep of the great Three Days: Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and the Vigil
Vigil
of Easter. The Three Days remain one liturgy which celebrates the death and resurrection of Jesus. As part of the liturgy of the Three Days, Lutherans generally fast from the Eucharist
Eucharist
on Good Friday. Rather, it is celebrated in remembrance of the Last Supper
Last Supper
on Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday
and at the Vigil
Vigil
of Easter. One practice among Lutheran
Lutheran
churches is to celebrate a tenebrae service on Good Friday, typically conducted in candlelight and consisting of a collection of passion accounts from the four gospels. While being called "Tenebrae" it holds little resemblance to the now-suppressed Catholic
Catholic
monastic rite of the same name.[48] The Good Friday
Good Friday
liturgy appointed in Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Worship, the worship book of the Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in America, specifies a liturgy similar to the revised Roman Catholic
Catholic
liturgy. A rite for adoration of the crucified Christ includes the optional singing of the Solemn Reproaches in an updated and revised translation which eliminates some of the anti-Jewish overtones in previous versions. Influenced by the ecumenical liturgical renewal movement and in an attempt to recover patterns of worship from the early church, many Lutheran
Lutheran
congregations are moving away from long preaching services centered on a dramatic and sentimentalized remembrance of the "Seven Last Words," sayings of Jesus
Jesus
assembled from the four gospels, toward a more devotional practice that places an emphasis on the triumph of the cross, and a singular biblical account of the Passion narrative from the Gospel
Gospel
of John.[citation needed] Along with observing a general Lenten fast,[47] many Lutherans emphasize the importance of Good Friday
Good Friday
as a day of fasting within the kalendar.[7][8] A Handbook for the Discipline of Lent
Lent
recommends the Lutheran
Lutheran
guideline to "Fast on Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
and Good Friday
Good Friday
with only one simple meal during the day, usually without meat".[49] Other mainstream Protestant
Protestant
traditions[edit]

A United Methodist
Methodist
minister prostrates at the start of the Good Friday liturgy at Holy Family
Holy Family
Church, in accordance with the rubrics in the Book of Worship. The processional cross is veiled in black, the liturgical colour associated with Good Friday
Good Friday
in Methodist
Methodist
Churches.

On Maundy Thursday, the altar of this Methodist
Methodist
church was stripped and the crucifix of this Methodist
Methodist
church has been veiled in black for Good Friday
Good Friday
(black is the liturgical colour for Good Friday
Good Friday
in the United Methodist
Methodist
Church). A wooden cross sits in front of the bare chancel for the veneration of the cross ceremony, which occurs during the United Methodist
Methodist
Good Friday
Good Friday
liturgy.

Many other mainstream Protestant
Protestant
communities hold special services on this day as well. Moravians hold a Lovefeast on Good Friday
Good Friday
as they receive Holy Communion
Holy Communion
on Maundy Thursday. The Methodist
Methodist
Church commemorates Good Friday
Good Friday
with fasting,[50] as well as a service of worship, often based on the Seven Last Words from the Cross.[51][52] It is not uncommon for some communities to hold interdenominational services on Good Friday. In the Reformed
Reformed
tradition, Good Friday
Good Friday
is one of the evangelical feasts and is thus widely observed with church services, which feature the Solemn Reproaches in the pattern of Psalm
Psalm
78, towards the end of the liturgy.[53] Associated customs[edit]

Good Friday
Good Friday
service in Ireland

In many countries with a strong Christian tradition such as Australia, Bermuda, Brazil, Canada, the countries of the Caribbean, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Malta, Mexico, New Zealand,[54][55][56] Peru, the Philippines, the Scandinavian countries, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela, the day is observed as a public or federal holiday. In the United States, 12 states observe Good Friday
Good Friday
as state holiday: Connecticut, Texas, Delaware, Hawaii, Indiana, Tennessee, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, New Jersey, North Carolina and North Dakota. Germany and some other countries have laws prohibiting certain acts, such as dancing and horse racing, that are seen as profaning the solemn nature of the day.[10][11] Australia and New Zealand[edit] Good Friday
Good Friday
is a holiday under state and territory laws in all states and territories in Australia.[57] Generally speaking, shops in all Australian states (but not in the two territories of the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory) are required to remain closed for the duration of Good Friday, although there are certain shops which are permitted to open and other shops can apply for exemptions. All schools and universities close on Good Friday
Good Friday
in Australia, and Good Friday
Good Friday
falls within the school holidays in most years in all states and territories except the Northern Territory, although many states now commence their school holidays in early April regardless of Easter. In 2018, for example, when Good Friday
Good Friday
fell on 30 March, only Queensland
Queensland
and Victoria had school holidays which coincided with Good Friday.[58] The vast majority of businesses are closed on Good Friday, although many recreational businesses, such as the Sydney Royal Easter
Easter
Show, open on Good Friday
Good Friday
as among non-religious families Good Friday
Good Friday
is a popular day to indulge in such activities. In New Zealand, Good Friday
Good Friday
is a legal holiday[59] and is a day of mandatory school closure for all New Zealand state and integrated schools.[60] Good Friday
Good Friday
is also a restricted trading day in New Zealand, which means that unexempted shops are not permitted to open on this day.[61] Canada[edit]

Vespers of Good Friday
Good Friday
afternoon, Greek Orthodox Cathedral in Toronto

In Canada, Good Friday
Good Friday
is a federal statutory holiday. In the province of Quebec "employers can choose to give the day off either on Good Friday or Easter
Easter
Monday."[62] Cuba[edit] In an online article posted on Catholic
Catholic
News Agency by Alejandro Bermúdez on 31 March 2012, Cuban President Raúl Castro, with the Communist Party and his advisers, decreed that Good Friday
Good Friday
that year would be a holiday. This was Castro's response to a request made personally to him by Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
during the latter's Apostolic Visitation to the island and León, Mexico
Mexico
that month. The move followed the pattern of small advances in Cuba's relations with the Vatican, mirroring Pope John Paul II's success in getting Fidel Castro to declare Christmas
Christmas
Day a holiday.[63] Both Good Friday
Good Friday
and Christmas are now annual holidays in Cuba. Hong Kong[edit] In Hong Kong, despite the transfer of sovereignty from the UK to China in 1997, Good Friday
Good Friday
continues to be a public holiday.[64] Government offices, banks, post offices and most offices are closed on Good Friday. Ireland[edit] In the Republic of Ireland, Good Friday
Good Friday
is not an official public holiday, but most non-retail businesses close for the day. Up until 2018 it was illegal to sell alcoholic beverages on Good Friday, with some exceptions, so pubs and off-licences generally closed.[65] Critics of the ban included the catering and tourism sector, but surveys showed that the general public were divided on the issue.[66][67] In Northern Ireland, a similar ban operates until 5 pm on Good Friday.[68] Malaysia[edit] Although Malaysia is a Muslim majority country, Good Friday
Good Friday
is declared as a public holiday in the states of Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
in East Malaysia
East Malaysia
as there is a significant Christian indigenous population in both states.[69] Malta[edit] The Holy Week
Holy Week
commemorations reach their peak on Good Friday
Good Friday
as the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church celebrates the passion of Jesus. Solemn celebrations take place in all churches together with processions in different villages around Malta
Malta
and Gozo. During the celebration, the narrative of the passion is read in some localities, while the Adoration of the Cross follows. Good Friday
Good Friday
processions take place in Birgu, Bormla, Għaxaq, Luqa, Mosta, Naxxar, Paola, Qormi, Rabat, Senglea, Valletta, Żebbuġ (Città Rohan) and Żejtun. Processions in Gozo
Gozo
will be in Nadur, Victoria (St. George and Cathedral), Xagħra and Żebbuġ, Gozo.[citation needed] Philippines[edit] In the predominantly Roman Catholic
Catholic
Philippines, the day is commemorated with street processions, the Way of the Cross, the chanting of the Pasyón, and performances of the Senákulo or Passion play. Some devotees engage in self-flagellation and even have themselves crucified as expressions of penance despite health risks and strong disapproval from the Church.[70] Church bells are not rung and Masses are not celebrated, while television features movies, documentaries and other shows focused on the religious event and other topics related to the Catholic
Catholic
faith, broadcasting mostly religious content. Malls and shops are generally closed, as are restaurants as it is the second of three public holidays within the week.[citation needed] After three o'clock in the afternoon (the time at which Jesus
Jesus
is traditionally believed to have died), the faithful venerate the cross in the local church and follow the procession of the Burial of Jesus. The image of the dead Christ is then laid in state to be venerated, and sometimes treated in accordance with local burial customs.[citation needed] In Cebu
Cebu
and many parts of the Visayan Islands, people usually eat binignit and biko as a form of fasting.[71][72] Spain[edit]

Nazarenos wearing capirotes, in Málaga, Spain

Main articles: Holy Week
Holy Week
in Spain, Holy Week
Holy Week
in Málaga, Holy Week
Holy Week
in Seville, Holy Week
Holy Week
in Valladolid, Holy Week
Holy Week
in Viveiro, and Holy Week in Zamora

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (February 2017)

United Kingdom[edit]

Hot cross buns are traditionally toasted and eaten on Good Friday
Good Friday
in Britain and Australia.[73]

In the UK, Good Friday
Good Friday
was historically a common law holiday and is recognised as an official public holiday[74] (also known as a Bank Holiday). All state schools are closed and most businesses treat it as a holiday for staff; however, many retail stores now remain open. Government services in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
operate as normal on Good Friday, substituting Easter
Easter
Tuesday for the holiday. There has traditionally been no horse racing on Good Friday
Good Friday
in the UK. However, in 2008, betting shops and stores opened for the first time on this day[75] and in 2014 Lingfield Park and Musselburgh staged the UK's first Good Friday
Good Friday
race meetings.[76][77] The BBC
BBC
has for many years introduced its 7 am News broadcast on Radio 4 on Good Friday with a verse from Isaac Watts' hymn "When I Survey the Wondrous Cross". United States[edit] In the United States, Good Friday
Good Friday
is not a government holiday at the federal level; however, individual states, counties and municipalities may observe the holiday. Good Friday
Good Friday
is a state holiday in Connecticut,[78] Delaware,[79] Florida,[80] Hawaii,[81] Indiana,[82] Kentucky
Kentucky
(half day),[83] Louisiana,[84] New Jersey,[85] North Carolina,[86] North Dakota,[87] Tennessee[88] and Texas.[89][90] State and local government offices and courts are closed, as well as some banks and post offices in these states, and in those counties and municipalities where Good Friday
Good Friday
is observed as a holiday. Good Friday is also a holiday in the U.S. territories of Guam,[91] U.S. Virgin Islands[92] and Puerto Rico.[93] The stock markets are closed on Good Friday[94][95] but the foreign exchange and bond trading markets open for a partial business day.[96][97] Most retail stores remain open, while some of them may close early. Public schools and universities are often closed on Good Friday, either as a holiday of its own, or as part of spring break. The postal service operates, and banks regulated by the federal government do not close for Good Friday.[98] In some governmental contexts Good Friday
Good Friday
has been referred to by a generic name such as "spring holiday".[99][100][101] In 1999, in the case of Bridenbaugh v. O'Bannon, an Indiana
Indiana
state employee sued the governor for giving state employees Good Friday
Good Friday
as a day off. The US Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals ruled against the plaintiff, stating that the government could give state employees a paid day off when that day is a religious holiday, including Good Friday, but only so long as the state can provide a valid secular purpose that coincides with the obvious religious purpose of the holiday.[102] Calculating the date[edit] See also: Date of Easter

Dates for Good Friday, 2015–2030

Year Western Eastern

2015 3 April 10 April

2016 25 March 29 April

2017 14 April

2018 30 March 6 April

2019 19 April 26 April

2020 10 April 17 April

2021 2 April 30 April

2022 15 April 22 April

2023 7 April 14 April

2024 29 March 3 May

2025 18 April

2026 3 April 10 April

2027 26 March 30 April

2028 14 April

2029 30 March 6 April

2030 19 April 26 April

Good Friday
Good Friday
is the Friday before Easter, which is calculated differently in Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
and Western Christianity
Western Christianity
(see Computus
Computus
for details). Easter
Easter
falls on the first Sunday following the Paschal Full Moon, the full moon on or after 21 March, taken to be the date of the vernal equinox. The Western calculation uses the Gregorian calendar, while the Eastern calculation uses the Julian calendar, whose 21 March now corresponds to the Gregorian calendar's 3 April. The calculations for identifying the date of the full moon also differ. See Computus.[citation needed] In Eastern Christianity, Easter
Easter
can fall between 22 March and 25 April on Julian Calendar
Julian Calendar
(thus between 4 April and 8 May in terms of the Gregorian calendar, during the period 1900 and 2099), so Good Friday can fall between 20 March and 23 April, inclusive (or between 2 April and 6 May in terms of the Gregorian calendar).[citation needed] Cultural references[edit] Good Friday
Good Friday
assumes a particular importance in the plot of Richard Wagner's music drama Parsifal, which contains an orchestral interlude known as the " Good Friday
Good Friday
Music".[103] Criticism from non-observers[edit] Some Baptist
Baptist
congregations,[104] the Philadelphia Church of God,[105] and some non-denominational churches oppose the observance of Good Friday, regarding it as a papist tradition, and instead observe the Crucifixion
Crucifixion
on Wednesday to coincide with the Jewish sacrifice of the Passover
Passover
Lamb (which Christians believe is an Old Testament
Old Testament
pointer to Jesus
Jesus
Christ). A Wednesday Crucifixion of Jesus
Crucifixion of Jesus
allows for him to be in the tomb ("heart of the earth") for three days and three nights as he told the Pharisees he would be (Matthew 12:40), rather than two nights and a day (by inclusive counting, as was the norm at that time) if he had died on a Friday.[106][107] Preparation Day (14 Nisan
Nisan
on the Hebrew calendar) – which is the day before Passover
Passover
(15 Nisan), instead of the Friday morning as the Synoptic Gospels refer to the sabbath and they believe this refers to a "high sabbath" which occurs on feast days, and not the ordinary weekly sabbath. See also[edit]

Christianity
Christianity
portal Holidays portal

Ascension of Jesus Divine Mercy Sunday Easter
Easter
Monday Easter
Easter
season Good Friday
Good Friday
Prayer Good Friday
Good Friday
Prayer
Prayer
for the Jews Good Friday
Good Friday
processions in Baliuag Islamic view of Jesus' death Life of Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament Salvation in Christianity

References[edit]

^ " Good Friday
Good Friday
2018 in US, UK, Canada, Australia, India Friday 30 March 2018". www.goodfriday2018.tk. Retrieved 30 December 2017.  ^ " Good Friday
Good Friday
2018". www.goodfriday2018.tk. Retrieved 30 December 2017.  ^ The Chambers Dictionary. Allied Publishers. p. 639. ISBN 978-81-86062-25-8. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  ^ Elizabeth Webber; Mike Feinsilber (1999). Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Allusions. Merriam-Webster. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-87779-628-2. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  ^ Franklin M. Segler; Randall Bradley (1 October 2006). Christian Worship: Its Theology And Practice. B&H Publishing Group. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-8054-4067-6. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  ^ Ripley, George; Dana, Charles Anderson (1883). The American Cyclopaedia: A Popular Dictionary for General Knowledge. D. Appleton and Company. p. 101. The Protestant
Protestant
Episcopal, Lutheran, and Reformed
Reformed
churches, as well as many Methodists, observe the day by fasting and special services.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b Pfatteicher, Philip H. (1990). Commentary on the Lutheran
Lutheran
Book of Worship: Lutheran
Lutheran
Liturgy
Liturgy
in Its Ecumenical Context. Augsburg Fortress Publishers. pp. 223–244, 260. ISBN 9780800603922. The Good Friday
Good Friday
fast became the principal fast in the calendar, and even after the Reformation in Germany many Lutherans who observed no other fast scrupulously kept Good Friday
Good Friday
with strict fasting.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b Jacobs, Henry Eyster; Haas, John Augustus William (1899). The Lutheran
Lutheran
Cyclopedia. Scribner. p. 110. By many Lutherans Good Friday is observed as a strict fast. The lessons on Ash Wednesday emphasize the proper idea of the fast. The Sundays in Lent
Lent
receive their names from the first words of their Introits in the Latin service, Invocavit, Reminiscere, Oculi, Lcetare, Judica.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Volume 36, Issue 214. Harper & Brothers. 1868. p. 521. In England
England
Good-Friday and Christmas
Christmas
are the only close holidays of the year, when the shops are all closed and the churches opened.  ^ a b Petre, Jonathan (21 March 2008). " Good Friday
Good Friday
gambling angers churches". The Telegraph. Bookmakers estimate that thousands of shops will be operating, even though Good Friday
Good Friday
is one of three days in the year when no horse racing takes place.  ^ a b Stevens, Laura (29 March 2013). "In Germany, Some Want to Boogie Every Day of the Year". The Wall Street Journal. Every year on Good Friday, Germany becomes a little like the fictional town in the movie 'Footloose' – dancing is verboten. The decades old 'Tanzverbot,' or dance ban, applies to all clubs, discos and other forms of organized dancing in all German states.  ^ " Good Friday
Good Friday
– Definition of Good Friday". Yourdictionary.com. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". Oed.com. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ Matthew 27:45; Mark 15:13; Luke 23:44 ^ Gerald O'Collins, Edward G. Farrugia (2013). A Concise Dictionary of Theology. Paulist Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-1-587-68236-0.  ^ There is a wide variety of uses regarding the liturgical colors worn during Great Lent
Lent
and Holy Week
Holy Week
in the Rite of Constantinople. ^ a b Bulgakov, Sergei V. (1900). "Great Friday". Handbook for Church Servers, 2nd ed (PDF). Kharkov: Tr. Archpriest Eugene D. Tarris. p. 543. Retrieved 6 April 2015.  ^ Archimandrite Kallistos (Ware) and Mother Mary (2002). "Service of the Twelve Gospels". The Lenten Triodion. South Cannan, Pennsylvania: St. Tikhon's Seminary Press. p. 587.  ^ Today He who hung the earth upon the waters Chanted by the Byzantine Choir of Athens ^ a b "Sacrosanctum concilium". Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Fast & Abstinence". United States
United States
Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved 14 April 2017.  ^ " Fasting
Fasting
and Abstinence" (PDF). Catholic
Catholic
Bishops' Conference of England
England
and Wales. 24 January 1985. Retrieved 14 April 2017.  ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 1. ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 2. ^ Roman Missal, Good Friday, 3. ^ "Removing Holy Water During Lent. Letter of the Congregation for Divine Worship". 14 March 2003.  ^ " Good Friday
Good Friday
– Easter/ Lent
Lent
Catholic
Catholic
Online". 12 January 2018.  ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 4. ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 5. ^ 1962 edition of the Roman Missal. ^ a b 1920 typical edition of the Roman Missal. ^ Caeremoniale Episcoporum, 315. ^ "Pope Francis slams Europe's attitude to migrants". Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ Roman Missal, "Good Friday", Celebration of the Lord's Passion, n. 5. ^ Circular Letter Concerning the Preparation and Celebration of the Easter
Easter
Feasts, V. Good Friday, 16 January 1988, Sacred Congregation for Divine Worship. ^ Congregation of Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments, Paschale Solemnitatis, III, n.66 (cf. n. 33) ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 7–13. ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 14–21. ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 22–31. ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 32–33. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Reparation". Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Raccolta". Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ Joseph P. Christopher et al., 2003 The Raccolta
Raccolta
St Athanasius Press ISBN 978-0-9706526-6-9. ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic
Catholic
Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X ^ "Pius XI, Miserentissimus Redemptor
Miserentissimus Redemptor
(08/05/1928)". vatican.va. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014.  ^ "Letter of the Holy Father John Paul II
John Paul II
to Cardinal Fiorenzo Angelini for the 50th Anniversary of the Benedictine Sisters of Reparation of the Holy Face". Vatican archives. 27 September 2000. Archived from the original on 2 May 2008.  ^ a b Gassmann, Günther; Oldenburg, Mark W. (10 October 2011). Historical Dictionary of Lutheranism. Scarecrow Press. p. 229. ISBN 9780810874824. In many Lutheran
Lutheran
churches, the Sundays during the Lenten season are called by the first word of their respective Latin Introitus (with the exception of Palm/Passion Sunday): Invocavit, Reminiscere, Oculi, Laetare, and Judica. Many Lutheran church orders of the 16th century retained the observation of the Lenten fast, and Lutherans have observed this season with a serene, earnest attitude. Special
Special
days of eucharistic communion were set aside on Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday
and Good Friday.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "A Word About Tenebrae
Tenebrae
". Historiclectionary.com. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ Weitzel, Thomas L. (1978). "A Handbook for the Discipline of Lent" (PDF). Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in America. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ Bays, Daniel H; Wacker, Grant (14 March 2010). The Foreign Missionary Enterprise at Home: Explorations in North American Cultural History. University of Alabama Press. p. 277. ISBN 9780817356408.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Christians mark Good Friday". The Daily Reflector. Archived from the original on 30 March 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2007.  ^ "Good Friday". United Methodist
Methodist
Church. Retrieved 21 March 2007.  ^ "Good Friday". Reformed
Reformed
Church in America. Retrieved 8 March 2018.  ^ Holidays Act 2003 (New Zealand), Section 17 Days that are public holidays ^ Shop Trading Hours Act Repeal Act 1990 (New Zealand), Section 3 Shops to be closed on Anzac Day
Anzac Day
morning, Good Friday, Easter
Easter
Sunday, and Christmas
Christmas
Day ^ Broadcasting Act 1989 (New Zealand), Section 79A Hours during which election programmes prohibited, Section 81 Advertising hours ^ "Public holidays – australia.gov.au".  ^ "School Term Dates". australia.gov.au. Retrieved 4 February 2018.  ^ "Public holidays and anniversary dates NZ Government". Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ "PMore information on setting term dates, holidays and closing days". Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ "Restricted shop trading days » Employment New Zealand". Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ "Statutory holidays in Canada both national and provincial".  ^ "Cuban authorities declare Good Friday
Good Friday
2012 a holiday". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ [1] ^ Gleeson, Colin (2 April 2010). "You can have a pint today – if you know where to look". Irish Independent. Retrieved 3 April 2015.  ^ Hade, Emma Jane (2 April 2015). " Good Friday
Good Friday
alcohol ban still splits public as only half want it abolished". Irish Independent. Retrieved 3 April 2015.  ^ 'Times have changed a lot' – one of Ireland's oldest barmaids (98) pulls pints for the first time on Good Friday
Good Friday
independent.ie, 30 March 2018 ^ Coulter, Peter (23 March 2016). "Pub owners frustrated at assembly failure to change Easter
Easter
opening hours". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 25 March 2016.  ^ Michael Ipgrave (2008). Building a Better Bridge: Muslims, Christians, and the Common Good : a Record of the Fourth Building Bridges Seminar Held in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, May 15–18, 2005. Georgetown University Press. pp. 109–. ISBN 1-58901-731-5.  ^ Marks, Kathy (22 March 2008). "Dozens ignore warnings to re-enact crucifixion". The Independent. London. Retrieved 23 March 2008.  ^ Izobelle T. Pulgo, "Binignit: A Good Friday
Good Friday
Cebuano soul food", Cebu Daily News, 23 March 2016. ^ Deralyn Ramos, " Holy Week
Holy Week
in tne Philippines", Tsuneishi Balita, March 2013, p. 4. ^ Rohrer, Finlo (1 April 2010). "How did hot cross buns become two a penny?". BBC
BBC
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Good Friday
gambling angers churches". The Telegraph. Retrieved 6 April 2012.  ^ "Lingfield: £1m Good Friday
Good Friday
fixture to be held at Surrey racecourse". BBC
BBC
news. 9 October 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.  ^ Brown, Craig (11 October 2013). "Musselburgh to host historic Good Friday racing". The Scotsman. Retrieved 14 October 2013.  ^ Government of Connecticut. "Legal State Holidays". CT.gov. Retrieved 30 March 2018.  ^ " Delaware
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– Office of Management and Budget – State of Delaware Holidays". Delawarepersonnel.com. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ "Title XXXIX Commercial Relations Section 683.01 Legal holidays". onecle.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014.  ^ " Hawaii
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State Holidays for 2014". Miraclesalad.com. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ "Secretary of State: 2011 Indiana
Indiana
State Holidays". In.gov. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ "Holidays". Personnel.ky.gov. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ Sandra G. Gillen, CPPB. "2014 State Holidays Calendar Observed by OSP". Doa.louisiana.gov. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ "The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey
New Jersey
State Holidays". Nj.gov. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ "N.C. State Government Holiday Schedule for 2013 and 2014". Ic.nc.gov. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ " North Dakota
North Dakota
State Holidays 2014". The Holiday Schedule. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ "Official State Holidays". TN.gov. Archived from the original on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ In addition to holidays where offices are closed, Texas
Texas
also has "partial staffing holidays" (where offices are required to be open for public business, but where employees may take it off as a holiday) and "optional holidays" (where an employee may take off in lieu of taking off on a partial staffing holiday; Good Friday
Good Friday
is an optional holiday). ^ " Texas
Texas
State Holidays". The State of Texas. Retrieved 19 January 2018.  ^ " Guam
Guam
Public Holidays 2012 (Oceania)". Qppstudio.net. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ "US Virgin Islands Public Holidays 2012 (Americas/Caribbean)". Qppstudio.net. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ "Puerto Rican Holidays". Topuertorico.org. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ "NYSE: Holidays and Trading Hours". nyse.com.  ^ "Stock Market Holidays". Money-zine.com. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ "CME Group Chicago Trading Floor Holiday Schedule for 2015" (PDF). CME Group.  ^ " Holiday Schedule". sifma.org.  ^ "Federal Holidays". Opm.gov. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ [2] Archived 14 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Goldman, Russell (29 March 2010). "Iowa Town Renames Good Friday
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Mexico
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Good Friday
Music – Dictionary definition of Good Friday
Good Friday
Music – Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary". Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ Landis, L. K. (8 June 1998). "Proof for a Wednesday Crucifixion". King James Bible Baptist
Baptist
Church, Ladson, South Carolina. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ "The Resurrection Was Not on Sunday". thetrumpet.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009.  ^ "The Cradle & the Cross (original)". thebereancall.org. 1 December 1992. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ "Cult, Cults, Abuse by Religions, Abuse Recovery Discussion & Resources, Peer-Support, Legal support". factnet.org. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. 

Further reading[edit]

"Mayor wants 'draconian' Good Friday
Good Friday
booze ban lifted before 1916 centenary – Independent.ie". Independent.ie. Retrieved 25 March 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Good Friday.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Good Friday

The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
commemoration of Holy Friday Great Friday instructions from S. V. Bulgakov's Handbook for Church Servers (Russian Orthodox Church) "Good Friday" article from The Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia Episcopal Good Friday
Good Friday
Service

Links to related articles

v t e

Holy Week

Palm Sunday Holy Monday Holy Tuesday Holy Wednesday Maundy Thursday Good Friday Holy Saturday Easter
Easter
Sunday Easter
Easter
Monday

v t e

Easter

Main topics

Controversies Date Easter
Easter
Sunday Etymology Observances Traditions

Christianity

Apostles' Fast Bright Week Burial of Jesus Crucifixion
Crucifixion
of Jesus Dormition of the Theotokos Easter
Easter
Monday Easter
Easter
Vigil Epitaphios Exsultet Good Friday Good Friday
Good Friday
Prayer Good Friday
Good Friday
prayer for the Jews Great Lent Holy Week Jesus Last Supper Lent Lumen Christi Maundy Thursday Myrrhbearers Paschal candle Paschal cycle Paschal greeting Paschal Homily Paschal Tide Paschal trikirion Paschal troparion The Passion Pentecostarion Resurrection of Jesus Tenebrae

Traditions

Artos Burning of Judas Cascarón Clipping the church Croatian pisanica Crucession Easter
Easter
basket Easter
Easter
Bilby Easter
Easter
bonnet Easter
Easter
Bunny Easter
Easter
egg Easter
Easter
egg tree Easter
Easter
postcard Easter
Easter
Sepulchre Egg dance Egg decorating Egg decorating
Egg decorating
in Slavic culture Egg hunt Egg rolling Egg tapping Egg tossing Fasika Gorzkie żale Holy Fire Holy Week
Holy Week
procession Lieldienas Osterbrunnen Pace Egg play Polish pisanka Pysanka Radonitsa Rouketopolemos Saitopolemos Scoppio del carro Sunrise service Święconka Traditional Easter
Easter
games and customs

Media

Film Fiction Songs

Related topics

Computus Dionysius Exiguus' Easter
Easter
table Easter
Easter
controversy Easter
Easter
Epic Ecclesiastical new moon Paschal Full Moon Pussy willow Reform of the date of Easter

Related events

Divine Mercy Sunday Easter
Easter
Monday Easter
Easter
Tuesday Easter
Easter
Wednesday Easter
Easter
Thursday Easter
Easter
Friday Easter
Easter
Saturday Eastertide Easter
Easter
Triduum Easter
Easter
Week Good Friday Holy Saturday Maundy Thursday Mid-Pentecost Octave of Easter Palm Sunday Pentecost Pre-Lenten Season Trinity Sunday

Society

Ēostre Maslenitsa Salzburg Easter
Easter
Festival

v t e

Liturgical year
Liturgical year
of the Catholic
Catholic
Church

Based on the General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar
(1969)

Advent

Advent
Advent
Sunday Immaculate Conception^ Gaudete Sunday (O Antiphons)

Christmastide

Christmas
Christmas
(Nativity of Jesus)^ Holy Family Solemnity
Solemnity
of Mary, Mother of God^ Epiphany^ Baptism
Baptism
of the Lord

Ordinary Time
Ordinary Time
I

Presentation of Jesus
Jesus
at the Temple (Candlemas) Feast of the Annunciation (Carnival)

Lent

Ash Wednesday Saint
Saint
Joseph's Day^ Laetare Sunday Holy Week: Palm Sunday, Holy Wednesday, Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday
(Mass of the Chrism)

Paschal Triduum

Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday
(Mass of the Lord's Supper) Good Friday

Liturgy
Liturgy
of the Word, Adoration of the Cross, Holy Communion

Holy Saturday Easter
Easter
Vigil

Eastertide

Easter
Easter
Sunday: Resurrection of Jesus Octave of Easter
Easter
(Divine Mercy Sunday) Feast of the Ascension^ Pentecost

Ordinary Time
Ordinary Time
II

Trinity Sunday Corpus Christi^ Sacred Heart Visitation of Mary Saint
Saint
John the Baptist Feast of Saints Peter and Paul^ Transfiguration of Jesus Assumption of Mary^ Nativity of Mary Feast of the Cross All Saints' Day^ All Souls' Day Presentation of Mary Feast of Christ the King

Legend ^ = Holy days of obligation (10) Catholicism portal See also: Computus Liturgical colours Solemnity

Older calendars: General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar
of 1960 General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar
of Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
of 1950 General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar
of 1954 Tridentine Calendar

v t e

Holidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States

January

New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(federal) Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
(federal)

Confederate Heroes Day (TX) Fred Korematsu Day
Fred Korematsu Day
(CA, FL, HI, VA) Idaho Human Rights Day (ID) Inauguration Day (federal quadrennial, DC area) Kansas Day (KS) Lee–Jackson Day
Lee–Jackson Day
(formerly Lee–Jackson–King Day) (VA) Robert E. Lee Day
Robert E. Lee Day
(FL) Stephen Foster Memorial Day (36) The Eighth (LA, former federal)

January–February

Super Bowl Sunday

February American Heart Month Black History Month

Washington's Birthday/Presidents' Day (federal) Valentine's Day

Georgia Day (GA) Groundhog Day Lincoln's Birthday
Lincoln's Birthday
(CA, CT, IL, IN, MO, NJ, NY, WV) National Girls and Women in Sports Day National Freedom Day (36) Primary Election Day (WI) Ronald Reagan Day
Ronald Reagan Day
(CA) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
(CA, MO) Susan B. Anthony Day
Susan B. Anthony Day
(CA, FL, NY, WI, WV, proposed federal)

February–March

Mardi Gras

Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
(religious) Courir de Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(religious) Super Tuesday

March Irish-American Heritage Month National Colon Cancer Awareness Month Women's History Month

St. Patrick's Day (religious) Spring break
Spring break
(week)

Casimir Pulaski Day
Casimir Pulaski Day
(IL) Cesar Chavez Day
Cesar Chavez Day
(CA, CO, TX, proposed federal) Evacuation Day (Suffolk County, MA) Harriet Tubman Day
Harriet Tubman Day
(NY) Holi
Holi
(NY, religious) Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(AL (in two counties), LA) Maryland Day
Maryland Day
(MD) National Poison Prevention Week
National Poison Prevention Week
(week) Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Day (HI) Saint
Saint
Joseph's Day (religious) Seward's Day (AK) Texas
Texas
Independence Day (TX) Town Meeting Day (VT)

March–April

Easter
Easter
(religious)

Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
(religious) Passover
Passover
(religious) Good Friday
Good Friday
(CT, NC, PR, religious) Easter
Easter
Monday (religious)

April Confederate History Month

420 Day April Fools' Day Arbor Day Confederate Memorial Day
Confederate Memorial Day
(AL, MS) Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
(week) Earth Day Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
(DC) Thomas Jefferson's Birthday
Jefferson's Birthday
(AL) Pascua Florida
Florida
(FL) Patriots' Day
Patriots' Day
(MA, ME) San Jacinto Day
San Jacinto Day
(TX) Siblings Day Walpurgis Night
Walpurgis Night
(religious)

May Asian Pacific American Heritage Month Jewish American Heritage Month

Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(federal) Mother's Day (36) Cinco de Mayo

Harvey Milk Day
Harvey Milk Day
(CA) Law Day (36) Loyalty Day (36) Malcolm X Day
Malcolm X Day
(CA, IL, proposed federal) May Day Military Spouse Day National Day of Prayer
Prayer
(36) National Defense Transportation Day (36) National Maritime Day (36) Peace Officers Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(36) Truman Day
Truman Day
(MO)

June Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Pride Month

Father's Day (36)

Bunker Hill Day
Bunker Hill Day
(Suffolk County, MA) Carolina Day
Carolina Day
(SC) Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
In Texas
Texas
/ Juneteenth
Juneteenth
(TX) Flag Day (36, proposed federal) Helen Keller Day
Helen Keller Day
(PA) Honor America Days (3 weeks) Jefferson Davis Day
Jefferson Davis Day
(AL, FL) Kamehameha Day
Kamehameha Day
(HI) Odunde Festival
Odunde Festival
(Philadelphia, PA) Senior Week (week) West Virginia Day
West Virginia Day
(WV)

July

Independence Day (federal)

Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea (HI, unofficial) Parents' Day
Parents' Day
(36) Pioneer Day (UT)

July–August

Summer vacation

August

American Family Day (AZ) Barack Obama Day
Barack Obama Day
(IL) Bennington Battle Day (VT) Hawaii
Hawaii
Admission Day / Statehood Day (HI) Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
(TX) National Aviation Day
National Aviation Day
(36) Service Reduction Day (MD) Victory over Japan Day (RI, former federal) Women's Equality Day
Women's Equality Day
(36)

September Prostate Cancer Awareness Month

Labor Day
Labor Day
(federal)

California Admission Day
California Admission Day
(CA) Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day (36) Constitution Day (36) Constitution Week (week) Defenders Day
Defenders Day
(MD) Gold Star Mother's Day
Gold Star Mother's Day
(36) National Grandparents Day
National Grandparents Day
(36) National Payroll Week (week) Native American Day (CA, TN, proposed federal) Patriot Day
Patriot Day
(36)

September–October Hispanic Heritage Month

Oktoberfest

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
(religious) Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
(religious)

October Breast Cancer Awareness Month Disability Employment Awareness Month Filipino American History Month LGBT History Month

Columbus Day
Columbus Day
(federal) Halloween

Alaska Day (AK) Child Health Day (36) General Pulaski Memorial Day German-American Day Indigenous Peoples' Day
Indigenous Peoples' Day
(VT) International Day of Non-Violence Leif Erikson Day
Leif Erikson Day
(36) Missouri Day (MO) National School Lunch Week Native American Day (SD) Nevada Day
Nevada Day
(NV) Sweetest Day White Cane Safety Day
White Cane Safety Day
(36)

October–November

Diwali
Diwali
(religious)

November Native American Indian Heritage Month

Veterans Day
Veterans Day
(federal) Thanksgiving (federal)

Day after Thanksgiving (24) Election Day (CA, DE, HI, KY, MT, NJ, NY, OH, PR, WV, proposed federal) Family Day (NV) Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious) Lā Kūʻokoʻa (HI, unofficial) Native American Heritage Day (MD, WA) Obama Day
Obama Day
(Perry County, AL)

December

Christmas
Christmas
(religious, federal)

Alabama Day (AL) Christmas
Christmas
Eve (KY, NC, SC) Day after Christmas
Christmas
(KY, NC, SC, TX) Festivus Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious, week) Indiana
Indiana
Day (IN) Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
(religious, week) National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
(36) New Year's Eve Pan American Aviation Day (36) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
(OH, OR) Wright Brothers Day (36)

Varies (year round)

Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(religious) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(religious) Ramadan
Ramadan
(religious, month)

Legend: (federal) = federal holidays, (state) = state holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (week) = weeklong holidays, (month) = monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in the United States, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays, Hallmark holidays, public holidays in the United States, New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and the United States Virgin Islands.

v t e

Public holidays in Australia

New Year's Day Australia Day Good Friday Easter
Easter
Saturday Easter
Easter
Monday Anzac Day Queen's Birthday Labour Day Christmas
Christmas
Day Boxing Day

v t e

Public holidays in New Zealand

New Year's Day January 2 Waitangi Day Good Friday Easter
Easter
Sunday Easter
Easter
Monday Anzac Day Queen's Birthday Labour Day Christmas
Christmas
Day Boxing Day

v t e

Public holidays in Hong Kong

New Year's Day Lunar New Year (first 3 days of the period) Ching Ming Festival Good Friday Holy Saturday Easter
Easter
Monday Buddha's Birthday Labour Day Tuen Ng Festival Hong Kong
Hong Kong
SAR Establishment Day Mid-Autumn Festival PRC National Day Chung Yeung Festival Christmas
Christmas
Day Boxing Day

Cancelled

Queen's Birthday Liberation Day Double Ten Day Remembrance Day

v t e

Holidays in Canada

Nationwide statutory holidays

New Year's Day Good Friday Canada Day Labour Day Christmas
Christmas
Day

Statutory holidays for federal employees

Easter
Easter
Monday Victoria Day Thanksgiving Remembrance Day Boxing Day

Indigenous holidays

Hobiyee National Aboriginal Day

Other common holidays

August Civic Holiday Family Day/Heritage Day/Islander Day/Louis Riel Day Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(Newfoundland and Labrador) Quebec National Holiday

v t e

Public holidays in the Philippines

Regular holidays

New Year's Day Maundy Thursday Good Friday Araw ng Kagitingan Labor Day Independence Day National Heroes' Day Bonifacio Day Christmas Rizal Day

Special
Special
non-working days

Chinese New Year Black Saturday Ninoy Aquino Day All Saints' Day
All Saints' Day
and All Souls' Day Immaculate Conception Noche Buena Last day of the year

Special
Special
holiday (for schools)

EDSA Revolution Anniversary

Italicized: Movable holiday

v t e

Public holidays in the United Kingdom

All regions

New Year's Day May Bank Holiday Summer Bank Holiday Christmas
Christmas
Day Boxing Day

England
England
and Wales

Good Friday Easter
Easter
Monday Spring Bank Holiday

Northern Ireland

Saint
Saint
Patrick's Day Easter
Easter
Monday Easter
Easter
Tuesday Spring Bank Holiday Battle of the Boyne (Orangemen's Day)

Scotland

2nd January Good Friday St Andrew's Day (optional)

v t e

Official holidays of the New York Stock Exchange

Whole days

New Year's Day Martin Luther King Jr. Day Washington's Birthday Good Friday Memorial Day Independence Day Labor Day Thanksgiving Day Christmas
Christmas
Day

Partial days

Day before Independence Day Day after Thanksgiving Christmas
Christmas
Eve

v t e

Public holidays in South Africa

New Year's Day Human Rights Day Good Friday Family Day Freedom Day Workers' Day Youth Day National Women's Day Heritage Day Day of Reconciliation Christmas
Christmas
Day Day of Goodwill

Authority control

.