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Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
y Alonso (1510 – April 10, 1548) was a Spanish conquistador and younger paternal half-brother of Francisco Pizarro, the conqueror of the Inca Empire. Bastard son of Captain Gonzalo Pizarro y Rodríguez de Aguilar (senior) (1446–1522) who as colonel of infantry served in the Italian campaigns under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, and in Navarre, with some distinction, and María Alonso, from Trujillo. He was the half brother of Francisco and Hernándo Pizarro and the full brother of Juan Pizarro.

Contents

1 Early years in Peru 2 Expeditions with Francisco de Orellana 3 Gonzalo turns against the Spanish King 4 Ancestors 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Early years in Peru[edit] Born in Trujillo, Spain, Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
accompanied his eldest brother, Francisco Pizarro, in his third expedition for the conquest of Peru in 1530.[1]:136 Gonzalo was also the brother of Hernando Pizarro and Juan Pizarro.[2]:27 A lieutenant of his brother Francisco during the conquest, Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
was one of the most corrupt, brutal and ruthless conquistadors of the New World, being far less restrained towards the natives and the Inca than his older brothers. After Inca emperor Atahualpa
Atahualpa
was captured in the Battle of Cajamarca and later executed, the Pizarro brothers and their followers marched towards the Inca capital of Cuzco
Cuzco
to complete the conquest, capturing the city on 15 November 1533 after a brief battle with the Inca forces under Quizquiz
Quizquiz
holding it after previously defeating the central government and massacring the nobility of Cuzco. Gonzalo, and his brother Juan, were made regidores of the city on 24 March 1534.[1]:175-179,204,216,222 Cusco
Cusco
was split into factions behind Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
and Diego de Almagro, but these two signed a new article of agreement on 12 June 1535. Almagro then left Cuzco, having been given the honor by Spanish King Charles I of exploring the southern part of Peru (modern-day Chile)[1]:233-234

Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
sailing in Perú. Year of work:1554

Gonzalo and Juan Pizarro both looked after the settlements in Cuzco, while their eldest brother Francisco explored the west coast of northern Peru and founded the city of Lima
Lima
in 1535. Gonzalo, Juan and his younger brother Hernándo ruled Cuzco
Cuzco
as a dictatorship dominated by greed, corruption and brutality; torturing and executing those who refused to accept Spanish rule. Particularly egregious was the conduct of Juan and Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
towards the Inca Emperor, Manco Inca Yupanqui. Manco was angered by the conduct of the Spaniards towards Incan women, especially after Gonzalo raped his queen and sister-wife Cura Ocllo.[3]:75,88,95-96 The Spaniards corrupt rule and disrespectful treatment towards Manco Inca Yupanqui
Manco Inca Yupanqui
led to large-scale rebellion.[1]:235-239[4]:406-411 The Incas fought the Spaniards in a number of sieges and battles for control of the land and temporarily captured Cuzco
Cuzco
on May 6, 1536. The Incas were later defeated by the heavily armed Spanish soldiers led by Gonzalo and Juan. Smallpox
Smallpox
was also spread among the natives and many perished. When Almagro returned from Chile disappointed in not finding any gold, he captured and imprisoned Gonzalo and Hernándo on 8 April 1537.[1]:256 Gonzalo managed to escape and re-join Francisco Pizarro, while Almagro was on his way to Lima
Lima
to negotiate with Francisco on who would control Cuzco. These negotiations led to Hernándo's release. Hernando and Gonzalo then led an army against Almagro, defeating him in the Battle of Las Salinas. Almagro was captured, condemned for treason, and executed on July 8, 1538.[1]:260-269 Expeditions with Francisco de Orellana[edit] Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
appointed Gonzalo Governor of Quito
Quito
in 1541, which had been taken in 1534 by Sebastián de Benalcázar. Gonzalo went to Quito
Quito
and soon heard rumors of a rich native kingdom to the east: some called it El Dorado
El Dorado
and the land was called the Land of Cinnamon - "País de la Canela". Gonzalo arranged an expedition: among those he recruited was Francisco de Orellana, a veteran of the conquest of the Inca and a dependable supporter of the Pizarro brothers. In Quito, Gonzalo was able to recruit 220 Spaniards and 4,000 Native Americans. The second-in-command, Orellana, was sent to Guayaquil
Guayaquil
to recruit more troops and horses. Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
and his followers left Quito
Quito
on February 1541, a month before Orellana, who was able to bring 23 men and several horses. By March both met at the valley of Zumaco and started their march towards crossing the Andes. After following the courses of the Coca and Napo rivers, the expedition started running out of provisions. About 140 of the 220 Spaniards and 3,000 out of 4,000 natives had died. On February 1542, they decided Orellana would continue sailing down the Napo river in search of food along with 50 men. After a brief time, Gonzalo thought the expedition was a whole failure and decided to take a route north back to Quito
Quito
with 80 of the remaining men, unknowingly relinquishing the success to Orellana, who ended discovering and exploring the entire length of the Amazon River. Upon his return to Quito, Gonzalo learned that the Almagristas (as the followers of Almagro were called) had assassinated his brother Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
on June 26, 1541 in retaliation for Almagro's execution. By this time the Crown's representative, Cristóbal Vaca de Castro, had arrived in Peru amidst the confusion after Pizarro's death. Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
offered to help capture those responsible for his brother's death, but was refused. The Almagristas were finally defeated in the battle of Chupas on September 16, 1542, and their leader, Diego Almagro El Mozo, was executed. Gonzalo turns against the Spanish King[edit] Emperor Charles V then appointed Blasco Núñez Vela
Blasco Núñez Vela
as Peru's first viceroy in 1544. Núñez introduced the New Laws, which were framed by Bartolomé de las Casas
Bartolomé de las Casas
to protect the indigenous peoples. Many of the conquistadors living in Peru were against these laws since they could no longer exploit the natives. This prompted Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
and Francisco de Carvajal
Francisco de Carvajal
to organize an army of followers with the intent of suppressing the New Laws. Many conquistadors turned against the Viceroy and joined Gonzalo's side, as his surname provided an effective rallying point. The rebel army defeated Núñez in 1546 at Añaquito near Quito. Although some, such as Carvajal, advised Gonzalo to proclaim himself King of Peru and to disown any further claim by the King of Spain
Spain
to the land, Gonzalo refused. Over the following months, however, the support for Gonzalo diminished when the King's new representative, Pedro de la Gasca, arrived with the intention of offering pardon and repealing the New Laws. Most of Gonzalo's army deserted him just before the crucial battle of Jaquijahuana near Cusco, that would determine the fate of the conquest. No longer supported with an army against the King's new representative, Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
surrendered and was beheaded[4]:143 by the royal forces on the field of battle, being the last of the Pizarro brothers to die a violent death (with Hernando dying of old age in Spain
Spain
some three or six decades later). Ancestors[edit]

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Ancestors of Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
y Alonso[5]

16.

8. Fernando or Hernándo Alonso de Hinojosa

17.

4. Fernando Alonso Pizarro

18.

9. Teresa Martínez Pizarro

19.

2. Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
y Rodríguez de Aguilar

20.

10.

21.

5. Isabel de Vargas y Rodríguez de Aguilar

22.

11.

23.

1. Gonzalo Pizarro
Gonzalo Pizarro
y Alonso

24.

12.

25.

6.

26.

13.

27.

3. María Alonso

28.

14.

29.

7.

30.

15.

31.

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f Prescott, W.H., 2011, The History of the Conquest of Peru, Digireads.com Publishing, ISBN 9781420941142 ^ Hemming, J., 1970, The Conquest of the Incas, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., ISBN 0151225605 ^ Titu Cusi Yupanqui, 2005, An Inca Account of the Conquest of Peru, Boulder: University Press of Colorado, ISBN 9780870818219 ^ a b Leon, P., 1998, The Discovery and Conquest of Peru, Chronicles of the New World
New World
Encounter, edited and translated by Cook and Cook, Durham: Duke University Press, ISBN 9780822321460 ^ GeneAll.net - Gonzalo Pizarro

Further reading[edit]

Andrew Dalby, "Christopher Columbus, Gonzalo Pizarro, and the search for cinnamon" in Gastronomica (Spring 2001). F.A. Kirkpatrick, "The Spanish Conquistadores" Third Reprinting 1968. Rafael Varón Gabai, " Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
and his brothers: the illusion of power in sixteenth-century Peru" London 1997. Fray Gaspar Carvajal, "Relación del nuevo descubrimiento del famoso río Grande de las Amazonas" (ed. intro. y notas de Jorge Hernández Millares) Mexico 1955.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1900 Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography article about Gonzalo Pizarro.

 "Pizarro. II. Gonzalo". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. 

v t e

Conquest of Peru

Punta Quemada Puná Cajamarca Vilcaconga 1st Cusco Maraycalla 2nd Chimborazo 2nd Cusco Ollantaytambo Abancay Las Salinas Chupas Añaquito Huarina Jaquijahuana Chuquinga Vilcabamba

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 98122551 LCCN: nr95033925 ISNI: 0000 0000 8705 1660 GND: 11859477X SUDOC: 077431154 BNE: XX1240638 SN

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