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In Jewish folklore, a golem (/ˈɡoʊləm/ GOH-ləm; Hebrew: גולם‎) is an animated anthropomorphic being that is magically created entirely from inanimate matter (specifically clay or mud). The word was used to mean an amorphous, unformed material in Psalms
Psalms
and medieval writing.[1] The most famous golem narrative involves Judah Loew ben Bezalel, the late-16th-century rabbi of Prague. There are many tales differing on how the golem was brought to life and afterward controlled. According to Moment Magazine, "the golem is a highly mutable metaphor with seemingly limitless symbolism. It can be victim or villain, Jew or non-Jew, man or woman—or sometimes both. Over the centuries it has been used to connote war, community, isolation, hope and despair."[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Earliest stories 1.3 The Golem of Chełm 1.4 The classic narrative: The Golem of Prague 1.5 Sources of the Prague
Prague
narrative

2 The Golem of Vilna 3 Hubris
Hubris
theme 4 Culture of the Czech Republic 5 Clay
Clay
Boy variation 6 Golem
Golem
in popular culture 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit] Etymology[edit] The word golem occurs once in the Bible
Bible
in Psalm 139:16, which uses the word גלמי (galmi; my golem),[3] that means "my light form", "raw" material,[4] connoting the unfinished human being before God's eyes.[3] The Mishnah
Mishnah
uses the term for an uncultivated person: "Seven characteristics are in an uncultivated person, and seven in a learned one," (שבעה דברים בגולם) ( Pirkei Avot
Pirkei Avot
5:6 in the Hebrew text; English translations vary). In Modern Hebrew, golem is used to mean "dumb" or "helpless". Similarly, it is often used today as a metaphor for a brainless lunk or entity who serves a man under controlled conditions but is hostile to him under others.[2] "Golem" passed into Yiddish
Yiddish
as goylem to mean someone who is clumsy or slow.[citation needed] Earliest stories[edit] The oldest stories of golems date to early Judaism. In the Talmud (Tractate Sanhedrin 38b), Adam
Adam
was initially created as a golem (גולם) when his dust was "kneaded into a shapeless husk." Like Adam, all golems are created from mud by those close to divinity, but no anthropogenic golem is fully human. Early on, the main disability of the golem was its inability to speak. Sanhedrin 65b describes Rava creating a man (gavra). He sent the man to Rav Zeira. Rav Zeira spoke to him, but he did not answer. Rav Zeira said, "You were created by the sages; return to your dust". During the Middle Ages, passages from the Sefer Yetzirah
Sefer Yetzirah
(Book of Creation) were studied as a means to create and animate a golem, although there is little in the writings of Jewish mysticism that supports this belief. It was believed that golems could be activated by an ecstatic experience induced by the ritualistic use of various letters of the Hebrew Alphabet[1] forming a "shem" (any one of the Names of God), wherein the shem was written on a piece of paper and inserted in the mouth or in the forehead of the golem.[5] A golem is inscribed with Hebrew words in some tales (for example, some versions of Chełm
Chełm
and Prague, as well as in Polish tales and versions of Brothers Grimm), such as the word emet (אמת, "truth" in Hebrew) written on its forehead. The golem could then be deactivated by removing the aleph (א) in emet,[6] thus changing the inscription from "truth" to "death" (met מת, meaning "dead"). Rabbi
Rabbi
Jacob ben Shalom arrived at Barcelona
Barcelona
from Germany in 1325 and remarked that the law of destruction is the reversal of the law of creation.[7] Joseph Delmedigo
Joseph Delmedigo
informs us in 1625 that "many legends of this sort are current, particularly in Germany."[8] The earliest known written account of how to create a golem can be found in Sodei Razayya by Eleazar ben Judah
Eleazar ben Judah
of Worms (1165–1230).[citation needed] The Golem of Chełm[edit] See also: Elijah Ba'al Shem of Chelm The oldest description of the creation of a golem by a historical figure is included in a tradition connected to Rabbi
Rabbi
Eliyahu of Chełm (1550–1583).[1][3][8][9] A Polish Kabbalist, writing in about 1630–1650, reported the creation of a golem by Rabbi
Rabbi
Eliyahu thus: "And I have heard, in a certain and explicit way, from several respectable persons that one man [living] close to our time, whose name is R. Eliyahu, the master of the name, who made a creature out of matter [Heb. Golem] and form [Heb. tzurah] and it performed hard work for him, for a long period, and the name of emet was hanging upon his neck, until he finally removed it for a certain reason, the name from his neck and it turned to dust."[1] A similar account was reported by a Christian author, Christoph Arnold, in 1674.[1] Rabbi
Rabbi
Jacob Emden
Jacob Emden
(d. 1776) elaborated on the story in a book published in 1748:

"As an aside, I'll mention here what I heard from my father's holy mouth regarding the Golem
Golem
created by his ancestor, the Gaon R. Eliyahu Ba'al Shem of blessed memory. When the Gaon saw that the Golem
Golem
was growing larger and larger, he feared that the Golem
Golem
would destroy the universe. He then removed the Holy Name that was embedded on his forehead, thus causing him to disintegrate and return to dust. Nonetheless, while he was engaged in extracting the Holy Name from him, the Golem
Golem
injured him, scarring him on the face."[10]

According to the Polish Kabbalist, "the legend was known to several persons, thus allowing us to speculate that the legend had indeed circulated for some time before it was committed to writing and, consequently, we may assume that its origins are to be traced to the generation immediately following the death of R. Eliyahu, if not earlier."[1][11] The classic narrative: The Golem of Prague[edit]

Rabbi
Rabbi
Loew statue at the new town hall of Prague

Rabbi
Rabbi
Loew and Golem
Golem
by Mikoláš Aleš, 1899.

Old New Synagogue
Old New Synagogue
of Prague
Prague
with the rungs of the ladder to the attic on the wall. Legend has Golem
Golem
lying in the loft

Jewish museum with statue of Golem
Golem
in Úštěk

The most famous golem narrative involves Judah Loew ben Bezalel, the late 16th century rabbi of Prague, also known as the Maharal, who reportedly "created a [g]olem out of clay from the banks of the Vltava River and brought it to life through rituals and Hebrew incantations to defend the Prague
Prague
ghetto from anti-Semitic attacks" and pogroms.[12][13] Depending on the version of the legend, the Jews in Prague
Prague
were to be either expelled or killed under the rule of Rudolf II, the Holy Roman Emperor. To protect the Jewish community, the rabbi constructed the Golem
Golem
out of clay from the banks of the Vltava
Vltava
river, and brought it to life through rituals and Hebrew incantations. The Golem
Golem
was called Josef and was known as Yossele. It was said that he could make himself invisible and summon spirits from the dead.[13] Rabbi
Rabbi
Loew deactivated the Golem
Golem
on Friday evenings by removing the shem before the Sabbath (Saturday) began,[5] so as to let it rest on Sabbath.[5] One Friday evening Rabbi
Rabbi
Loew forgot to remove the shem, and feared that the Golem
Golem
would desecrate the Sabbath.[5] A different story tells of a golem that fell in love, and when rejected, became the violent monster seen in most accounts. Some versions have the golem eventually going on a murderous rampage.[13] The rabbi then managed to pull the shem from his mouth and immobilize him[5] in front of the synagogue, whereupon the golem fell in pieces.[5] The Golem's body was stored in the attic genizah of the Old New Synagogue,[13] where it would be restored to life again if needed.[14] According to legend, the body of Rabbi
Rabbi
Loew's Golem
Golem
still lies in the synagogue's attic.[5][13] When the attic was renovated in 1883, no evidence of the Golem
Golem
was found.[15] Some versions of the tale state that the Golem
Golem
was stolen from the genizah and entombed in a graveyard in Prague's Žižkov
Žižkov
district, where the Žižkov Television Tower now stands. A recent legend tells of a Nazi
Nazi
agent ascending to the synagogue attic during World War II and trying to stab the Golem, but he died instead.[16] The attic is not open to the general public.[17] Some Orthodox Jews
Orthodox Jews
believe that the Maharal did actually create a golem. The evidence for this belief has been analyzed from an Orthodox Jewish perspective by Shnayer Z. Leiman.[18][19] Sources of the Prague
Prague
narrative[edit] The general view of historians and critics is that the story of the Golem
Golem
of Prague
Prague
was a German literary invention of the early 19th century. According to John Neubauer, the first writers on the Prague Golem
Golem
were:

1837: Berthold Auerbach, Spinoza 1841: Gustav Philippson, Der Golam, eine Legende 1841: Franz Klutschak, Der Golam des Rabbi
Rabbi
Löw 1842: Adam
Adam
Tendlau Der Golem
Golem
des Hoch-Rabbi-Löw 1847: Leopold Weisel, Der Golem[20]

Cathy Gelbin found an earlier source in Philippson's The Golem and the Adulteress, published in the Jewish magazine Shulamit in 1834, which describes how the Maharal sent a golem to find the reason for an epidemic among the Jews of Prague.[9][21] All of these early accounts of the Golem
Golem
of Prague
Prague
are in German by Jewish writers. It has been suggested that they emerged as part of a Jewish folklore
Jewish folklore
movement parallel with the contemporary German folklore movement.[9] The origins of the story have been obscured by attempts to exaggerate its age and to pretend that it dates from the time of the Maharal. It has been said that Rabbi
Rabbi
Yudel Rosenberg (1859–1935)[22] of Tarłów (before moving to Canada where he became one of its most prominent rabbis) originated the idea that the narrative dates from the time of the Maharal. Rosenberg published Nifl'os Maharal (Wonders of Maharal) (Piotrków, 1909)[22] which purported to be an eyewitness account by the Maharal's son-in-law, who had helped to create the Golem. Rosenberg claimed that the book was based upon a manuscript that he found in the main library in Metz. Wonders of Maharal "is generally recognized in academic circles to be a literary hoax".[1][19][23] Gershom Sholem
Gershom Sholem
observed that the manuscript "contains not ancient legends but modern fiction".[24] Rosenberg's claim was further disseminated in Chayim Bloch's (1881–1973) The Golem: Legends of the Ghetto of Prague
Prague
(English edition 1925). The Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
of 1906 cites the historical work Zemach David by David Gans, a disciple of the Maharal, published in 1592.[5][25] In it, Gans writes of an audience between the Maharal and Rudolph II: "Our lord the emperor ... Rudolph ... sent for and called upon our master Rabbi
Rabbi
Low ben Bezalel and received him with a welcome and merry expression, and spoke to him face to face, as one would to a friend. The nature and quality of their words are mysterious, sealed and hidden."[26][better source needed] But it has been said of this passage, "Even when [the Maharal is] eulogized, whether in David Gans' Zemach David or on his epitaph …, not a word is said about the creation of a golem. No Hebrew work published in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries (even in Prague) is aware that the Maharal created a golem."[20] Furthermore, the Maharal himself did not refer to the Golem
Golem
in his writings.[18] Rabbi
Rabbi
Yedidiah Tiah Weil (1721–1805), a Prague
Prague
resident, who described the creation of golems, including those created by Rabbis Avigdor Kara of Prague
Prague
(died 1439) and Eliyahu of Chelm, did not mention the Maharal, and Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir Perels' biography of the Maharal[27] published in 1718 does not mention a golem.[9][18] The Golem of Vilna[edit] There is a similar tradition relating to the Vilna Gaon
Vilna Gaon
or "the saintly genius from Vilnius" (1720–1797). Rabbi
Rabbi
Chaim Volozhin (Lithuania 1749–1821) reported in an introduction to Sifra de Tzeniuta that he once presented to his teacher, the Vilna Gaon, ten different versions of a certain passage in the Sefer Yetzira and asked the Gaon to determine the correct text.[28] The Gaon immediately identified one version as the accurate rendition of the passage. The amazed student then commented to his teacher that, with such clarity, he should easily be able to create a live human. The Gaon affirmed Rabbi
Rabbi
Chaim's assertion, and said that he once began to create a person when he was a child, under the age of 13, but during the process he received a sign from Heaven ordering him to desist because of his tender age.[28] Hubris
Hubris
theme[edit]

Statue of the Prague
Prague
Golem
Golem
created for the film The Emperor and the Golem

The existence of a golem is sometimes a mixed blessing. Golems are not intelligent, and if commanded to perform a task, they will perform the instructions literally. In many depictions, Golems are inherently perfectly obedient. In its earliest known modern form, the Golem
Golem
of Chełm
Chełm
became enormous and uncooperative. In one version of this story, the rabbi had to resort to trickery to deactivate it, whereupon it crumbled upon its creator and crushed him.[3] There is a similar hubris theme in Frankenstein, The Sorcerer's Apprentice, and some other stories in popular culture, for example: The Terminator. The theme also manifests itself in R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), Karel Čapek's 1921 play which coined the term robot; the play was written in Prague, and while Čapek denied that he modeled the robot after the Golem, there are many similarities in the plot.[29] Culture of the Czech Republic[edit] The Golem is a popular figure in the Czech Republic. There are several restaurants and other businesses whose names make reference to the creature, a Czech strongman (René Richter) goes by the nickname "Golem",[13] and a Czech monster truck outfit calls itself the "Golem Team." Abraham Akkerman preceded his article on human automatism in the contemporary city with a short satirical poem on a pair of golems turning human.[30] Clay
Clay
Boy variation[edit] A Yiddish
Yiddish
and Slavic folktale is the Clay
Clay
Boy, which combines elements of the Golem
Golem
and The Gingerbread Man, in which a lonely couple make a child out of clay, with disastrous or comical consequences.[31] In one common Russian version, an older couple whose children have left home make a boy out of clay, and dry him by their hearth. The Clay
Clay
Boy comes to life; at first the couple are delighted and treat him like a real child, but the Clay
Clay
Boy does not stop growing, and eats all their food, then all their livestock, and then the Clay
Clay
Boy eats his parents. The Clay
Clay
Boy rampages through the village until he is smashed by a quick-thinking goat.[32] Golem
Golem
in popular culture[edit]

Golem
Golem
movie poster (1920)

The Hebrew letters on the creature's head read "emet", meaning "truth". In some versions of the Chełm
Chełm
and Prague
Prague
narratives, the Golem
Golem
is killed by removing the first letter, making the word spell "met", meaning "dead".

Mainstream European society adopted the golem in the early 20th century. Most notably, Gustav Meyrink's 1914 novel Der Golem
Golem
is loosely inspired by the tales of the golem created by Rabbi
Rabbi
Loew. Another famous treatment from the same era is H. Leivick's 1921 Yiddish-language "dramatic poem in eight sections", The Golem. In 1923, Romanian composer Nicolae Bretan wrote the one-act opera The Golem, first performed the following year in Cluj and later revived in Denver, Colorado, US in 1990. Nobel prize winner Isaac Bashevis Singer also wrote a version of the legend,[33] and Elie Wiesel
Elie Wiesel
wrote a children's book on the legend.[34]

Inspired by Gustav Meyrink's novel was a classic set of expressionistic silent movies (1915–1920), Paul Wegener's Golem series, of which The Golem: How He Came into the World (also released as The Golem, 1920, US 1921: the only surviving film of the trilogy) is especially famous. In the first film the golem is revived in modern times before falling from a tower and breaking apart. Also notable is Julien Duvivier's Le Golem (1936), a French/Czechoslovakian sequel to the Wegener film.

A two-part Czechoslovakian color film The Emperor and the Golem
The Emperor and the Golem
was produced in 1951.

It! (alternate titles: Anger of the Golem, Curse of the Golem) is a 1967 British horror film made by Seven Arts Productions and Gold Star Productions, Ltd. that features the Golem
Golem
of Prague
Prague
as its main subject. It stars Roddy McDowall
Roddy McDowall
as the mad assistant museum curator Arthur Pimm, who brings the golem to life.

In 1974, CBS Radio Mystery Theater aired an episode entitled The Golem, which takes place during the Holocaust, and Marvel Comics published three Strange Tales comic books that included a golem character, and later series included variations of the golem idea.[35][36]

Marge Piercy's 1991 Arthur C. Clarke Award-winning novel He, She and It features a substantial subplot that retells the story of Rabbi
Rabbi
Loew and his golem. The novels of Terry Pratchett
Terry Pratchett
in the fictional setting of Discworld
Discworld
also include several golems as characters. They are introduced in the 19th Discworld
Discworld
novel, "Feet of Clay" (1996).

The Golem of Prague
Prague
is an antihero in DC Comics' 1991 reboot of the superhero Ragman. In the story, it serves as the predecessor to the Ragman suit itself, replaced by the Rabbis as a protector when it becomes uncontrollable. When the main character, Rory Regan, gains control of the Ragman suit, the Golem
Golem
reawakens and hunts him down, but falls in love with a human woman along the way. The Golem later returned in the 1993 sequel series, "Ragman: Cry of the Dead".

In Cynthia Ozick's 1997 novel The Puttermesser Papers, a modern Jewish woman, Ruth Puttermesser, creates a female golem out of the dirt in her flowerpots to serve as the daughter she never had. The golem helps Puttermesser become elected Mayor of New York before it begins to run out of control.

Pete Hamill's 1997 novel Snow In August includes a story of a rabbi from Prague
Prague
who has a golem.[37]

The 1997 The X-Files
The X-Files
episode, "Kaddish," featured a golem.

Golem
Golem
is also one of the original 151 Pokemon released in 1998.

Michael Chabon's 2000 novel, The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay, features one of the protagonists, escape artist Josef Kavalier, smuggling himself out of Prague
Prague
along with the golem. Petrie describes the theme of escape in the novel, culminating in Kavalier's own drawing of a modern graphic novel centered on a golem.[38]

Ted Chiang's short story, Seventy-Two Letters, published in 2000, explores the connection between a golem and the name that animates it.

In James Sturm's 2001 graphic novel The Golem's Mighty Swing, a Jewish baseball team in the 1920s creates a golem to help them win their games.[39]

In the Michael Scott novel The Alchemyst, the immortal Dr. John Dee attacked Nicholas Flamel with two golems, which, along with being made of mud, each had a pair of shiny stone "eyes."[40]

Jonathan Stroud's children's fantasy book The Golem's Eye
The Golem's Eye
centers on a golem created by magicians in an alternate London.[41] The story depicts the golem as being impervious to magical attacks. The golem is finally destroyed by removing the creation parchment from its mouth.

In Byron L. Sherwin's 2006 novel The Cubs and the Kabbalist, rabbis create a golem named Sandy Greenberg to help baseball's Chicago Cubs win the World Series.[42]

Golems appear in the fantasy role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons (first published in the 1970s), and the influence of Dungeons & Dragons[43] has led to the inclusion of golems in other video games and in tabletop role-playing games.

See also[edit]

Artificial intelligence Czech folklore Frankenstein Galatea (mythology) The Gingerbread Man and Kolobok (edible "golems") Homunculus Pinocchio Prometheus Pygmalion John Murray Spear—attempted to construct an electrically powered Messiah which he referred to as the "New Motive Power" Talos

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g Idel, Moshe (1990). Golem: Jewish Magical and Mystical Traditions on the Artificial Anthropoid. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-0160-X.  page 296 ^ a b Cooper, Marilyn. Jewish Word Golem." Moment Magazine. 17 July 2017. 24 August 2017. ^ a b c d Introduction to " The Golem Returns". Retrieved 2011-09-23. ^ J. Simpson, E. Weiner, eds. (1989). "golem". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-861186-2. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ a b c d e f g h GOLEM. Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2011-09-23. ^ Kerstein, Benjamin. Jewish Ideas Daily. 14 September 2010. 24 August 2017. ^ Trachtenberg, Joshua (2004) [Originally published 1939]. Jewish Magic and Superstition. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 86. ISBN 9780812218626.  ^ a b Trachtenberg, Joshua (2004) [Originally published 1939]. Jewish Magic and Superstition. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 85. ISBN 9780812218626.  ^ a b c d Gelbin, C . S., The Golem Returns – From German Romantic Literature to Global Jewish Culture, 1808–2008, University of Michigan, 2011 ^ שו"ת שאילת יעב"ץ, ח"ב, סי' פ"ב. Cf. his בירת מגדל עוז, Altona, 1748, p. 259a; מטפחת ספרים, Altona, 1768, p. 45a; and מגילת ספר, ed. Kahana, Warsaw, 1896, p. 4. See also שו"ת חכם צבי, סי' צ"ג, and the references cited in שו"ת חכם צבי עם ליקוטי הערות, Jerusalem, 1998, vol. 1, p. 421 and in the periodical כפר חב"ד, number 351 (1988), p. 51. Cited by Leiman, S.Z., "Did a Disciple of the Maharal Create a Golem?" ^ The tradition is also recorded in ה לחורבנה / תל-אביב : ארגון יוצאי חלם בישראל ובארה"ב, תשמ"א ^ Green, Kayla. " The Golem in the Attic." Moment Magazine. 1 February 2011. 25 August 2017. ^ a b c d e f Bilefsky, Dan (May 10, 2009). "Hard Times Give New Life to Prague's Golem". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-03-19. According to Czech legend, the Golem
Golem
was fashioned from clay and brought to life by a rabbi to protect Prague's 16th-century ghetto from persecution, and is said to be called forth in times of crisis. True to form, he is once again experiencing a revival and, in this commercial age, has spawned a one-monster industry.  ^ " The Golem Legend". applet-magic.com.  ^ "TIME-LIFE Mysteries of the Unknown: Inside the World of the Strange and ...." Google Books. 24 August 2017. ^ Lee-Parritz, Oren. " The Golem Lives On". jewishpost.com. Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2011.  ^ Old New Synagogue
Old New Synagogue
located in Praha, Czech RepublicAtlas ObscuraCurious and Wondrous Travel Destinations. Atlas Obscura. Retrieved on 2011-09-23. ^ a b c Leiman, S. Z., The Golem of Prague
Prague
in Recent Rabbinic Literature ^ a b Leiman, S.Z., " The Adventure of The Maharal of Prague
Prague
in London: R. Yudl Rosenberg and The Golem of Prague", Tradition, 36:1, 2002 ^ a b Neubauer, J., "How did the Golem
Golem
get to Prague?", in Cornis-Pope, M., and Neubauer, J. History of The Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe, John Benjamins, 2010 ^ See also Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
(1906): "A legend connected with [the Maharal's] Golem
Golem
is given in German verse by Gustav Philippson in Allg. Zeit. des Jud. 1841, No. 44 (abridged in Sulamith, viii. 254; translated into Hebrew in Kokebe Yiẓḥaḳ, No. 28, p. 75, Vienna, 1862)" ^ a b Kieval, Hillel J. " Golem
Golem
Legend." The YIVO Encyclopedia. 24 August 2017. ^ Sherwin, Byron L. (1985) The Golem Legend: Origins and Implications. New York: University Press of America ^ Sholem, G., Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, Schocken, 1961 ^ HUNGARIAN STUDIES 2. No. 2. Nemzetközi Magyar Filológiai Társaság. Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest [1986]. (PDF). Retrieved on 2011-09-23. ^ Gans, D., Zemach David, ed. M.Breuer, Jerusalem, 1983, p.145, cited Rabbi
Rabbi
Yehudah Yudel Rosenberg and the Maharal's Golem ^ Meir Perels (1718). Megilas Yuchsin. Prague. OCLC 122864700.  ^ a b Chaim of Volozhin. "Sifra de Tzeniuta, Introduction." The Kabbalistic Tradition: An Anthology of Jewish Mysticism, edited by Alan Unterman. Google Books. 24 August 2017. ^ Koreis, Voyen. Introduction. "Two Plays by Karel Capek: R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) & The Robber." Google Books. 25 August 2017. ^ Akkerman, Abraham (2003–2004). "Philosophical Urbanism and Deconstruction in City-Form: An Environmental Ethos for the Twenty-First Century". 43/44: 48–61.  Published also as Paper CTS-04-06 by the Center for Theoretical Study, Prague. ^ Cronan, Mary W. (1917). "Lutoschenka". The Story Teller's Magazine. Vol. 5 no. 1. pp. 7–9.  ^ Ginsburg, Mirra (1997). Clay
Clay
Boy. New York: Greenwillow. ISBN 9780688144098.  ^ Singer, Isaac Bashevis (1983-01-01). The Golem. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 9780374327415.  ^ Wiesel, Elie (1983-09-01). The Golem (1st ed.). Summit Books. ISBN 9780671454838.  ^ Pavlik, John V. "Masterful Stories: Lessons from Golden Age Radio." Google Books. 25 August 2017. ^ Weiner, Robert G (2011). " Marvel Comics
Marvel Comics
and the Golem
Golem
Legend". Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies. 29 (2): 50–72. doi:10.1353/sho.2011.0044. Golem
Golem
Proper in Marvel Comics
Marvel Comics
... first Golem
Golem
issue, Strange Tales #174  ^ Lipsyte, Robert (May 4, 1997). "Shazam!". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2012. kabbala and the golem. ... rabbi, a lonely refugee from Prague.  ^ Petrie, Windy Counsell (2007). "For Illumination and Escape: Writing and Rgeneration in 21st Century Jewish-American Literature". LITERATÛRA. 49 (5): 105–107. ISSN 0258-0802. Jewish Golem
Golem
out of Prague
Prague
into Vilnius  ^ Pustz, Matthew. "The Golem's Mighty Swing". PopMatters. Retrieved 24 February 2016.  ^ "The Alchemyst: The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved 24 February 2016.  ^ Memmott, Carol; Minzesheimer, Bob (8 September 2004). "Young adult books". USA Today. Retrieved 24 February 2016.  ^ Brachear, Manya A. (7 April 2006). "A fictional miracle for the Cubs". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 24 February 2016.  ^ PC Gamer, "How Dungeons & Dragons shaped the modern videogame"

Further reading[edit]

Baer, Elizabeth R. (2012). The Golem Redux: From Prague
Prague
to Post-Holocaust Fiction. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University. ISBN 0814336264.  Bilski, Emily B. (1988). Golem! Danger, Deliverance and Art. New York: The Jewish Museum. ISBN 978-0873340496.  Bloch, Chayim; tr. Schneiderman, H. (1987). The Golem: Mystical Tales of the Ghetto of Prague
Prague
(English translation from German. First published in 'Oestereschischen Wochenschrift' 1917). New York: Rudolf Steiner Publications. ISBN 0833400258.  Bokser, Ben Zion (2006). From the World of the Cabbalah. New York: Kessinger.  Chihaia, Matei (2011). Der Golem-Effekt. Orientierung und phantastische Immersion im Zeitalter des Kinos. Bielefeld: transcript. ISBN 978-3-8376-1714-6.  Faucheux, Michel (2008). Norbert Wiener, le golem et la cybernétique. Paris: Editions du Sandre.  Dennis, Geoffrey (2007). The Encyclopedia of Jewish Myth, Magic, and Mysticism. Woodbury (MN): Llewellyn Worldwide. ISBN 0-7387-0905-0.  Winkler, Gershon (1980). The Golem of Prague: A New Adaptation of the Documented Stories of the Golem
Golem
of Prague. New York: Judaica Press. ISBN 0-910818-25-8.  Goldsmith, Arnold L. (1981). The Golem Remembered 1909–1980: Variations of a Jewish Legend. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0814316832.  Montiel, Luis (30 June 2013). "Proles sine matre creata: The Promethean Urge in the History of the Human Body in the West". Asclepio. 65 (1): 001. doi:10.3989/asclepio.2013.01.  Idel, Mosche (1990). Golem: Jewish Magical and Mystical Traditions on the Artificial Anthropoid. Albany (NY): State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-0160-X.  Rosenberg, Yudl; tr. Leviant, Curt (2008). The Golem and the Wondrous deeds of the Maharal of Prague
Prague
(first English translation of original in Hebrew, Pietrkow, Poland, 1909). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12204-6.  Salfellner, Harald (2016). The Prague
Prague
Golem. Jewish Stories of the Ghetto. Prague: Vitalis. ISBN 978-80-7253-188-2. Tomek, V.V. (1932). Pražské židovské pověsti a legendy. Prague: Končel.  Translated (2008) as Jewish Stories of Prague, Jewish Prague
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in History and Legend. ISBN 1-4382-3005-2.

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