The golden jackal (
Canis aureus) is a wolf-like canid that is native
to Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and regions of
Southeast Asia. Compared with the Arabian wolf, which is the smallest
of the gray wolves, (
Canis lupus), the jackal is smaller and possesses
shorter legs, a shorter tail, a more elongated torso, a less-prominent
forehead, and a narrower and more pointed muzzle. The golden jackal's
coat can vary in color from a pale creamy yellow in summer to a dark
tawny beige in winter. It is listed as
Least Concern on the IUCN Red
List due to its widespread distribution and high density in areas with
plenty of available food and optimum shelter.
The ancestor of the golden jackal is believed to be the extinct Arno
river dog that lived in
Mediterranean Europe 1.9 million years
ago. It is described as having been a small, jackal-like canine.
Genetic studies indicate that the golden jackal expanded from India
around 20,000 years ago towards the end of the last ice age. The
oldest golden jackal fossil, found at the
Ksar Akil rock shelter near
Beirut, Lebanon, is 20,000 years old. The oldest golden jackal fossils
in Europe were found in Greece and are 7,000 years old. There are
seven subspecies of the golden jackal. The golden jackal is more
closely related to the gray wolf, coyote, African golden wolf, and
Ethiopian wolf than it is to the African black-backed or side-striped
jackals. It is capable of producing fertile hybrids with both the gray
wolf and the African golden wolf. Jackal–dog hybrids called Sulimov
dogs are in service at the
Sheremetyevo Airport near
Moscow where they
are deployed by the Russian airline
Aeroflot for scent-detection.
Golden jackals are abundant in valleys and beside rivers and their
tributaries, canals, lakes, and seashores. They are rare in foothills
and low mountains. The golden jackal is a social species, the basic
social unit of which consists of a breeding pair and any young
offspring. It is very adaptable, with the ability to exploit food
ranging from fruit and insects to small ungulates. They will attack
domestic fowl and domestic mammals up to the size of domestic water
buffalo calves. The jackal's competitors are the red fox, wolf, jungle
cat, forest wildcat, and, in the Caucasus, the raccoon, and, in
Central Asia, the steppe wildcat. The jackal is expanding beyond its
native grounds in
Southeast Europe into Central Europe, occupying
areas where there are few or no wolves.
3.1 Distribution and habitat
3.3.1 Social behavior
4 Legal status
5 Diseases and parasites
6 Relationships with humans
6.1 In folklore, mythology and literature
6.2 Attacks on humans
6.3 Livestock, game, and crop predation
6.5 Fur use
6.6 Sulimov dog
9 External links
The word "jackal" appeared in the
English language around 1600. It
derives from the Turkish word çakal, which originates from the
Persian word šagāl. The golden jackal,
Canis aureus –
"golden dog" in Latin – was first recorded by the Swedish
Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 publication Systema Naturae. It
is also known as the common jackal, the Asiatic jackal, and
Eurasian golden jackal. The mammalogist W. Christopher
Wozencraft listed thirteen subspecies under C. aureus in the
third edition of
Mammal Species of the World, published in 2005.
The biological family
Canidae is composed of the South American
canids, the fox-like canids, and the wolf-like canids. All species
within the wolf-like canids share a similar morphology and possess
78 chromosomes, allowing them potentially to interbreed.
Within the wolf-like canids is the jackal group, which includes the
three jackals: the black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas), the
side-striped jackal (
Canis adustus), and the golden jackal (Canis
aureus). These three species are approximately the same size, possess
similar dental and skeletal morphology, and are identified from each
other primarily by their coat color. They were once thought to have
different distributions across Africa with their ranges overlapping in
East Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania). Although the jackal
group has traditionally been considered as homogenous, genetic studies
show that jackals are not monophyletic (they do not share a common
ancestor), and they are only distantly related. The
accuracy of the colloquial name "jackal" to describe all jackals is
Mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) passes along the maternal line and can date
back thousands of years. Thus, phylogenetic analysis of mDNA
sequences within a species provides a history of maternal lineages
that can be represented as a phylogenetic tree. A 2005 genetic
study of the canids found that the gray wolf and dog are the most
closely related on this tree. The next most closely related are the
Canis latrans), golden jackal, and
Ethiopian wolf (Canis
simensis), which have all been shown to hybridize with the dog in the
wild. The next closest are the dhole (Cuon alpinus) and African wild
dog (Lycaon pictus), which are not members of genus Canis. These are
followed by the black-backed and side-striped jackals, members of
Canis and the most basal members of this clade.
Results from two recent studies of mDNA from golden jackals indicate
that the specimens from Africa are genetically closer to the gray wolf
than are the specimens from Eurasia. In 2015 a major DNA study
of golden jackals concluded that the six C. aureus subspecies
found in Africa should be reclassified under the new species
C. anthus (African golden wolf), reducing the number
of golden jackal subspecies to seven. The phylogenetic tree generated
from this study shows the golden jackal diverging from the wolf/coyote
lineage 1.9 million years ago and the African golden wolf
diverging 1.3 million years ago. The study found that the golden
jackal and the
African golden wolf
African golden wolf shared a very similar skull and
body morphology and that this had confused taxonomists into regarding
these as one species. The study proposes that the very similar skull
and body morphology is due to both species having originated from a
larger common ancestor.
Phylogenetic tree of the extant wolf-like canids
Caninae 3.5 Ma
African golden wolf
African golden wolf
African wild dog
African wild dog
Phylogenetic relationships between the extant wolf-like canids based
on nuclear DNA sequences, except for the
Himalayan wolf based
on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Time of divergence in millions
The Arno river dog (
Canis arnensis) is an extinct species of canine
that was endemic to
Mediterranean Europe during the Early Pleistocene
around 1.9 million years ago. It is described as a small
jackal-like dog and probably the ancestor of modern jackals. Its
anatomy and morphology relate it more to the modern golden jackal than
to the two African jackal species, the black-backed jackal and
the side-striped jackal.
The oldest golden jackal fossil was found at the
Ksar Akil rock
shelter located 10 km (6.2 mi) northeast of Beirut, Lebanon.
The fragment of a single tooth is dated approximately 20,000 years
ago. The oldest golden jackal fossils found in Europe are from
Delphi and Kitsos in Greece and are dated 7,000–6,500 years ago.
An unusual fossil of a heel bone found in Azokh Cave, in the Republic
of Artsakh in Transcaucasia, dates to the
Middle Pleistocene and is
described as probably belonging to the golden jackal, but its
classification is not clear. The fossil is described as being slightly
smaller and thinner than the cave lynx, similar to the fox, but too
large, and similar to the wolf, but too small. As the golden jackal
falls between these two in size, the fossil possibly belongs to a
golden jackal. The absence of clearly identified golden jackal
fossils in the
Caucasus region and Transcaucasia, areas where the
species currently resides, indicates that the species is a relatively
A haplotype is a group of genes found in an organism that is inherited
from one of its parents. A haplogroup is a group of similar
haplotypes that share a single mutation inherited from their common
ancestor. The mDNA haplotypes of the golden jackal form two
haplogroups: the oldest haplogroup is formed by golden jackals from
India, and the other, younger, haplogroup diverging from this includes
golden jackals from all of the other regions. Indian golden
jackals exhibit the highest genetic diversity, and those from northern
and western India are the most basal, which indicates that India was
the center from which golden jackals spread. The extant golden jackal
lineage commenced expanding its population in India 37,000 years ago.
During the Last Glacial Maximum, 25,000 to 18,000 years ago, the
warmer regions of India and
Southeast Asia provided a refuge from
colder surrounding areas. At the end of the
Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum and
the beginning of the warming cycles, the golden jackal lineage
expanded out of India and into Eurasia to reach the Middle East and
Outside of India, golden jackals in the
Caucasus and Turkey
demonstrate the next highest genetic diversity, while those in
Europe indicate low genetic diversity, confirming their more
recent expansion into Europe. Genetic data indicates that the
golden jackals of the
Peloponnese Peninsula in Greece and the
Dalmatian coast in Croatia may represent two ancient European
populations from 6,000 years ago that have survived into modern times.
Jackals were absent from most of Europe until the 19th century, when
they started to expand slowly. Jackals were recorded in Hungary with
the nearest population known at that time being found in Dalmatia,
some 300 kilometers away. This was followed by rapid expansion of
jackals towards the end of the 20th century. Golden jackals from both
Southeast Europe and the
Caucasus are expanding into the Baltic. In
the Middle East, golden jackals from
Israel have a higher genetic
diversity than European jackals. This is thought to be due to Israeli
jackals having hybridized with dogs, gray wolves, and African golden
wolves, creating a hybrid zone in Israel.
Genetic analysis reveals that mating sometimes occurs between female
jackals and gray wolves, producing jackal-wolf hybrids that experts
cannot visually distinguish from wolves. Hybridization also
occurs between female golden jackals and male dogs, which produces
fertile offspring, a jackal–dog hybrid. There was 11–13% of
ancient gene flow into the golden jackal from the population that was
ancestral to wolves and dogs, and an additional 3% from extant wolf
populations. Up to 15% of the Israeli wolf genome is derived
from admixture with golden jackals in ancient times.
C. a. aureus
Large, with soft, pale fur with predominantly sandy tones. The
general color of the outer fur is usually black and white, while the
underfur varies from pale brown to pale slate-grey. Occasionally, the
nape and shoulders are of a buff color. The ears and front legs are
buff, sometimes tan, while the feet are pale. The hind legs are more
deeply tinted above the hocks. The chin and forethroat are usually
whitish. Weight varies geographically, ranging around 8–10 kg
(18–22 lb). In areas where it borders the range of the larger,
more richly coloured
Indian jackal (particularly the area of Kumaun in
India), animals of intermediate size and colour sometimes appear.
Middle Asia, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Arabian Peninsula,
Baluchistan and the deserts of western India where its
distribution overlaps with the
Indian jackal to the north and the Sri
Lankan jackal to the south.
hadramauticus (Noack, 1896)
kola (Wroughton, 1916)
lanka (Wroughton, 1916)
typicus (Kolenati, 1858)
vulgaris (Wagner, 1841)
C. a. cruesemanni
Smaller than C. a. indicus, its status as a separate subspecies has
been disputed by some authors who state that its classification is
based solely on observations of captive animals.
East India to
Myanmar and Thailand
C. a. ecsedensis
The Pannonian jackal differs from Dalmatian jackals (C. a.
moreoticus) by possessing a wider black dorsal strip which extends to
the flanks. Its brown tones are less expressed and its tail is almost
perfectly black. The cranial measurements are identical. Some
authors do not regard it as a separate subspecies but believe it to be
C. a. moreoticus because the discovered specimen was living in a
zoo and no jackals were permanently living in Hungary at that
Pannonian Basin, Central Europe
hungaricus (Ehik, 1938)
minor (Mojsisovico, 1897)
C. a. indicus
Its fur is a mixture of black and white, with buff on the shoulders,
ears and legs. The buff color is more pronounced in specimens from
high altitudes. Black hairs predominate on the middle of the back and
tail. The belly, chest and the sides of the legs are creamy white,
while the face and lower flanks are grizzled with gray fur. Adults
grow to a length of 100 cm (39 in), 35–45 cm
(14–18 in) in height and 8–11 kg (18–24 lb) in
Nepal, Sikhim, Bhutan, Assam, Burma, Thailand
C. a. moreoticus
I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1835
The largest golden jackal subspecies, animals of both sexes average
120–125 cm (47–49 in) in total length and
10–15 kg (22–33 lb) in body weight. The fur is
coarse, and is generally brightly colored with blackish tones on the
back. The thighs, upper legs, ears and forehead are bright-reddish
Southeastern Europe, Moldova, Asia Minor and Caucasus
graecus (Wagner, 1841) balcanicus (Brusina, 1892)
caucasica (Kolenati, 1858)
dalmatinus (Wagner, 1841)
C. a. nariaSri Lankan jackal
Measures 67–74 cm (26–29 in) in length and weighs
5–8.6 kg (11–19 lb). The winter coat is shorter,
smoother and not as shaggy as that of indicus. The coat is also darker
on the back, being black and speckled with white. The underside is
more pigmented on the chin, hind throat, chest and forebelly, while
the limbs are rusty ochreous or a rich tan.
Moulting occurs earlier in
the season than with indicus, and the pelt generally does not lighten
Southern India, Sri Lanka
lanka (Wroughton, 1838)
C. a. syriacus
Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1833
Distinguished by its brown ears. The body fur is a yellow on the back,
lighter on the sides, and whitish-yellow underneath. A dark band
runs from the nose to the end of the tail. Measures 60–90 cm
(24–35 in) in body length, 20–30 cm (7.9–11.8 in)
in tail length, 15–18 cm (5.9–7.1 in) in head length,
and weighs 5–12 kg (11–26 lb).
Israel, Syria, Lebanon, and western Jordan
Golden jackal at Pécs Zoo, Hungary
The golden jackal is similar to the gray wolf but is distinguished by
its smaller size, lighter weight, more elongated torso, less-prominent
forehead, shorter legs and tail, and a muzzle that is narrower and
more pointed. The legs are long in relation to its body, and the
feet are slender with small pads. Males measure 71–85 cm
(28–33 in) in body length and females 69–73 cm
(27–29 in). Males weigh 6–14 kg (13–31 lb) and
females weigh 7–11 kg (15–24 lb). The shoulder height is
45–50 cm (18–20 in) for both. In comparison, the
smallest wolf is the
Arabian wolf (
Canis lupus arabs), which weighs on
average 20 kg (44 lb).
Skull of a
European jackal (C. a. moreoticus) at the National Museum
of Natural History, France
The skull is most like that of the dingo, and is closer to that of the
coyote (C. latrans) and the gray wolf (C. lupus) than to
that of the black-backed jackal (C. mesomalas), the side-striped
jackal (C. adustus), and the Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis). Compared with the wolf, the skull of the
golden jackal is smaller and less massive, with a lower nasal region
and shorter facial region; the projections of the skull are prominent
but weaker than those of the wolf; the canine teeth are large and
strong but relatively thinner; and its carnassial teeth are
weaker. The golden jackal is a less specialized species than the
gray wolf, and these skull features relate to the jackal's diet of
small birds, rodents, small vertebrates, insects, carrion, fruit,
and some vegetable matter. Occasionally, the golden jackal
develops a horny growth on the skull referred to as a "jackal's horn",
which usually measures 1.3 cm (0.51 in) in length and is
concealed by fur. This feature was once associated with magical powers
by the people of Sri Lanka.
The jackal's fur is coarse and relatively short, with the base
color golden, varying seasonally from a pale creamy yellow to a dark
tawny. The fur on the back is composed of a mixture of black, brown,
and white hairs, sometimes giving the appearance of the dark saddle
like that seen on the black-backed jackal. The underparts are a light
pale ginger to cream color. Individual specimens can be distinguished
by their unique light markings on the throat and chest. The coats
of jackals from high elevations tend to be more buff-colored than
those of their lowland counterparts while those of jackals in
rocky, mountainous areas may exhibit a grayer shade. The bushy tail
has a tan to black tip.
Melanism can cause a dark-colored coat in
some golden jackals, a coloring once fairly common in Bengal.
Unlike melanistic wolves and coyotes that received their dark
pigmentation from interbreeding with domestic dogs, melanism in golden
jackals probably stems from an independent mutation that could be an
adaptive trait. What is possibly an albino specimen was
photographed in southeastern Iran during 2012.
The jackal moults twice a year, in spring and in autumn. In
Transcaucasia and Tajikistan, the spring moult begins at the end of
winter. If the winter has been warm, the spring moult starts in the
middle of February; if the winter has been cold, it begins in the
middle of March. The spring moult lasts for 60–65 days; if the
animal is sick, it loses only half of its winter fur. The spring moult
commences with the head and limbs, extends to the flanks, chest, belly
and rump, and ends at the tail. Fur on the underparts is absent. The
autumn moult occurs from mid-September with the growth of winter fur;
the shedding of the summer fur occurs at the same time. The
development of the autumn coat starts with the rump and tail and
spreads to the back, flanks, belly, chest, limbs and head, with full
winter fur being attained at the end of November.
Distribution and habitat
Siamese jackal (C. a. cruesemanni) in the Kaeng Krachan National Park,
South Asia the golden jackal inhabits Afghanistan,
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri
Lanka. In Central Asia it inhabits Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan, and
Southeast Asia it inhabits
Myanmar and Thailand.
There have been two reported sightings from Cambodia, three from
southern Laos, and two from Vietnam – each sighting made only
in lowland, open deciduous forest, and no specimens were
presented. In Southwestern Asia it inhabits Iran, Iraq,
Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia,
Qatar, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
In Europe it inhabits Albania, Armenia, Austria,
Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia,
Estonia, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Italy,
Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova,
Montenegro, Poland, Romania, the Russian Federation,
Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, and
the Ukraine. It has been sighted in Belarus, the Czech
Republic, and Germany. It has been reported in the media in
Denmark. It has also been reported in the media in the
Netherlands but it is unclear if this jackal was an escapee from a
Syrian jackal (C. a. syriacus) hunting in reeds
The golden jackal's omnivorous diet allows it to eat a large range of
foods; this diet, together with its tolerance of dry conditions,
enables it to live in different habitats. The jackal's long legs and
lithe body allow it to trot over great distances in search of food. It
is able to go without water for extended periods and has been observed
on islands that have no fresh water. Jackals are abundant in
valleys and along rivers and their tributaries, canals, lakes, and
seashores, but are rare in foothills and low mountains. In Central
Asia they avoid waterless deserts and cannot be found in the Karakum
Desert nor the Kyzylkum Desert, but can be found at their edges or in
oases. On the other hand, in India they can be found living in the
Thar Desert. They are found in dense thickets of prickly bushes,
reed flood-lands and forests. They have been known to ascend over
1,000 m (3,300 ft) up the slopes of the Himalayas; they can
withstand temperatures as low as −25 °C (−13 °F) and
sometimes −35 °C (−31 °F). They are not adapted to
snow, and in snow country they must travel along paths made by larger
animals or humans. In India, they will occupy the surrounding
foothills above arable areas, entering human settlements at night
to feed on garbage, and have established themselves around hill
stations at 2,000 m (6,600 ft) height above mean sea
level. They generally avoid mountainous forests, but may enter
alpine and sub-alpine areas during dispersal. In Turkey, the Caucasus,
Transcaucasia they have been observed up to 1,000 m
(3,300 ft) above mean sea level, particularly in areas where the
climate supports shrublands in high elevations.
The golden jackal is both a predator and a scavenger, and an
omnivorous and opportunistic forager with a diet that varies according
to its habitat and the season. In Bharatpur, India, over 60% of its
diet was measured to consist of rodents, birds, and fruit. In the
Tiger Reserve, 80% of its diet consists of rodents, reptiles and
fruit. Vegetable matter forms part of the jackal diet, and in India
they feed intensively on the fruits of buckthorn, dogbane, Java plum,
and the pods of mesquite and the golden rain tree. The jackal will
scavenge off the kills made by the lion, tiger, leopard, dhole, and
gray wolf. In some regions of Bangladesh and India, jackals subsist by
scavenging on carrion and garbage, and will cache extra food by
burying it. The Irish novelist, playwright and poet, Oliver
Goldsmith, wrote about the golden jackal:
... Although the species of the wolf approaches very near to that
of the dog, yet the jackal seems to be placed between them; to the
savage fierceness of the wolf it adds the impudent familiarity of the
dog ... It is more noisy in its pursuits even than the dog, and
more voracious than the wolf.
— Oliver Goldsmith
Indian jackal (C. a. indicus) feeding on chital carcass, Pench
Caucasus and Transcaucasia, golden jackals primarily hunt hares
and mouse-like rodents, and also pheasants, francolins, ducks, coots,
moorhens, and passerines. Vegetable matter eaten by jackals in these
areas includes fruits, such as pears, hawthorn, dogwood, and the cones
of common medlars. The jackal is implicated in the destruction of
grape, watermelon, muskmelon, and nut crops. Near the Vakhsh River,
their spring diet consists almost exclusively of plant bulbs and the
roots of wild sugar cane, while during winter they feed on wild stony
olives. Around the edges of the Karakum Desert, jackals feed on
gerbils, lizards, snakes, fish, muskrats, the fruits of wild stony
olives, mulberry, dried apricots, watermelons, muskmelons, tomatoes,
In Dalmatia, the golden jackal's diet consists of mammals, fruits,
vegetables, insects, birds and their eggs, grasses and leaves.
Jackals change their diet to more readily available foods. In Serbia,
their diet is primarily livestock carcasses that are increasingly
prevalent due to a lack of removal, and this may have led to the
expansion of their population. In Hungary, 55% of their diet is
composed of common voles and bank voles, and 41% is composed of wild
boar carcasses. Information on the diet of the golden jackal in
northeastern Italy is scant, but it is known to prey on small roe deer
and hares. In Israel, golden jackals are significant predators of
snakes; during a poisoning campaign against golden jackals there was
an increase in human snakebite reports, but a decrease when the
Howling at the Szeged Zoo, Hungary
Golden jackals exhibit flexible social organization depending on the
availability of food. The breeding pair is the basic social unit, and
they are sometimes accompanied by their current litter of pups. In
India, their distributions are a single jackal, 31%, two jackals, 35%,
three jackals, 14%, and more than three jackals, 20%. Family groups
of up to 4–5 individuals have been recorded. Scent marking
through urination and defecation is common around golden jackal den
areas and on the trails they most often use. Scent marking is thought
to assist in territorial defense. The hunting ranges of several
jackals can overlap. Jackals can travel up to 12–15 km
(7.5–9.3 mi) during a single night in search of either food or
more suitable habitat. Non-breeding members of a pack may stay near a
distant food source, such as a carcass, for up to several days before
returning to their home range. Home range sizes can vary between
1–20 km2 (0.39–7.72 sq mi), depending on the
Social interactions such as greetings, grooming, and group howling are
common in jackals. Howling is more frequent between December and April
when pair bonds are being formed and breeding occurs, which suggests
howling has a role in the delineation of territory and for defense.
Adult jackals howl standing and the young or subordinate jackals howl
sitting. Jackals are easily induced to howl and a single howl may
solicit replies from several jackals in the vicinity. Howling begins
with 2–3 low-pitched calls that rise to high-pitched calls. The
howl consists of a wail repeated 3–4 times on an ascending scale,
followed by three short yelps. Jackals typically howl at dawn and
in the evening, and sometimes at midday. Adults may howl to accompany
the ringing of church bells, with their young responding to sirens or
the whistles of steam engines and boats. Social canids such as
golden jackals, wolves, and coyotes respond to human imitations of
their howls. When there is a change in the weather, jackals will
produce a long and continuous chorus. Dominant canids defend their
territories against intruders with either a howl to warn them off,
approach and confront them, or howl followed by an approach. Jackals,
wolves and coyotes will always approach a source of howling.
Golden jackals give a warning call that is very different from their
normal howling when they detect the presence of large carnivores such
as wolves and tigers.
Syrian jackal (C. a. syriacus) pup at the entrance to its den, park
Golden jackals are monogamous and will remain with the one partner
until death. Female jackals have only one breeding cycle each
year. Breeding occurs from October to March in
Israel and from
February to March in India, Turkmenistan, Bulgaria, and
Transcaucasia, with the mating period lasting up to 26–28 days.
Females undergoing their first estrus are often pursued by several
males that may quarrel among themselves. Mating results in a
copulatory tie that lasts for several minutes, as it does with all
other canids. Gestation lasts 63 days, and the timing of the births
coincides with the annual abundance of food.
In India, the golden jackal will take over the dens of the Bengal fox
and the Indian crested porcupine, and will use abandoned gray wolf
dens. Most breeding pairs are spaced well apart and maintain a core
territory around their dens. Den excavations commence from late April
to May in India, with dens located in scrub areas. Rivulets, gullies,
and road and check-dam embankments are prime denning habitats.
Drainage pipes and culverts have been used as dens. Dens are
2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft) long and 0.5–1 m
(1.6–3.3 ft) deep, with between 1–3 openings. Young pups can
be moved between 2–4 dens. The male helps with digging the den
and raising the pups. In the
Caucasus and Transcaucasia, the
burrow is located either in thick shrub, on the slopes of gullies, or
on flat surfaces. In
Dagestan and Azerbaijan, litters are sometimes
located within the hollows of fallen trees, among tree roots, and
under stones on river banks. In Central Asia, the golden jackal does
not dig burrows but constructs lairs in dense tugai thickets. Jackals
in the tugais and cultivated lands of
Tajikistan construct lairs in
long grass, shrubs, and reed openings.
In Transcaucasia, golden jackal pups are born from late March to late
April, and in northeastern Italy during late April; they can
be born at any time of year in Nepal. The number of pups born in a
single litter varies geographically. Jackals in
birth to 3–8 pups,
Tajikistan 3–7 pups,
Uzbekistan 2–8 pups, and
Bulgaria 4–7 pups; in India the average is four pups. The pups
are born with closed eyes that open after 8–11 days, with the ears
erecting after 10–13 days. Their teeth erupt at 11 days after
birth, and the eruption of adult dentition is completed after five
months. Pups are born with soft fur that ranges in color from light
gray to dark brown. At the age of one month, their fur is shed and
replaced with a new reddish-colored pelt with black speckles. The pups
have a fast growth rate and weigh 0.201–0.214 kg
(0.44–0.47 lb) at two days of age, 0.560–0.726 kg
(1.23–1.60 lb) at one month, and 2.700–3.250 kg
(5.95–7.17 lb) at four months. Females possess four pairs
of teats, and lactation lasts for up to 8–10 weeks. The pups
begin to eat meat at the age of 15–20 days.
Dog pups show unrestrained fighting with their siblings from 2 weeks
of age, with injury avoided only due to their undeveloped jaw muscles.
This fighting gives way to play-chasing with the development of
running skills at 4–5 weeks.
Wolf pups possess more-developed jaw
muscles from 2 weeks of age, when they first show signs of
play-fighting with their siblings; serious fighting occurs during
4–6 weeks of age. Compared to wolf and dog pups, golden jackal
pups develop aggression at the age of 4–6 weeks, when play-fighting
frequently escalates into uninhibited biting intended to harm. This
aggression ceases by 10–12 weeks when a hierarchy has formed.
Once the lactation period concludes, the female drives off the pups.
Pups born late remain with their mother until early autumn, at which
time they leave either singly or in groups of two to four individuals.
Females reach sexual maturity after 10–11 months and males at
Pair of Sri Lankan jackals (C. a. naria) in Udawalawe National
The golden jackal often hunts alone, and sometimes in pairs, but
rarely hunts in a pack. When hunting alone, it trots around an area
and occasionally stops to sniff and listen. Once prey is located, the
jackal conceals itself, quickly approaches its prey and then pounces
on it. Single jackals hunt rodents, hares, and birds. They hunt
rodents in grass by locating them with their hearing before leaping
into the air and pouncing on them. In India, they can dig Indian
gerbils out from their burrows, and they can hunt young, old, and
infirm ungulates up to 4–5 times their body weight. Jackals search
for hiding blackbuck calves throughout the day during the calving
period. The peak times for their searches are the early morning and
the late evening. When hunting in pairs or packs, jackals run parallel
to their prey and overtake it in unison. When hunting aquatic rodents
or birds, they will run along both sides of narrow rivers or streams
and drive their prey from one jackal to another.
Pack-hunting of langurs is recorded in India. Packs of between 5 and
18 jackals scavenging on the carcasses of large ungulates is recorded
in India and Israel. Packs of 8–12 jackals consisting of more
than one family have been observed in the summer periods in
Transcaucasia. In India, the
Montagu's harrier and the Pallid
harrier roost in their hundreds in grasslands during their winter
migration. Jackals stalk close to these roosting harriers and then
rush at them, attempting to catch one before the harriers can take off
or gain sufficient height to escape.
In Southeastern Asia, golden jackals have been known to hunt alongside
dhole packs. They have been observed in the
Park, Velavadar, India, following
Indian wolves (
Canis lupus pallipes)
when these are on a hunt, and they will scavenge off wolf kills
without any hostility shown from these wolves. In India, lone
jackals expelled from their pack have been known to form commensal
relationships with tigers. These solitary jackals, known as kol-bahl,
will associate themselves with a particular tiger, trailing it at a
safe distance to feed on the big cat's kills. A kol-bahl will even
alert a tiger to prey with a loud "pheal". Tigers have been known to
tolerate these jackals, with one report describing how a jackal
confidently walked in and out between three tigers walking
together. Golden jackals and wild boar can occupy the same
Jackal by Friedrich
Wilhelm Kuhnert (1893)
The jackal's competitors are the red fox, wolf, jungle cat, forest
wildcat, and raccoon in the Caucasus, and the steppe wildcat in
Central Asia. Wolves dominate jackals, and jackals dominate
foxes. In 2017 in Iran, an Indian wolf under study killed a golden
jackal. In Europe, the range of wolves and jackals is mutually
exclusive, with jackals abandoning their territory with the arrival of
a wolf pack. One experiment used loudspeakers to broadcast the calls
of jackals, and this attracted wolves at a trotting pace to chase away
the perceived competitors. Dogs responded to these calls in the same
way while barking aggressively. Unleashed dogs have been observed to
immediately chase away jackals when the jackals were detected. In
Europe, there are an estimated 12,000 wolves. The jackal's recent
expansion throughout eastern and western Europe has been attributed to
the extermination of the local wolf populations. The present diffusion
of the jackal into the northern Adriatic hinterland is in areas where
the wolf is absent or very rare. In the past, jackals competed
with tigers and leopards, feeding on the remains of their kills and,
in one case, on a dead tiger. Leopards once hunted jackals, but today
the leopard is rare and the tiger is extinct in the jackal's
Red foxes and golden jackals share similar diets. Red foxes fear
jackals, which are three times bigger than red foxes. Red foxes will
avoid close proximity to jackals and fox populations decrease where
jackals are abundant. Foxes can be found only at the fringes of
jackal territory. Striped hyenas prey on golden jackals, and three
jackal carcasses were found in one hyena den.
Indian jackal at Upper Bhavani, India
The golden jackal is listed as
Least Concern on the
IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List due
to its widespread distribution, with it being common throughout its
range and with high densities in those areas where food and shelter
are abundant. In Europe, golden jackals are not listed under the
1973 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora nor the 1979 Convention on the Conservation of
Migratory Species of Wild Animals. Golden jackals in Europe fall under
various international legal instruments. These include the 1979 Berne
Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural
Habitats, the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity, and the 1992
European Union Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of
Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora. The Council Directive
provides both guidance and limits on what participating governments
can do when responding to the arrival of expanding jackals. These
legislative instruments aim to contribute to conserving native
wildlife; some governments argue that the golden jackal is not native
wildlife but an invading species. The Golden
Jackal informal study
Group in Europe (GOJAGE) is an organization that is formed by
researchers from across Europe to collect and share information on the
golden jackal in Europe. The group also has an interest in the golden
jackal's relationship with its environment across Eurasia. Membership
is open to anyone who has an interest in golden jackals.
In Europe, there are an estimated 70,000 golden jackals. They are
fully protected in Albania, Germany, Italy, Macedonia, Poland, and
Switzerland. They are unprotected in Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia,
and Greece. They are hunted in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria,
Croatia, Hungary, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania,
Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Ukraine. Their protection in
Turkey depends on the part of the country. Their status in
Moldova is not known.
The Syrian jackal was common in
Lebanon in the 1930s–40s,
but their populations were reduced during an anti-rabies campaign. Its
current status is difficult to ascertain, due to possible
hybridisation with pariah dogs and African golden wolves. The
jackal population for the Indian subcontinent is estimated to be over
80,000. In India, the golden jackal occurs in all of India's
protected areas apart from those in the higher areas of the Himalayas.
It is included in
CITES Appendix III, and is listed in the
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, under Schedule III, thus receiving
legal protection at the lowest level to help control the trade of
pelts and tails in India.
Diseases and parasites
Adult heartworm in the right ventricle of the heart of a golden jackal
Some golden jackals carry diseases and parasites harmful to human
health. These include rabies, and Donovan's Leishmania that is
harmless to jackals but may cause leishmaniasis in people. Jackals in
Tajikistan can carry up to 16 species of parasitic
cestodes (flatworm), roundworms, and acanthocephalans (thorny-headed
worms), these are: Sparganum mansoni, Diphyllobothrium mansonoides,
Taenia hydatigena, T. pisiformis, T. ovis, Hydatigera
taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Ancylostoma
caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Dioctophyma renale, Toxocara canis,
Toxascaris leonina, Dracunculus medinensis, Filariata and
Macracanthorhynchus catulinum. Jackals infected with Dracunculus
medinensis can infect bodies of water with their eggs, which cause
dracunculiasis in people who drink from them. Jackals may also play a
large part in spreading coenurosis in sheep and cattle, and canine
distemper in dogs. In Tajikistan, jackals may carry up to 12 tick
species (which include Ixodes,
R. leporis, R. rossicus, R. sanguineus, R. pumilio,
Hyalomma anatolicum, H. scupense and H.
asiaticum), four flea species (Pulex irritans, Xenopsylla nesokiae,
Ctenocephanlides canis and C. felis), and one species of louse
In Iran, some golden jackals carry intestinal worms (helminths)
and Echinococcus granulosus. In Israel, some jackals are infected
with intestinal helminths and Leishmania tropica. In Romania,
a jackal was found to be carrying Trichinella britovi. In
northeastern Italy, the jackal is a carrier of the tick species Ixodes
ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus, and the smallest human fluke
Metagonimus yokogawai that can be caught from ingesting infected raw
fish. In Hungary, some jackals carry dog heartworm Dirofilaria
immitis, and some have provided the first record in Hungary of
Trichinella spiralis and the first record in Europe of Echinococcus
multilocularis. The jackal is dispersing across Europe through rivers
and valleys, bringing parasites into regions where these did not
Relationships with humans
In folklore, mythology and literature
Tabaqui (left) torments Father
Wolf and his family, as illustrated in
the 1895 edition of Rudyard Kipling's The Two Jungle Books.
Golden jackals appear in Indian folklore and in two ancient texts, the
Jakatas and the Panchatantra, where they are portrayed as intelligent
and wily creatures. The ancient Hindu text, the Mahabharata, tells
the story of a learned jackal who sets his friends the tiger, wolf,
mongoose, and mouse against each other so he can eat a gazelle without
sharing it. The
Panchatantra tells the fable of a jackal who cheats a
wolf and a lion out of their shares of a camel. In Buddhist
tales, the jackal is regarded as being cunning in a way similar to the
fox in European tales. One popular Indian saying describes the
jackal as "the sharpest among beasts, the crow among birds, and the
barber among men". For a person embarking on an early morning journey,
hearing a jackal howl was considered to be a sign of impending good
fortune, as was seeing a jackal crossing a road from the left
In Hinduism, the jackal is portrayed as the familiar of several
deities with the most common being Chamunda, the emaciated, devouring
goddess of the cremation grounds. Another deity associated with
jackals is Kali, who inhabits the cremation ground and is surrounded
by millions of jackals. According to the
Tantrasara scripture, when
offered animal flesh,
Kali appears in the form of a jackal. The
goddess Shivaduti is depicted with a jackal's head. The goddess
Durga was often linked to the jackal. Jackals are considered to be the
vahanas (vehicles) of various protective Hindu and
particularly in Tibet. According to the flood myth of the Kamar
people in Raipur district, India, the god Mahadeo (Shiva) caused a
deluge to dispose of a jackal who had offended him. In Rudyard
Mowgli stories collected in The Jungle Book, the character
Tabaqui is a jackal despised by the Seeonee wolf pack due to his mock
cordiality, his scavenging habits, and his subservience to Shere Khan
Attacks on humans
In the Marwahi forest division of the
Chhattisgarh state in eastern
India, the jackal is of conservation value and there were no jackal
attacks reported before 1997. During 1998–2005 there were 220
reported cases of jackal attacks on humans, although none were fatal.
The majority of these attacks occurred in villages, followed by
forests and crop fields. Jackals build their dens in the bouldery
hillocks that surround flat areas, and these areas have been
encroached by human agriculture and settlements. This encroachment has
led to habitat fragmentation and the need for jackals to enter
agricultural areas and villages in search for food, resulting in
conflict with humans. People in this region habitually chase jackals
from their villages, which leads to the jackals becoming aggressive.
Female jackals with pups respond with an attack more often than lone
males. In comparison, over twice as many attacks were carried out by
Sloth bears over the same period. There are no known attacks on
humans in Europe.
Livestock, game, and crop predation
The golden jackal can be a harmful pest that attacks domestic animals
such as turkeys, lambs, sheep, goats, domestic water buffalo calves,
and valuable game species like newborn roe deer, hares, coypu,
pheasants, francolins, grey partridges, bustards and waterfowl.
It destroys grape, coffee, maize, sugarcane, and eats watermelons,
muskmelons, and nuts. In Greece, golden jackals are not as
damaging to livestock as wolves and red foxes but they can become a
serious nuisance to small stock when in great numbers. In southern
Bulgaria, over 1,000 attacks on sheep and lambs were recorded between
1982 and 1987, along with some damage to newborn deer in game farms.
The damage by jackals in Bulgaria was minimal when compared to the
livestock losses due to wolves. Approximately 1.5%–1.9% of
calves born in the
Golan Heights die due to predation, mainly by
jackals. The high predation rate by jackals in both Bulgaria and
Israel is attributable to the lack of preventative measures in those
countries and the availability of food in illegal garbage dumps,
leading to jackal population explosions.
Golden jackals are extremely harmful to fur-bearing rodents, such as
coypu and muskrats.
Coypu can be completely extirpated in shallow
water bodies. During 1948–1949 in the Amu Darya, muskrats
constituted 12.3% of jackal faecal contents, and 71% of muskrat houses
were destroyed by jackals. Jackals also harm the fur industry by
eating muskrats caught in traps or taking skins left out to dry.
Hunting Jackals by
Samuel Howitt (1818), illustrating a group of
jackals rushing to the defense of a fallen packmate
During British rule in India, sportsmen conducted golden jackal
hunting on horseback with hounds, with jackal coursing a substitute
for the fox hunting of their native England. They were not considered
as beautiful as English red foxes, but were esteemed for their
endurance in the chase with one pursuit lasting 3 1⁄2 hours.
India's weather and terrain added further challenges to jackal hunters
that were not present in England: the hounds of India were rarely in
as good condition as English hounds, and although the golden jackal
has a strong odor, the terrain of northern India was not good in
retaining scent. Also, unlike foxes, jackals sometimes feigned
death when caught and could be ferociously protective of their
Jackals were hunted in three ways: with greyhounds, with foxhounds,
and with mixed packs. Hunting jackals with greyhounds offered poor
sport because greyhounds were too fast for jackals, and mixed packs
were too difficult to control. From 1946 in Iraq, British
diplomats and Iraqi riders conducted jackal coursing together. They
distinguished three types of jackal: the "city scavenger", which was
described as being slow and so smelly that dogs did not like to follow
them; the "village jack", which was described as being faster, more
alert, and less odorous; and the "open-country jack", which was
described as being the fastest, cleaner, and providing better
Some indigenous people of India, such as the Kolis and Vaghirs of
Rajasthan and the Narikuravas in Tamil Nadu, hunt and eat
golden jackals, but the majority of South Asian cultures consider the
animal to be unclean. The orthodox dharma texts forbid the eating of
jackals because they have five nails. In the area of the former
Soviet Union, jackals are not actively hunted and are usually captured
only incidentally during the hunting of other animals by means of
traps or shooting during drives. In Transcaucasia, jackals are
captured with large fishing hooks baited with meat and suspended
75–100 cm (30–39 in) from the ground with wire. The
jackals can only reach the meat by jumping, and are then hooked by the
lip or jaw.
In Russia and the other nations of the former Soviet Union, golden
jackals are considered furbearers of low quality because of their
sparse, coarse, and monotonously colored fur.
Jackal hairs have
very little fur fiber; therefore, their pelts have a flat appearance.
The jackals of Asia and the Middle East produce the coarsest pelts,
though this can be remedied during the dressing process.
northern Iran produces the softest furs.
Jackal skins are not
graded to a fur standard, and are made into collars, women's coats,
and fur coats. During the 1880s, 200 jackals were captured annually in
Mervsk and in the Zakatal area of the Transcaucasus, with 300 jackals
being captured there during 1896. In this same period, a total of
10,000 jackals were taken within Russia and their furs sent
exclusively to the
Nizhegorod fair. In the early 1930s there were
20,000–25,000 jackal skins tanned annually in the Soviet Union, but
these could not be utilized within the country, and so the majority
were exported to the United States. Commencing from 1949, they were
all used within the Soviet Union.
European jackal undergoing training at Sheremetyevo Airport, Russia
The golden jackal may have once been tamed in Neolithic
years ago, as there is a sculpture of a man cradling a jackal found in
Göbekli Tepe. French explorers during the 19th century
noted that people in the
Levant kept golden jackals in their
Kalmyk people near the Caspian Sea were known to
frequently cross their dogs with jackals, and Balkan shepherds
once crossed their sheepdogs with jackals.
The Russian military established the Red Star kennels in 1924 to
improve the performance of working dogs and to conduct military dog
research. The Red Star kennel developed "Laikoid" dogs, which were a
cross-breed of Spitz-type Russian Laikas with German Shepherds. By the
1980s, the ability of Russia's bomb and narcotic detection dogs were
assessed as being inadequate. Klim Sulimov, a research scientist with
the DS Likhachev Scientific Research Institute for Cultural Heritage
and Environmental Protection, began cross-breeding dogs with their
wild relatives in an attempt to improve their scent-detection
abilities. The researchers assumed that during domestication dogs had
lost some of their scent-detection ability because they no longer had
to detect prey. Sumilov crossed European jackals with Laikas, and also
with fox terriers to add trainability and loyalty to the mix. He used
the jackal because he believed that it was the wild ancestor of the
dog, that it had superior scent-detecting ability, and, because it was
smaller with more endurance than the dog, it could be housed outdoors
in the Russian climate. Sulimov favored a mix of one quarter jackal
and three-quarters dog. Sulimov's program continues today with the use
of the hybrid
Sulimov dogs at the
Sheremetyevo Airport near
the Russian airline Aeroflot.
The hybrid program has been criticized, with one of Sulimov's
colleagues pointing out that in other tests the Laika performed just
as well as the jackal hybrids. The assumption that dogs have lost some
of their scent-detection ability may be incorrect, in that dogs need
to be able to scent-detect and identify the many humans that they come
into contact with in their domesticated environment. Another
German Shepherds with wolves and claimed that this
hybrid had superior scent-detection abilities. The scientific evidence
to support the claims of hybrid researchers is minimal, and more
research has been called for.
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Heptner, V. G.; Naumov, N. P. (1998). Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol.
II Part 1a, Sirenia and
Carnivora (Sea cows; Wolves and Bears).
Science Publishers, Inc. USA. ISBN 1-886106-81-9.
Golden jackal being trained for scent detection
African palm civet
African palm civet (N. binotata)
Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)
Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda)
Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni)
Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes)
Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri)
Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei)
Common kusimanse (C. obscurus)
Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)
Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata)
Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii)
Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens)
Black mongoose (G. nigrata)
Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea)
Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta)
Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea)
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula)
Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)
Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus)
Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii)
Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus)
Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon)
Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose (H. javanicus)
Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso)
Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus)
Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii)
Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva)
Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)
White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)
Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)
Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus)
Banded mongoose (M. mungo)
Selous' mongoose (P. selousi)
Meller's mongoose (R. melleri)
Meerkat (S. suricatta)
Spotted hyena (C. crocuta)
Brown hyena (H. brunnea)
Striped hyena (H. hyaena)
Aardwolf (P. cristatus)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Small family listed below
Cheetah (A. jubatus)
Caracal (C. caracal)
African golden cat
African golden cat (C. aurata)
Bay cat (C. badia)
Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat (C. temminckii)
European wildcat (F. silvestris)
African wildcat (F. lybica)
Jungle cat (F. chaus)
Black-footed cat (F. nigripes)
Sand cat (F. margarita)
Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti)
Domestic cat (F. catus)
Ocelot (L. pardalis)
Margay (L. wiedii)
Pampas cat (L. colocola)
Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi)
Kodkod (L. guigna)
Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita)
Oncilla (L. tigrinus)
Southern tigrina (L. guttulus)
Serval (L. serval)
Canadian lynx (L. canadensis)
Eurasian lynx (L. lynx)
Iberian lynx (L. pardinus)
Bobcat (L. rufus)
Pallas's cat (O. manul)
Marbled cat (P. marmorata)
Fishing cat (P. viverrinus)
Leopard cat (P. bengalensis)
Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis)
Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps)
Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)
Cougar (P. concolor)
Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi)
Lion (P. leo)
Jaguar (P. onca)
Leopard (P. pardus)
Tiger (P. tigris)
Snow leopard (P. uncia)
Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa)
Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)
Viverridae (includes Civets)
Binturong (A. binturong)
Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)
Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)
Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet (P. larvata)
Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus)
Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)
Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni)
Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)
Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni)
Otter civet (C. bennettii)
Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet (D. hosei)
Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)
Banded linsang (P. linsang)
Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)
African civet (C. civetta)
Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica)
Angolan genet (G. angolensis)
Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni)
Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet (G. cristata)
Common genet (G. genetta)
Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni)
Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata)
Pardine genet (G. pardina)
Aquatic genet (G. piscivora)
King genet (G. poensis)
Servaline genet (G. servalina)
Haussa genet (G. thierryi)
Cape genet (G. tigrina)
Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)
African linsang (P. richardsonii)
Leighton's linsang (P. leightoni)
Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina)
Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila)
Malayan civet (V. tangalunga)
Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)
Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet (V. indica)
Fossa (C. ferox)
Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii)
Western falanouc (E. major)
Malagasy civet (F. fossana)
Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata)
Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri)
Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)
Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor)
Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)
Caniformia (cont. below)
Giant panda (A. melanoleuca)
Sun bear (H. malayanus)
Sloth bear (M. ursinus)
Spectacled bear (T. ornatus)
American black bear
American black bear (U. americanus)
Brown bear (U. arctos)
Polar bear (U. maritimus)
Asian black bear
Asian black bear (U. thibetanus)
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga)
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii)
American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus)
Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)
Hooded skunk (M. macroura)
Striped skunk (M. mephitis)
Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis)
Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)
Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons)
Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis)
Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius)
Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)
Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni)
Northern olingo (B. gabbii)
Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo (B. medius)
Olinguito (B. neblina)
Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus)
Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)
White-nosed coati (N. narica)
South American coati
South American coati (N. nasua)
Western mountain coati (N. olivacea)
Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)
Kinkajou (P. flavus)
Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus)
Raccoon (P. lotor)
Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)
Red panda (A. fulgens)
Caniformia (cont. above)
(includes fur seals
and sea lions)
South American fur seal
South American fur seal (A. australis)
Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri)
Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis)
Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella)
Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii)
Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal (A. pusillus)
Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi)
Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis)
Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)
Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)
Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion (N. cinerea)
South American sea lion
South American sea lion (O. flavescens)
New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri)
California sea lion
California sea lion (Z. californianus)
Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)
Walrus (O. rosmarus)
Hooded seal (C. cristata)
Bearded seal (E. barbatus)
Gray seal (H. grypus)
Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)
Leopard seal (H. leptonyx)
Weddell seal (L. weddellii)
Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus)
Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris)
Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)
Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus)
Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi)
Ross seal (O. rossi)
Harp seal (P. groenlandicus)
Spotted seal (P. largha)
Harbor seal (P. vitulina)
Caspian seal (P. caspica)
Ringed seal (P. hispida)
Baikal seal (P. sibirica)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Canidae (includes dogs)
Short-eared dog (A. microtis)
Side-striped jackal (C. adustus)
African golden wolf
African golden wolf (C. anthus)
Golden jackal (C. aureus)
Coyote (C. latrans)
Gray wolf (C. lupus)
Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas)
Red wolf (C. rufus)
Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis)
Crab-eating fox (C. thous)
Maned wolf (C. brachyurus)
Dhole (C. alpinus)
Culpeo (L. culpaeus)
Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes)
South American gray fox
South American gray fox (L. griseus)
Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus)
Sechuran fox (L. sechurae)
Hoary fox (L. vetulus)
African wild dog
African wild dog (L. pictus)
Raccoon dog (N. procyonoides)
Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis)
Bush dog (S. venaticus)
Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus)
Island fox (U. littoralis)
Bengal fox (V. bengalensis)
Blanford's fox (V. cana)
Cape fox (V. chama)
Corsac fox (V. corsac)
Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata)
Arctic fox (V. lagopus)
Kit fox (V. macrotis)
Pale fox (V. pallida)
Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli)
Swift fox (V. velox)
Red fox (V. vulpes)
Fennec fox (V. zerda)
African clawless otter
African clawless otter (A. capensis)
Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)
Sea otter (E. lutris)
Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis)
North American river otter
North American river otter (L. canadensis)
Marine otter (L. felina)
Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis)
Southern river otter
Southern river otter (L. provocax)
Eurasian otter (L. lutra)
Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)
Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)
Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)
Hog badger (A. collaris)
Tayra (E. barbara)
Lesser grison (G. cuja)
Greater grison (G. vittata)
Wolverine (G. gulo)
Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca)
Striped polecat (I. striatus)
Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)
American marten (M. americana)
Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula)
Beech marten (M. foina)
Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii)
European pine marten
European pine marten (M. martes)
Japanese marten (M. melampus)
Sable (M. zibellina)
Fisher (P. pennanti)
Japanese badger (M. anakuma)
Asian badger (M. leucurus)
European badger (M. meles)
Honey badger (M. capensis)
Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti)
Chinese ferret-badger (M. moschata)
Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis)
Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)
(Weasels and Ferrets)
Amazon weasel (M. africana)
Mountain weasel (M. altaica)
Stoat (M. erminea)
Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii)
Colombian weasel (M. felipei)
Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata)
Japanese weasel (M. itatsi)
Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah)
European mink (M. lutreola)
Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina)
Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes)
Least weasel (M. nivalis)
Malayan weasel (M. nudipes)
European polecat (M. putorius)
Siberian weasel (M. sibirica)
Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa)
Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)
American mink (N. vison)
African striped weasel
African striped weasel (P. albinucha)
American badger (T. taxus)
Marbled polecat (V. peregusna)
Fauna Europaea: 305288