The Golden Age of
Piracy is a common designation given to usually one
or more outbursts of piracy in the maritime history of the early
modern period. In its broadest accepted definition, the Golden Age of
Piracy spans the 1650s to the 1730s and covers three separate
outbursts of piracy:
The buccaneering period of approximately 1650 to 1680, characterized
by Anglo-French seamen based on
Jamaica and Tortuga attacking Spanish
colonies and shipping in the
Caribbean and eastern Pacific
Pirate Round of the 1690s, associated with long-distance voyages
from the Americas to rob Muslim and
East India Company
East India Company targets in the
Indian Ocean and Red Sea
The post-Spanish Succession period extending from 1716 to 1726, when
Anglo-American sailors and privateers, left unemployed by the end of
the War of the Spanish Succession, turned en masse to piracy in the
Caribbean, the North American eastern seaboard, the West African
coast, and the Indian Ocean
Narrower definitions of the Golden Age sometimes exclude the first or
second periods, but most include at least some portion of the third.
The modern conception of pirates as depicted in popular culture is
derived largely, although not always accurately, from the Golden Age
Factors contributing to piracy during the Golden Age included the rise
in quantities of valuable cargoes being shipped to Europe over vast
ocean areas, reduced European navies in certain regions, the training
and experience that many sailors had gained in European navies
(particularly the Royal Navy), and ineffective government in European
overseas colonies. The colonial powers at the time constantly fought
with pirates and engaged in several notable battles and other related
1.2 Trend toward narrow definitions
1.3 Recent countertrend toward broader meaning
2.1 The buccaneering period, c. 1650–1680
Pirate Round, c. 1693–1700
2.3 The post–Spanish Succession period
3 Pirates of the era
3.2 Barbary pirates
5 Effect on popular culture
7 External links
Amaro Pargo was one of the most famous corsairs of the Golden Age of
The oldest known literary mention of a "Golden Age" of piracy is from
1894, when the Swedish journalist George Powell wrote about "what
appears to have been the golden age of piracy up to the last decade of
the seventeenth century." Powell uses the phrase while reviewing
Charles Leslie's A New and Exact History of Jamaica, then over 150
years old, and refers mostly to such 1660s events as Henry Morgan's
Maracaibo and Portobelo and Bartolomeu Português's famous
escape. Powell uses the phrase only once.
In 1897, a more systematic use of the phrase "Golden Age of Piracy"
was introduced by historian John Fiske, who wrote: "At no other time
in the world's history has the business of piracy thriven so greatly
as in the seventeenth century and the first part of the eighteenth.
Its golden age may be said to have extended from about 1650 to about
1720." Fiske included the activities of the
Barbary corsairs and
East Asian pirates in this "Golden Age," noting that "as these
Mussulman pirates and those of Eastern Asia were as busily at work in
the seventeenth century as at any other time, their case does not
impair my statement that the age of the buccaneers was the Golden Age
Pirate historians of the first half of the 20th century occasionally
adopted Fiske's term "Golden Age," without necessarily following his
beginning and ending dates for it. The most expansive definition of
an age of piracy was that of Patrick Pringle, who wrote in 1951 that
"the most flourishing era in the history of piracy ... began in the
Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I and ended in the second decade of the
eighteenth century." This idea starkly contradicted Fiske, who had
hotly denied that such Elizabethan figures as Drake were pirates.
Trend toward narrow definitions
Of recent definitions, Pringle appears to have the widest range, an
exception to an overall trend among historians from 1909 until the
1990s, toward narrowing the Golden Age. As early as 1924, Philip Gosse
described piracy as being at its height "from 1680 until 1730." In his
highly popular 1978 book The Pirates for TimeLife's The Seafarers
series, Douglas Botting defined the Golden Age as lasting "barely 30
years, starting at the close of the 17th Century and ending in the
first quarter of the 18th." Botting's definition was closely
followed by Frank Sherry in 1986. In a 1989 academic article,
Marcus Rediker defined the Golden Age as lasting only from
1716 to 1726.
Angus Konstam in 1998, reckoned the era as lasting
from 1700 until 1730.
Perhaps the ultimate step in restricting the Golden Age was in
Konstam's 2005 The History of Pirates, in which he retreated from his
own earlier definition, called a 1690–1730 definition of the Golden
Age "generous," and concluded that "The worst of these pirate excesses
was limited to an eight-year period, from 1714 until 1722, so the true
Golden Age cannot even be called a 'golden decade.'"
Recent countertrend toward broader meaning
David Cordingly, in his influential 1994 work Under the Black Flag,
defined the "great age of piracy" as lasting from the 1650s to around
1725, very close to Fiske's definition of the Golden Age.
Rediker, in 2004, described the most complex definition of the Golden
Age to date. He proposes a "golden age of piracy, which spanned the
period from roughly 1650 to 1730", which he subdivides into three
distinct "generations": the buccaneers of 1650–1680, the Indian
Ocean pirates of the 1690s, and the pirates of the years
Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy arose out of, and mirrored on a smaller scale, the conflicts
over trade and colonization among the rival European powers of the
time, including the empires of Britain, Spain, the Netherlands,
Portugal and France. Most of these pirates were of Welsh, English,
Dutch and French origin.
The buccaneering period, c. 1650–1680
Main article: Buccaneer
Historians, such as John Fiske, mark the beginning of the Golden Age
Piracy at around 1650, when the end of the Wars of Religion allowed
European countries to resume the development of their colonial
empires. This involved considerable seaborne trade, and a general
economic improvement: there was money to be made—or stolen—and
much of it traveled by ship.
French buccaneers had established themselves on northern
early as 1625, but lived at first mostly as hunters rather than
robbers; their transition to full-time piracy was gradual and
motivated in part by Spanish efforts to wipe out both the buccaneers
and the prey animals on which they depended. The buccaneers' migration
from Hispaniola's mainland to the more defensible offshore island of
Tortuga limited their resources and accelerated their piratical raids.
According to Alexandre Exquemelin, a buccaneer and historian who
remains a major source on this period, the Tortuga buccaneer Pierre Le
Grand pioneered the settlers' attacks on galleons making the return
voyage to Spain.
The growth of buccaneering on Tortuga was augmented by the English
Spain in 1655. The early English governors of
Jamaica freely granted letters of marque to Tortuga buccaneers and to
their own countrymen, while the growth of
Port Royal provided these
raiders with a far more profitable and enjoyable place to sell their
booty. In the 1660s, the new French governor of Tortuga, Bertrand
d'Ogeron, similarly provided privateering commissions both to his own
colonists and to English cutthroats from Port Royal. These conditions
Caribbean buccaneering to its zenith.
Pirate Round, c. 1693–1700
Henry Every is shown selling his loot in this engraving by Howard
Pyle. Every's capture of the Grand Mughal ship
Ganj-i-Sawai in 1695
stands as one of the most profitable pirate raids ever perpetrated.
A number of factors caused Anglo-American pirates, some of whom had
cut their teeth during the buccaneering period, to look beyond the
Caribbean for treasure as the 1690s began. The fall of Britain's
Stuart period had restored the traditional enmity between Britain and
France, thus ending the profitable collaboration between English
Jamaica and French Tortuga. The devastation of
Port Royal by an
earthquake in 1692 further reduced the Caribbean's attractions by
destroying the pirates' chief market for fenced plunder. Caribbean
colonial governors began to discard the traditional policy of "no
peace beyond the Line", under which it was understood that war would
continue (and thus letters of marque would be granted) in the
Caribbean regardless of peace treaties signed in Europe; henceforth,
commissions would be granted only in wartime, and their limitations
would be strictly enforced. Furthermore, much of the
Spanish Main had
simply been exhausted;
Maracaibo alone had been sacked three times
between 1667 and 1678, while Río de la Hacha had been raided five
At the same time, England's less-favored colonies, including Bermuda,
New York, and Rhode Island, had become cash-starved by the Navigation
Acts. Merchants and governors eager for coin were willing to overlook
and even underwrite pirate voyages; one colonial official defended a
pirate because he thought it "very harsh to hang people that brings in
gold to these provinces". Although some of these pirates operating
out of New England and the
Middle Colonies targeted Spain's more
Pacific coast colonies well into the 1690s and beyond, the
Indian Ocean was a richer and more tempting target. India's economic
output dwarfed Europe's during this time, especially in high-value
luxury goods such as silk and calico, which made ideal pirate
booty; at the same time, no powerful navies plied the Indian
Ocean, leaving both local shipping and the various East India
companies' vessels vulnerable to attack. This set the stage for the
famous piracies of Thomas Tew, Henry Every, Robert Culliford, and
(although his guilt remains controversial) William Kidd.
The post–Spanish Succession period
In 1713 and 1714 a series of peace treaties ended the War of the
Spanish Succession. As a result, thousands of seamen, including
Britain's paramilitary privateers, were relieved of military duty, at
a time when cross-Atlantic colonial shipping trade was beginning to
boom. In addition, Europeans who had been pushed by unemployment to
become sailors and soldiers involved in slaving were often
enthusiastic to abandon that profession and turn to pirating, giving
pirate captains a steady pool of recruits in west African waters and
In 1715, pirates launched a major raid on Spanish divers trying to
recover gold from a sunken treasure galleon near Florida. The nucleus
of the pirate force was a group of English ex-privateers, all of whom
would soon be enshrined in infamy: Henry Jennings, Charles Vane,
Samuel Bellamy of
Whydah Gally fame, Benjamin Hornigold, and Edward
England. The attack was successful, but contrary to their
expectations, the governor of
Jamaica refused to allow Jennings and
their cohorts to spend their loot on his island. With Kingston and the
Port Royal closed to them, Hornigold, Jennings and their
comrades founded a new pirate base at Nassau, on the island of New
Providence in the Bahamas, which had been abandoned during the war.
Until the arrival of governor
Woodes Rogers three years later, Nassau
would be home for these pirates and their many recruits.
Shipping traffic between Africa, the Caribbean, and Europe began to
soar in the 18th century, a model that was known as Triangular
Transatlantic Slave Trade, and was a rich target for piracy. Trade
ships sailed from Europe to the African coast, trading manufactured
goods and weapons for slaves. The traders would then sail to the
Caribbean to sell the slaves, and return to Europe with goods such as
sugar, tobacco and cocoa. In another triangular trade route, ships
would carry raw materials, preserved cod, and rum to Europe, where a
portion of the cargo would be sold for manufactured goods, which
(along with the remainder of the original load) were transported to
the Caribbean, where they were exchanged for sugar and molasses, which
(with some manufactured articles) were borne to New England. Ships in
the triangular trade made money at each stop.
As part of the settlement of the War of Spanish Succession, Britain
obtained the asiento, a Spanish government contract to supply slaves
to Spain's new world colonies, which provided British traders and
smugglers more access to formerly closed Spanish markets in America.
This arrangement also contributed heavily to the spread of piracy
across the western Atlantic. Shipping to the colonies boomed along
with the flood of skilled mariners after the war. Merchant shippers
used the surplus of labor to drive wages down, cut corners to maximize
profits, and create unsavory conditions aboard their vessels. Merchant
sailors suffered from mortality rates as high or higher than the
slaves being transported. Living conditions were so poor that many
sailors began to prefer a freer existence as a pirate.[citation
needed] The increased volume of shipping traffic also could sustain a
large body of brigands preying upon it.
During this time, many of the pirates had originally been either
sailors for the Royal Navy, privateersmen, or merchant seamen. Most
pirates had experience living on the sea, and knew how harsh the
conditions could be. Sailors for the king would often have very little
to eat while out on the sea, and would end up sick, starving, and
dying. That resulted in some sailors deserting the king and becoming
pirates instead. This also allowed for pirates to better fight the
navy. Unlike other seaman, pirates had strict rules for how they were
to be treated on the ship. Unlike what many people think, captains did
not have a dictatorship over the rest of the pirates on their ship.
Captains had to be voted in, and there were strict rules for them to
follow as well. The captain was not treated better (with more food,
better living conditions, etc.) than the other members of the crew,
and was to treat the crew with respect. This was because many merchant
captains treated their crews terribly. Many pirates had formally
served on these merchant ships and knew how horrid some captains could
be. Because of this, all ships contained councils. These councils
composed of all crew members on a given ship. Some councils were used
daily to make decisions while other were used as a court system.
Whatever the case, these pirates had as much power as the captain
outside of battle. The captain only had full authority in times of
battle and could be removed from this position if they showed
cowardice in the face of the enemy. He was also to be bold in
battle. The pirates did not want things to end up the same way as on a
Pirates of the era
Blackbeard's severed head hanging from Maynard's bowsprit
Many of the most well known pirates in historical lore originate from
this Golden Age of Piracy.
Henry Morgan, a buccaneer who raided the Spaniards and took the city
of Panama. He was to be executed in England but was instead knighted
and made governor of Jamaica. He died a natural death in 1688.
Henry Every, who is most famous for being one of the few major pirate
captains to retire with his loot without being arrested or killed in
battle, and also for capturing the fabulously wealthy Mogul ship
Ganj-i-Sawai in 1694.
William "Captain" Kidd, who was executed for piracy at Execution Dock,
London in 1701, is famous for the 'buried treasure' he supposedly left
"Black Sam" Bellamy, captain of the Whydah Gally, who was lost in a
Cape Cod in 1717. Bellamy was popularly known as the "Robin
Hood of pirates," and prided himself on his ideological justifications
Charles Vane, a particularly violent and unrepentant pirate, who
Henry Jennings before striking out on his own. Harsh and
unpopular with his crew, Vane was marooned before being captured and
hanged in 1721.
Stede Bonnet, a rich Barbadian land owner, turned pirate solely in
search of adventure. Bonnet captained a 10-gun sloop, named the
Revenge, raiding ships off the
Virginia coast in 1717. He was caught
and hanged in 1718.
Edward Teach (Thatch), more commonly known as Blackbeard, was active
from 1716 to 1718 as perhaps the most notorious pirate among
English-speaking nations. Blackbeard's most famous ship was the Queen
Anne's Revenge, named in response to the end of Queen Anne's War.
Teach served under
Benjamin Hornigold as a protégé. He taught
him everything he knew about being a pirate. Teach was notorious for
intimidating his enemies before battle because of his looks. He would
dress in all black with pistols strapped to his chest and put on a
large black captain's hat and under this he would put slow burning
fuses that would constantly sputter and give off smoke. His goal
in this was to look like a devil had stepped out of hell. Blackbeard
was killed by one of Lieutenant Robert Maynard's crewmen in 1718 who
was ordered by governor Alexander Spotswood to hunt down and kill
Blackbeard had early lost his ship due to a sandbar
off the coast of North Carolina. Before the ship could sink, he
commanded his crew to load everything on the ship to the opposite side
where it had been struck in order to save "Queen Anne's Revenge" but
unfortunately the pirate had no luck and his precious ship had
John "Calico Jack" Rackham, famous for his partnership with female
Anne Bonny and Mary Read, was captured, then hanged and
gibbeted outside Port Royal,
Jamaica in 1720.
Bartholomew Roberts, sometimes called "Black Bart", has been
considered by many as the most successful Western pirate of all time
with over 400 ship captures.
Edward Low, active 1721–1724, who was notorious for torturing his
victims before killing them.
William Fly, whose execution in 1726 is used by historian Marcus
Rediker to mark the end of the Golden Age of Pirates.
While most pirates were men, there were at least fifty cases of women
entering the career of piracy (usually disguised as men). The best
known female pirates were
Anne Bonny (also sometimes spelled Bonney)
and Mary Read.
Bonny developed a notorious reputation in Nassau, and when she was
unable to leave an earlier marriage, she eloped with her lover, Calico
Mary Read had been dressed as a boy all her life by her
mother and had spent time in the British military. She came to the
West Indies (Caribbean) after leaving her husband, and she joined
Calico Jack's crew after he attacked a ship she had been aboard. She
divulged her sex only to Bonny at first, but revealed herself openly
when accused by Rackham of having an affair with Bonny.
When their ship was assaulted in 1720, the two women and an unknown
man were the only ones to defend it, the other crew members being too
drunk to fight. In the end they were captured and arrested. After
their capture both women were convicted of piracy and sentenced to
death, but they stalled their executions by claiming to be pregnant.
Read died in jail months later, many believe of a fever or
complications of childbirth. Bonny disappeared from historical
documents, but no record of her execution or a childbirth exist.
Main article: Barbary pirates
Cornelis Hendricksz Vroom, Spanish Men-of-War Engaging Barbary
Barbary pirates were pirates and privateers that operated from the
North African (the "Barbary coast") ports of Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers,
Salé and ports in Morocco, preying on shipping in the western
Mediterranean Sea from the time of the
Crusades as well as on ships on
their way to Asia around Africa until the early 19th century. The
coastal villages and towns of Italy,
Spain and Mediterranean islands
were frequently attacked by them and long stretches of the Italian and
Spanish coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants;
since the 17th century,
Barbary pirates occasionally entered the
Atlantic and struck as far north as Iceland. According to Robert
Davis, between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were
Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in the
between the 16th and 19th centuries.
Barbary pirates flourished in the early 17th century as new sailing
Simon de Danser enabled North African raiders, for the first
time, to brave the Atlantic as well as Mediterranean waters. More than
20,000 captives were said to be imprisoned in
Algiers alone. The rich
were allowed to redeem themselves, but the poor were condemned to
slavery. Their masters would on occasion allow them to secure freedom
by professing Islam. Many people of good social position – Italians,
Spaniards, German and English travelers in the south – were captives
for a time.
Iceland was subject to raids known as the Turkish Abductions.
Murat Reis is said to have taken 400 prisoners; 242 of the captives
were later sold into slavery on the Barbary Coast. The pirates took
only young people and those in good physical condition. All those
offering resistance were killed, and the old people were gathered into
a church, which was set on fire. Among those captured was Ólafur
Egilsson, who was ransomed the next year and, upon returning to
Iceland, wrote a slave narrative about his experience. Another famous
captive from that raid was Guðríður Símonardóttir. The sack of
Vestmannaeyjar is known in the history of
Iceland as Tyrkjaránið.
One of the stereotypical features of a pirate in popular culture, the
eye patch, dates back to the
Arab pirate Rahmah ibn Jabir
al-Jalahimah, who wore it after losing an eye in battle in the 18th
Whilst the Golden Age of European and American pirates is generally
considered to have ended between 1710 and 1730, the prosperity of the
Barbary pirates continued until the early 19th century. Unlike the
European powers, the young United States refused to pay tribute to the
Barbary states and responded with the
First Barbary War
First Barbary War and the Second
Barbary War against
North Africa when the
Barbary pirates captured and
enslaved American sailors. Although the U.S. had only limited success
in these wars, France and Great Britain with their more powerful
navies soon followed suit and stamped out the Barbary raiders.
By the early 18th century, tolerance for privateers was wearing thin
in all nations. After the
Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht was signed, the excess of
trained sailors without employment was both a blessing and a curse for
all pirates. Initially the surplus of men had caused the number of
pirates to multiply significantly. This inevitably led to the
pillaging of more ships, which put a greater strain on trade for all
European nations. In response European nations bolstered their own
navies to offer greater protection for merchants and to hunt down
pirates. The excess of skilled sailors meant there was a large pool
that could be recruited into national navies as well.
clearly on a strong decline by 1720. The Golden Age of
Piracy did not
last the decade.
The events of the latter half of 1718 represent a turning point in the
history of piracy in the New World. Without a safe base and in the
growing pressure from naval forces, the rovers lost their momentum.
The lure of the Spanish treasures had faded, and the hunters gradually
became the hunted. By early 1719, the remaining pirates were on the
run. Most of them headed for West Africa, seizing poorly defended
Effect on popular culture
Although some of the details are often misremembered, the effect upon
popular culture of the Golden Age of
Piracy can hardly be overstated.
A General History of the Pirates (1724) by
Captain Charles Johnson is
the prime source for the biographies of many well known pirates of the
Golden Age, providing an extensive account of the period. In
giving an almost mythical status to the more colourful characters such
as the notorious English pirates
Blackbeard and Calico Jack, it is
likely that the author used considerable licence in his accounts of
pirate conversations. In 2002, English naval historian David
Cordingly wrote an introduction to Johnson's 1724 book, stating: "it
has been said, and there seems no reason to question this, that
Captain Johnson created the modern conception of pirates."
Johnson's book would influence the pirate literature of Robert Louis
Stevenson and J. M. Barrie. Such literary works as Stevenson's
Treasure Island and Barrie's Peter Pan, while romanticized, drew
heavily on pirates and piracy for their plots.
Various claims and speculation about their overall image, attire,
fashion, dress code, etc. have been made and contributed to their
fanciful mystery and lore. For example, men wore earrings as the value
of the gold or silver earring was meant to pay for their burial if
they were lost at sea and their body washed ashore. They were also
worn for superstitious reasons, believing the precious metals had
magical healing powers.
More recently, even less accurate depictions of historical-era pirates
Talk Like a
Pirate Day) have advanced to the forefront.
However, these phenomena have only served to advance the romantic
image of piracy and its treasure-burying swashbucklers in popular
^ George Powell, "A Pirate's Paradise," in The Gentleman's Magazine,
vol. CCLXXVI, N.S. 52, Jan-June 1894, p. 23.
^ John Fiske, 1897, Old
Virginia and Her Neighbors, p. 338.
^ Fiske, p. 339.
^ R.D.W. Connor, 1909, Cornelius Harnett: An Essay in North Carolina
History, P. 10; Francis Hodges Cooper, 1916, "Some Colonial History of
Beaufort County, North Carolina," in James Sprunt Studies in History
and Political Science, v. 14, no. 2, p. 32.
^ Patrick Pringle, 1951, Jolly Roger: The Story of the Great Age of
Piracy, p. 9 of the 2001 edition.
^ Fiske, p. 341-42.
^ Douglas Botting, 1978, The Pirates, p. 20.
^ Frank Sherry, 1986, Raiders and Rebels: The Golden Age of Piracy, P.
^ Marcus Rediker, 1989, "'Under the Banner of King Death': The Social
World of Anglo-American Pirates 1716–1726", William and Mary
Quarterly, ser. 3, 38 (1981), 203-227.
^ F; Konstam, supra, p. 5.
^ Angus Konstam, 2005, The History of Pirates, p. 96.
^ David Cordingly, 1995, Under the Black Flag: The Romance and Reality
of Life Among the Pirates, pp. xvi–xvii.
^ Marcus Rediker, 2004, Villains of All Nations, p. 8.
^ "Tortuga -
Pirate History - The Way of the Pirates".
^ Nigel Cawthorne (2005), Pirates: An Illustrated History, Arturus
Publishing Ltd., 2005, p. 65.
^ Cawthorne, pp. 34, 36, 58
^ Peter Earle (2003), The
Pirate Wars, ISBN 0-312-33579-2, p. 94.
^ Earle, p. 148.
^ Geoffrey Parker, ed. (1986), The World: An Illustrated History,
Times Books Ltd., p. 317.
^ Mark Kurlansky, Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World.
^ Rediker, 2004
^ Rediker, Marcus. ""Under the Banner of King Death" The Social World
of Anglo-American Pirates". JSTOR. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
^ Rediker, 1981
^ Childs, ML. "
Blackbeard and his Infamous
Pirate Ship, Queen Anne's
Revenge". Ancient Origins. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
^ "Blackbeard's Death - The Last Stand of Blackbeard".
www.thewayofthepirates.com. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
^ "Blackbeard's Death - The Last Stand of Blackbeard".
www.thewayofthepirates.com. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
^ Copping, Jasper (December 6, 2008). "Shipwreck clues could clear
Blackbeard of sinking his ship to swindle his crew". The Telegraph.
Retrieved November 17, 2017.
^ Commire, Anne; Klezmer, Deborah (2002). "Read, Mary and Anne
Bonney". Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Gale.
^ Cordingly, David. "Bonny, Anne (1698–1782)", Oxford Dictionary of
National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. Accessed 18
^ "When Europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was
much more common than previously believed". Ohio State Research News.
Archived from the original on 2011-07-25.
^ Davis, Robert (2003). Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White
Slavery in the Mediterranean, the
Barbary Coast and Italy,
1500–1800. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-4551-9.
^ This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Barbary Pirates".
Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
^ Charles Belgrave (1966), The
Pirate Coast, p. 122, George Bell &
^ Ieuan W. Haywood 2009
^ a b c d A general history of the robberies & murders of the most
notorious pirates. By Charles Johnson Page viii. Introduction and
commentary by David Cordingly. Conway Maritime Press (2002).
^ E.g., Cecil Adams, "Did pirates bury their treasure? Did pirates
really make maps where "X marks the spot?" The Straight Dope, October
^ "Why Did Pirates Wear Earrings?".
^ Cecil Adams, "Why are pirates depicted with a parrot on their
shoulder? What's the origin of the skull and crossbones pirate flag?"
The Straight Dope, October 12, 2007.
Flemming, Gregory. At the Point of a Cutlass: The
Pirate Capture, Bold
Escape, and Lonely Exile of Philip Ashton. ForeEdge (2014)
Piracy and Privateering in the Golden Age
Netherlands, Palgrave Macmillan 2005 ISBN 1403966923,
Rediker, Marcus. Villains of all Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the
Golden Age. Beacon Press: Boston (2004).
Rediker, Marcus. “Pirates and the Imperial State.“ Reviews in
American History 16.3 (1988) : 351-357
Swanson, Carl E. “American Privateering and Imperial Warfare,
1739–1748.” The William and Mary Quarterly 42.3 (1985) :
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Capture of the Bravo
Action of 9 November 1822
Capture of the El Mosquito
Battle of Doro Passage
Great Lakes Patrol
Pirate attacks in Borneo
Battle of Tysami
Battle of Tonkin River
Battle of Nam Quan
Battle of Ty-ho Bay
Battle of the Leotung
North Star affair
Battle off Mukah
Battle of Boca Teacapan
Capture of the Ambrose Light
1985 Lahad Datu ambush
Operation Enduring Freedom – HOA
Action of 18 March 2006
Action of 3 June 2007
Action of 28 October 2007
Dai Hong Dan incident
Carré d'As IV incident
Action of 11 November 2008
Action of 9 April 2009
Maersk Alabama hijacking
Operation Ocean Shield
Action of 23 March 2010
Action of 1 April 2010
Action of 30 March 2010
Action of 5 April 2010
MV Moscow University hijacking
Operation Dawn of Gulf of Aden
Operation Dawn 8: Gulf of Aden
Beluga Nomination incident
Battle off Minicoy Island
MT Zafirah hijacking
MT Orkim Harmony hijacking
African slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
Arab slave trade
Barbary slave trade
Blockade of Africa
African Slave Trade Patrol
Capture of the Providentia
Capture of the Presidente
Capture of the El Almirante
Capture of the Marinerito
Capture of the Veloz Passagera
Capture of the Brillante
Capture of the Emanuela
Monkey D. Luffy
Long John Silver
Truce of Ratisbon
Piracy Act 1698
Piracy Act 1717
Piracy Act 1837
Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law
Golden Age of Piracy
Walking the plank
No purchase, no pay
Sack of Baltimore
A General History of the Pyrates
Letter of marque
Davy Jones' Locker
Timeline of piracy
Women in piracy
Pirates in popular culture
List of ships attacked by Somali pirates
Facing the Flag
On Stranger Tides
Castaways of the Flying Dutchman
The Angel's Command
Voyage of Slave