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The GOLAN HEIGHTS (Arabic : هضبة الجولان‎‎ Haḍbatu 'l-Jawlān or مرتفعات الجولان Murtafaʻātu l-Jawlān, Hebrew : רמת הגולן‎‎, Ramat Ha Golan
Golan
(audio) (help ·info )), or simply the GOLAN or the SYRIAN GOLAN, is a region in the Levant
Levant
. The western two-thirds of the Golan
Golan
Heights are occupied and administrated by Israel
Israel
, whereas the eastern third is controlled by Syria
Syria
, with the UNDOF maintaining a buffer zone in between, to implement the ceasefire of the Purple Line .

The region defined as the Golan
Golan
Heights is different in different disciplines:

* As a geological and biogeographical region, the Golan
Golan
Heights is a basaltic plateau bordered by the Yarmouk River in the south, the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
and Hula Valley in the west, the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
with Mount Hermon in the north and Wadi
Wadi
Raqqad in the east. * As a geopolitical region, the Golan
Golan
Heights is the area captured from Syria
Syria
and occupied by Israel
Israel
during the Six-Day War , territory which Israel
Israel
annexed in 1981. This region includes the western two-thirds of the geological Golan
Golan
Heights, as well as the Israeli-occupied part of Mount Hermon.

The earliest evidence of human habitation dates to the Upper Paleolithic period. According to the Bible
Bible
, an Amorite Kingdom in Bashan was conquered by Israelites during the reign of King Og . Throughout the Old Testament period, the Golan
Golan
was "the focus of a power struggle between the Kings of Israel
Israel
and the Aramaeans who were based near modern-day Damascus." The Itureans , an Arab
Arab
or Aramaic people, settled there in the 2nd century BCE and remained until the end of the Byzantine
Byzantine
period. Organized Jewish
Jewish
settlement in the region came to an end in 636 CE when it was conquered by Arabs
Arabs
under Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattāb . In the 16th century, the Golan
Golan
was conquered by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and was part of the Vilayet of Damascus until it was transferred to French control in 1918. When the mandate terminated in 1946, it became part of the newly independent Syrian Arab
Arab
Republic.

Internationally recognized as Syrian territory, the Golan
Golan
Heights has been occupied and administered by Israel
Israel
since 1967. It was captured during the 1967 Six-Day War , establishing the Purple Line .

On 19 June 1967, the Israeli cabinet voted to return the Golan
Golan
to Syria
Syria
in exchange for a peace agreement, although this was rejected after the Khartoum Resolution of 1 September 1967. In the aftermath of the 1973 Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
, in which Syria
Syria
tried but failed to recapture the Golan, Israel
Israel
agreed to return about 5% of the territory to Syrian civilian control. This part was incorporated into a demilitarised zone that runs along the ceasefire line and extends eastward. This strip is under the military control of UNDOF .

Construction of Israeli settlements began in the remainder of the territory held by Israel, which was under military administration until Israel
Israel
passed the Golan Heights Law extending Israeli law and administration throughout the territory in 1981. This move was condemned by the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
in UN Resolution 497 , which said that "the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan
Golan
Heights is null and void and without international legal effect." Israel states it has a right to retain the Golan, citing the text of UN Resolution 242 , which calls for "safe and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force". However, the international community reject Israeli claims to title to the territory and regards it as sovereign Syrian territory. That said, the atrocities of the Syrian Civil War and the rise of the so-called Islamic State group, which at times has controlled what was the Syrian-administered Golan
Golan
have added a new twist to the issue. In 2015, it was reported that Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
asked US President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
to recognize Israeli claims to the territory because of these recent ISIS actions and the fact that modern Syria
Syria
has likely "disintegrated" beyond the point of reunification. The White House dismissed Netanyahu's suggestion, stating that the president continues to support UN resolutions 242 and 497, and any alterations of this policy could strain American alliances with western-backed Syrian rebel groups.

Historically, Israeli Prime Ministers Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
, Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak
, and Ehud Olmert each stated that they were willing to exchange the Golan
Golan
for peace with Syria. Later, in 2010, Israeli foreign minister Avigdor Lieberman
Avigdor Lieberman
told Syria
Syria
to abandon its "dreams" of recovering the Golan
Golan
Heights. Approximately 10% of Syrian Golan
Golan
Druze
Druze
have accepted Israeli citizenship. According to the CIA World Factbook , as of 2010 , "there are 41 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan
Golan
Heights."

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology and toponymy * 2 Geography

* 3 History

* 3.1 Antiquity * 3.2 Middle Ages

* 3.3 Ottoman era

* 3.3.1 Early Jewish
Jewish
settlement

* 3.4 French and British mandates * 3.5 Border incidents after 1948 * 3.6 Six-Day War and Israeli occupation * 3.7 Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
* 3.8 De facto annexation by Israel
Israel
and civil rule

* 4 Peace negotiations

* 5 Territorial claims

* 5.1 Borders, armistice line and ceasefire line * 5.2 Shebaa Farms * 5.3 Al- Ghajar

* 6 United States government′s stance on the territorial dispute * 7 UNDOF supervision * 8 Syrian villages * 9 Israeli settlements

* 10 Landmarks

* 10.1 Kursi * 10.2 Katzrin * 10.3 Gamla
Gamla
Nature Reserve * 10.4 Rujm el-Hiri * 10.5 Um el Kanatir * 10.6 Nimrod Fortress * 10.7 Mount Hermon and Lake Ram * 10.8 Hippos/Susita

* 11 Viticulture * 12 Hydrocarbon exploration * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Bibliography * 16 External links

ETYMOLOGY AND TOPONYMY

Farms in the Golan
Golan
Heights

Arabic names are Jawlān and Djolan (Arabic : جولان‎‎). In the Bible, Golan
Golan
is mentioned as a city of refuge located in Bashan : Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
4:43, Joshua
Joshua
20:8, 1 Chronicles 6:71. Nineteenth-century authors interpreted the word "Golan" (Hebrew : גולן‎‎) as meaning "something surrounded, hence a district". The Greek name for the region is Gaulanitis (Greek : Γαυλανῖτις). In the Mishna the name is Gablān similar to Aramaic
Aramaic
language names for the region: Gawlāna, Guwlana and Gublānā.

Arab
Arab
cartographers of the Byzantine
Byzantine
period referred to the area as jabal (mountain), though the region is a plateau. The Muslims
Muslims
took over in 7th century CE. The 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
refers to the region as Gaulonitis. The name Golan
Golan
Heights was not used before the 19th century.

GEOGRAPHY

CIA
CIA
map of Golan
Golan
Heights and vicinity, October 1994 Sea of Galilee
Galilee
and southern Golan
Golan
Heights, from Umm Qais
Umm Qais
, Jordan
Jordan

The Golan
Golan
Heights borders Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan. According to Israel, it has captured 1,150 square kilometres (440 sq mi). According to Syria
Syria
the Golan
Golan
Heights measures 1,860 square kilometres (718 sq mi), of which 1,500 km2 (580 sq mi) are occupied by Israel. According to the CIA, Israel
Israel
holds 1,300 square kilometres (500 sq mi).

The area is hilly and elevated, overlooking the Jordan
Jordan
Rift Valley which contains the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
and the Jordan River , and is itself dominated by the 2,743.2 metres (9,000 ft) tall Mount Hermon . The plateau has an average altitude of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) and an area totaling 1,800 square kilometres (690 sq mi), and straddles the boundary between Syria
Syria
and Israeli -held territory. Elevations range from 2,814 metres (9,232 ft) in the north (if one considers Mount Hermon as part of the Heights), to below sea level along the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
and the Yarmuk River in the south.

The plateau that Israel
Israel
controls is part of a larger area of volcanic basalt fields stretching north and east that were created in the series of volcanic eruptions that began recently in geological terms, almost 4 million years ago, and continue to this day. It has distinct geographic boundaries. On the north, the Sa'ar valley ( Banias
Banias
) generally divides the lighter-colored limestone bedrock of the mountains from the dark-colored volcanic rocks of the Golan
Golan
plateau. The western border of the plateau is truncated structurally by the Jordan Rift Valley
Jordan Rift Valley
, which falls down steeply into the lake. The southern border is lined by the Yarmuk River , which separates the plateau from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
. Finally, the east end of Golan
Golan
Heights is carved out by the Raqqad river ( Wadi
Wadi
Ruqqad ) and areas still controlled by Syria
Syria
. Panorama showing The upper Golan
Golan
Heights and Mt. Hermon with the Hula Valley to the left Panorama looking west from the former Syrian post of Tel Faher .

The plateau's north-south length is approximately 65 kilometres (40 mi) and its east-west width varies from 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) to 25 kilometres (16 mi). Topographically , the Golan
Golan
Heights ranges in elevation from 2,814 metres (9,232 ft) on Mount Hermon in the north, to about 400 metres (1,300 ft) elevation along the Yarmuk River in the south. The Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
, also known as Lake Kinneret or Lake Tiberias, at the southwest corner of the plateau is 200 metres (660 ft) below sea level . The steeper, more rugged topography is generally limited to the northern half, including the foothills of Mount Hermon; on the south the plateau is more level.

The broader Golan
Golan
plateau exhibits a more subdued topography, generally ranging between 120 metres (390 ft) and 520 metres (1,710 ft) in elevation. In Israel, the Golan
Golan
plateau is divided into three regions: northern (between the Sa'ar and Jilabun valleys), central (between the Jilabun and Daliyot valleys), and southern (between the Daliyot and Yarmouk valleys). The Golan
Golan
Heights is bordered on the west by a rock escarpment that drops 500 metres (1,600 ft) to the Jordan River valley and the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
. In the south, the incised Yarmouk River valley marks the limits of the plateau and, east of the abandoned railroad bridge upstream of Hamat Gader and Al Hammah , it marks the recognised international border between Syria
Syria
and Jordan. Temple of Pan at Banias
Banias

Geologically , the Golan
Golan
plateau and the Hauran
Hauran
plain to the east constitute a Holocene
Holocene
volcanic field that also extends northeast almost to Damascus
Damascus
. Much of the area is scattered with dormant volcanos , as well as cinder cones , such as Majdal Shams . The plateau also contains a crater lake , called Birkat Ram ("Ram Pool"), which is fed by both surface runoff and underground springs. These volcanic areas are characterised by basalt bedrock and dark soils derived from its weathering . The basalt flows overlie older, distinctly lighter-colored limestones and marls , exposed along the Yarmouk River in the south.

The rock forming the mountainous area in the northern Golan
Golan
Heights, descending from Mount Hermon , differs geologically from the volcanic rocks of the plateau and has a different physiography . The mountains are characterised by lighter-colored, Jurassic
Jurassic
-age limestone of sedimentary origin. Locally, the limestone is broken by faults and solution channels to form a karst-like topography in which springs are common.

In addition to its strategic military importance, the Golan
Golan
Heights is an important water resource , especially at the higher elevations, which are snow-covered in the winter and help sustain baseflow for rivers and springs during the dry season. The heights receive significantly more precipitation than the surrounding, lower-elevation areas. The occupied sector of the Golan
Golan
Heights provides or controls a substantial portion of the water in the Jordan River watershed , which in turn provides a portion of Israel's water supply. The Golan
Golan
Heights supply 15% of Israel's water.

HISTORY

Banyas waterfall in the Golan
Golan
Heights

ANTIQUITY

Entrance to Talmudic
Talmudic
-era synagogue , Katzrin archaeological park

The Venus of Berekhat Ram , a stone figure from the Lower Paleolithic era, found in the Golan
Golan
Heights, may have been created by Homo erectus between 700,000 and 230,000 BCE.

In the 3rd millennium BC the Amorites inhabited the Golan
Golan
until it was conquered in the 2nd millennium by the Arameans . The Aramaean city state Aram Damascus
Damascus
reached over most of Golan
Golan
to the Sea of Galilee.

According to the Bible
Bible
, the Children of Israel
Israel
conquered the Golan from the Amorites . The Bible
Bible
also says that the area, known as Bashan , was inhabited by two Israelite
Israelite
tribes during the time of Joshua
Joshua
, the tribe of Dan and Manasseh . The city of Golan
Golan
was a city of refuge. King Solomon
King Solomon
appointed ministers in the region. After the split of the United Monarchy , the area was contested between the northern Kingdom of Israel
Israel
and the Aramean kingdom from the 9th century BC. King Ahab of Israel
Israel
(reigned 874–852 BC) defeated Ben-Hadad I in Afek of the southern Golan.

In the 8th century BC the Assyrians gained control of the area, followed by the Babylonian and the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
. In the 5th century BC, the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
allowed the region to be resettled by returning Jewish
Jewish
exiles from Babylonian Captivity .

The Golan
Golan
Heights, along with the rest of the region, came under the control of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 332 BC, following the Battle of Issus . Following Alexander's death, the Golan
Golan
came under the domination of the Macedonian noble Seleucus and remained part of the Seleucid Empire for most of the next two centuries. It is during this period that the name Golan, previously that of a city mentioned in the book of Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
, came to be applied to the entire region (Greek : Gaulanitis).

After the Assyrian period, about four centuries provide limited archaeological finds in the Golan. In the middle of the 2nd century BCE, Itureans started living in the Golan. They lived in over 100 locations in the Mount Hermon and Golan
Golan
region.

The Maccabean revolt saw much action in the regions around the Golan and it is possible that the Jewish
Jewish
communities of the Golan
Golan
were among those rescued by Judas Maccabeus during his campaign in the Galilee and Gilead
Gilead
(Transjordan ) mentioned in Chapter 5 of 1 Maccabees
1 Maccabees
. The Golan, however, remained in Seleucid hands until the campaign of Alexander Jannaeus from 83–80 BC. Jannaeus established the city of Gamla
Gamla
in 81 BC as the Hasmonean capital for the region.

During the Roman and Byzantine
Byzantine
periods the area was administered as part of Phoenicia
Phoenicia
Prima and Syria
Syria
Palaestina , and finally Golan/Gaulanitis was included together with Peraea in Palaestina Secunda , after 218 AD . Ancient kingdom Bashan was incorporated into the province of Batanea .

Following the death of Herod the Great
Herod the Great
in 4 BC, Augustus Caesar adjudicated that the Golan
Golan
fell within the Tetrarchy of Herod's son, Herod Philip I . After Philip's death in 34 AD, the Romans absorbed the Golan
Golan
into the province of Syria
Syria
, but Caligula
Caligula
restored the territory to Herod's grandson Agrippa in 37. Following Agrippa's death in 44, the Romans again annexed the Golan
Golan
to Syria, promptly to return it again when Claudius
Claudius
traded the Golan
Golan
to Agrippa II
Agrippa II
, the son of Agrippa I, in 51 as part of a land swap. Although nominally under Agrippa's control and not part of the province of Judea
Judea
, the Jewish communities of the Golan
Golan
joined their coreligionists in the First Jewish-Roman War , only to fall to the Roman armies in its early stages. Gamla
Gamla
was captured in 67; according to Josephus
Josephus
, its inhabitants committed mass suicide, preferring it to crucifixion and slavery . Agrippa II
Agrippa II
contributed soldiers to the Roman war effort and attempted to negotiate an end to the revolt. In return for his loyalty, Rome allowed him to retain his kingdom, but finally absorbed the Golan
Golan
for good after his death in 100.

In about 250, the Ghassanids
Ghassanids
, Arab
Arab
Christians from Yemen
Yemen
, established a kingdom which encompassed southern Syria
Syria
and the Transjordan, building their capital at Jabiyah on the Golan. Like the later Herodians, the Ghassanids
Ghassanids
ruled as clients of Byzantine
Byzantine
Rome; unlike the Herodians, the Ghassanids
Ghassanids
were able to hold on to the Golan until the Sassanid
Sassanid
invasion of 614. Following a brief restoration under the Emperor Heraclius , the Golan
Golan
again fell, this time to the invading Arabs
Arabs
after the Battle of Yarmouk in 636.

MIDDLE AGES

Nimrod Fortress

After Yarmouk, Muawiyah I , a member of Muhammad
Muhammad
's tribe, the Quraish , was appointed governor of Syria, including the Golan. Following the assassination of his cousin, the Caliph
Caliph
Uthman
Uthman
, Muawiya claimed the Caliphate for himself, initiating the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty. Over the next few centuries, while remaining in Muslim hands, the Golan
Golan
passed through many dynastic changes, falling first to the Abbasids
Abbasids
, then to the Shi\'ite Fatimids
Fatimids
, then to the Seljuk Turks , then to the Kurdish Ayyubids . During the Crusades
Crusades
, the Heights represented a formidable obstacle the Crusader armies were not able to conquer, and the area was a part of the Emirate of Damascus
Damascus
during this time. The Mongols
Mongols
swept through in 1259, but were driven off by the Mamluk
Mamluk
sultan Qutuz at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. Ain Jalut ensured Mamluk
Mamluk
dominance of the region for the next 250 years. For many centuries nomadic tribes lived together with the sedentary population in the region. At times, the central government attempted to settle the nomads which would result in the establishment of permanent communities. When the power of the governing regime declined, as happened during the early Muslim period , nomadic trends increased and many of the rural and agricultural villages were abandoned due to harassment from the Bedouins. They were not resettled until the second half of the 19th century.

OTTOMAN ERA

Natural spring in Golan
Golan
Heights

In the 16th century, the Ottoman Turks conquered Syria. During this time, the Golan
Golan
formed part of the southern district of their empire. Some Druze
Druze
communities were established in the Golan
Golan
during the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1868, the region was described as "almost entirely desolate." According to a travel handbook of the time, only 11 of 127 ancient towns and villages in the Golan
Golan
were inhabited. As a result of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, there was a huge influx of refugees from the Caucasus
Caucasus
into the empire. The Ottomans encouraged them to settle in southern Syria, particularly the Golan Heights, by granting them land with a 12-year tax exemption.

Early Jewish
Jewish
Settlement

In 1884 there were still open stretches of uncultivated land between villages in the lower Golan, but by the mid-1890s most was owned and cultivated. Some land had been purchased in the Golan
Golan
and Hawran by Zionist associations based in Romania, Bulgaria, the USA and England, in the late 19th century and early 20th century. In 1880, Laurence Oliphant published Eretz ha-Gilad (The Land of Gilead
Gilead
), which described a plan for large-scale Jewish
Jewish
settlement in the Golan. In the winter of 1885, members of the Old Yishuv
Old Yishuv
in Safed
Safed
formed the Beit Yehuda Society and purchased 15,000 dunams of land from the village of Ramthaniye in the central Golan. Due to financial hardships and the long wait for a kushan (Ottoman land deed) the village, Golan be-Bashan, was abandoned after a year. Soon afterwards, the society regrouped and purchased 2,000 dunams of land from the village of Bir e-Shagum on the western slopes of the Golan. The village they established, Bnei Yehuda , existed until 1920. The last families left in the wake of the Passover riots of 1920 . In 1944 the JNF bought the Bnei Yehuda lands from their Jewish
Jewish
owners, but a later attempt to establish Jewish
Jewish
ownership of the property in Bir e-Shagum through the courts was not successful.

Between 1891 and 1894, Baron Edmond James de Rothschild purchased around 150,000 dunams of land in the Golan
Golan
and the Hawran for Jewish settlement. Legal and political permits were secured and ownership of the land was registered in late 1894.

The Agudat Ahim society, whose headquarters were in Yekatrinoslav, Russia, acquired 100,000 dunams of land in several locations in the districts of Fiq and Daraa . A plant nursery was established and work began on farm buildings in Djillin . The Jews also built a road stretching from Lake Hula to Muzayrib . A village called Tiferet Binyamin was established on lands purchased from Saham al-Jawlan by the Shavei Zion Association based in New York, but the project was abandoned after a year when the Turks issued an edict in 1896 evicting the 17 non-Turkish families. A later attempt to resettle the site with Syrian Jews who were Ottoman citizens also failed. Between 1904 and 1908, a group of Crimean Jews settled in the Bethsaida Valley, initially as tenants of a Kurdish proprietor with the prospects of purchasing the land, but the arrangement faltered. Jewish
Jewish
settlement in the region dwindled over time, due to Arab
Arab
hostility, Turkish bureaucracy, disease and economic difficulties. In 1921–1930, during the French Mandate, the Palestine Jewish
Jewish
Colonization Association (PICA) obtained the deeds to the Rothschild estate and continued to manage it, collecting rents from the Arab
Arab
peasants living there.

FRENCH AND BRITISH MANDATES

Boundary changes in the area of the Golan
Golan
Heights in the 20th-century

Great Britain accepted a Mandate for Palestine at the meeting of the Allied Supreme Council at San Remo , but the borders of the territory were not defined at that stage. The boundary between the forthcoming British and French mandates was defined in broad terms by the Franco-British Boundary Agreement of December 1920. That agreement placed the bulk of the Golan
Golan
Heights in the French sphere. The treaty also established a joint commission to settle the precise details of the border and mark it on the ground. The commission submitted its final report on 3 February 1922, and it was approved with some caveats by the British and French governments on 7 March 1923, several months before Britain and France assumed their Mandatory responsibilities on 29 September 1923. In accordance with the same process, a nearby parcel of land that included the ancient site of Tel Dan
Tel Dan
and the Dan spring were transferred from Syria
Syria
to Palestine early in 1924. The Golan
Golan
Heights, including the spring at Wazzani and the one at Banias
Banias
, thus became part of the French Mandate of Syria
Syria
, while the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
was placed entirely within the British Mandate of Palestine. When the French Mandate of Syria
Syria
ended in 1944, the Golan
Golan
Heights became part of the newly independent state of Syria
Syria
and was later incorporated into Quneitra Governorate .

BORDER INCIDENTS AFTER 1948

Minefield warning sign in the Golan
Golan

After the 1948–49 Arab-Israeli War , the Golan
Golan
Heights were partly demilitarised by the Israel- Syria
Syria
Armistice Agreement . During the following years, the area along the border witnessed thousands of violent incidents; the armistice agreement was being violated by both sides. The underlying causes of the conflict were a disagreement over the legal status of the demilitarised zone (DMZ), cultivation of land within it and competition over water resources. Syria
Syria
claimed that neither party had sovereignty over the DMZ. Israel
Israel
contended that the Armistice Agreement dealt solely with military concerns and that she had political and legal rights over the DMZ. Israel
Israel
wanted to assert control up till the 1923 boundary in order to reclaim the Hula swamp , gain exclusive rights to Lake Galilee
Galilee
and divert water from the Jordan for its National Water Carrier . During the 1950s, Syria
Syria
registered two principal territorial accomplishments: it took over Al-Hammah enclosure south of Lake Tiberias and established a de facto presence on and control of eastern shore of the lake.

The Jordan Valley Unified Water Plan was sponsored by the United States and agreed by the technical experts of the Arab
Arab
League and Israel
Israel
. The U.S.A funded the Israeli and Jordanian water diversion projects, when they pledged to abide by the plan's allocations. President Nasser too, assured the U.S.A, that the Arabs
Arabs
would not exceed the plan's water quotas. However, in the early 1960s the Arab League funded a Syrian water diversion project that would have denied Israel
Israel
use of a major portion of its water allocation. The resulting armed clashes are called the War over Water .

in July 1966, Fatah
Fatah
began raids into Israeli territory in early 1965, with active support from Syria. At first the militants entered via Lebanon
Lebanon
or Jordan, but those countries made concerted attempts to stop them and raids directly from Syria
Syria
increased. Israel's response was a series of retaliatory raids, of which the largest were an attack on the Jordanian village of Samu in November 1966. In April 1967, after Syria
Syria
heavily shelled Israeli villages from the Golan
Golan
Heights, Israel
Israel
shot down six Syrian MiG
MiG
fighter planes and warned Syria against future attacks.

In the period between the first Arab-Israeli War and the Six-Day War, the Syrians constantly harassed Israeli border communities by firing artillery shells from their dominant positions on the Golan
Golan
Heights. In October 1966 Israel
Israel
brought the matter up before the United Nations. Five nations sponsored a resolution criticizing Syria
Syria
for its actions but it failed to pass due to a Soviet veto.

Former Israeli General Mattityahu Peled said that more than half of the border clashes before the 1967 war "were a result of our security policy of maximum settlement in the demilitarised area." Israeli incursions into the zone were responded to with Syrians shooting. Israel
Israel
in turn would retaliate with military force. Sir Alec Douglas-Home , former Prime Minister of the UK, stated that when he was visiting the Galilee
Galilee
a few months before the 1967 war "at regular intervals the Russian-built forts on the Golan
Golan
Heights used to lob shells into the villages, often claiming civilian casualties." He said after the 1973 war that any agreement between the two sides "must clearly put a stop the that kind of offensive action."

In 1976, Israeli defense minister Moshe Dayan
Moshe Dayan
said that Israel provoked more than 80% of the clashes with Syria, although historians say the remark was part of an informal conversation. The provocation was sending a tractor to plow in the demilitarized areas. The Syrians responded by firing at the tractors and shelling Israeli settlements . Jan Mühren, a former UN observer in the area at the time, told a Dutch current affairs programme that Israel
Israel
"provoked most border incidents as part of its strategy to annex more land". UN officials blamed both Israel
Israel
and Syria
Syria
for destabilizing the borders.

SIX-DAY WAR AND ISRAELI OCCUPATION

See also: Six-Day War and Israeli Military Governorate Israeli children in a bomb shelter at Kibbutz Dan during the Six-Day War

After the Six-Day War broke out in June 1967, Syria's shelling greatly intensified and the Israeli army captured the Golan
Golan
Heights on 9–10 June . The area which came under Israeli control as a result of the war consists of two geologically distinct areas: the Golan
Golan
Heights proper, with a surface of 1,070 square kilometres (410 sq mi) and the slopes of the Mt. Hermon range, with a surface of 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi). The new ceasefire line was named the Purple Line . In the battle, Israel
Israel
lost 115 men, with another 306 wounded. An estimated 2,500 Syrians were killed, with another 5,000 wounded.

During the war, between 80,000 and 131,000 Syrians fled or were driven from the heights and around 7,000 remained in the Israeli-occupied territory. Israeli sources and the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants reported that much of the local population of 100,000 fled as a result of the war, whereas the Syrian government stated that a large proportion of it was expelled. Israel
Israel
has not allowed former residents to return, citing security reasons. The remaining villages were Majdal Shams , Shayta (later destroyed), Ein Qiniyye , Mas\'ade , Buq\'ata and, outside the Golan
Golan
proper, Ghajar .

Israeli settlement in the Golan
Golan
began soon after the war. Merom Golan was founded in July 1967 and by 1970 there were 12 settlements.

In the 1970s, Israeli politician Yigal Allon proposed as part of the Allon Plan that a Druze
Druze
state be established in Syria's Quneitra Governorate , including the Israeli-held Golan
Golan
Heights. Allon died in 1980 and his plan never materialised.

YOM KIPPUR WAR

During the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
in 1973, Syrian forces overran much of the southern Golan, before being pushed back by an Israeli counterattack. Israel
Israel
and Syria
Syria
signed a ceasefire agreement in 1974 that left almost all the Heights in Israeli hands. East of the 1974 ceasefire line lies the Syrian controlled part of the Heights, an area that was not captured by Israel
Israel
(500 square kilometres or 190 sq mi) or withdrawn from (100 square kilometres or 39 sq mi). This area forms 30% of the Golan
Golan
Heights. Today it contains more than 40 Syrian towns and villages. In 1975, following the 1974 ceasefire agreement, Israel returned a narrow demilitarised zone to Syrian control. Some of the displaced residents began returning to their homes located in this strip and the Syrian government began helping people rebuild their villages, except for Quneitra
Quneitra
. In the mid-1980s the Syrian government launched a plan called "The Project for the Reconstruction of the Liberated Villages". By the end of 2007, the population of the Quneitra Governorate was estimated at 79,000. Mines deployed by the Syrian army remain active. As of 2003, there had been at least 216 landmine casualties in the Syrian-controlled Golan
Golan
since 1973, of which 108 were fatalities.

DE FACTO ANNEXATION BY ISRAEL AND CIVIL RULE

Golan
Golan
Heights Wind Farm on Mount Bnei Rasan

The Golan
Golan
Heights was under Israeli military administration from 1967 to 1981. On 14 December 1981, Israel
Israel
passed the Golan Heights Law , that extended Israeli "laws, jurisdiction and administration" to the Golan
Golan
Heights. Although the law effectively annexed the territory to Israel, it did not explicitly spell out the formal annexation. The area has since been administered as part of Israel's Northern District . The Golan Heights Law is not recognised internationally and was immediately determined ″null and void and without international legal effect″ by United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
Resolution 497 that was adopted a few days after the Law′s passage. The resolution demanded "that Israel, the occupying Power, should rescind forthwith its decisions." Thus, the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
Resolution 242 that declared the Golan
Golan
Heights Israeli-occupied territory continues to apply. Israel
Israel
maintains that it may retain the area as the text of Resolution 242 calls for "safe and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force".

During the negotiations regarding the text of United Nations
United Nations
Security Council resolution 242, U.S. Secretary of State Rusk explained that U.S. support for secure permanent frontiers did not mean the US supported territorial changes. The U.N. representative for the United Kingdom who was responsible for negotiating and drafting the Security Council resolution said that the actions of the Israeli Government in establishing settlements and colonizing the Golan
Golan
are in clear defiance of Resolution 242.

Syria
Syria
continued to demand a full Israeli withdrawal to the 1967 borders, including a strip of land on the east shore of the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
that Syria
Syria
captured during the 1948–49 Arab-Israeli War and occupied from 1949–67. Successive Israeli governments have considered an Israeli withdrawal from the Golan
Golan
in return for normalization of relations with Syria, provided certain security concerns are met. Prior to 2000, Syrian president Hafez al-Assad rejected normalization with Israel.

PEACE NEGOTIATIONS

During United States–brokered negotiations in 1999–2000, Israel and Syria
Syria
discussed a peace deal that would include Israeli withdrawal in return for a comprehensive peace structure, recognition and full normalization of relations. The disagreement in the final stages of the talks was on access to the Sea of Galilee. Israel
Israel
offered to withdraw to the pre-1948 border (the 1923 Paulet-Newcombe line ), while Syria
Syria
insisted on the 1967 frontier. The former line has never been recognised by Syria, claiming it was imposed by the colonial powers, while the latter was rejected by Israel
Israel
as the result of Syrian aggression. The difference between the lines is less than 100 m for the most part, but the 1967 line would give Syria
Syria
access to the Sea of Galilee, and Israel
Israel
wished to retain control of the Sea of Galilee, its only freshwater lake and a major water resource. Dennis Ross, Clinton's chief Middle East negotiator, blamed "cold feet" on the part of Barak for the breakdown. Clinton also laid blame on Israel. Israeli soldiers of the Alpinist Unit are dispatched to Mount Hermon

In June 2007, it was reported that Prime Minister Ehud Olmert had sent a secret message to Syrian President , Bashar Assad
Bashar Assad
saying that Israel
Israel
would concede the land in exchange for a comprehensive peace agreement and the severing of Syria's ties with Iran
Iran
and militant groups in the region. On the same day, former Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced that the former Syrian President, Hafez Assad , had promised to let Israel
Israel
retain Mount Hermon in any future agreement.

In April 2008, Syrian media reported Turkey
Turkey
's Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan told President Bashar al-Assad that Israel
Israel
would withdraw from the Golan
Golan
Heights in return for peace. Israeli leaders of communities in the Golan
Golan
Heights held a special meeting and stated: "all construction and development projects in the Golan
Golan
are going ahead as planned, propelled by the certainty that any attempt to harm Israeli sovereignty in the Golan
Golan
will cause severe damage to state security and thus is doomed to fail". A survey found that 70% of Israelis oppose relinquishing the Golan
Golan
for peace with Syria. That year, a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
passed a resolution 161–1 in favour of a motion on the Golan
Golan
Heights that reaffirmed Security Council resolution 497 and called on Israel
Israel
to desist from "changing the physical character, demographic composition, institutional structure and legal status of the occupied Syrian Golan and, in particular, to desist from the establishment of settlements from imposing Israeli citizenship and Israeli identity cards on the Syrian citizens in the occupied Syrian Golan
Golan
and from its repressive measures against the population of the occupied Syrian Golan." Israel was the only nation to vote against the resolution. Indirect talks broke down after the Gaza War began. Syria
Syria
broke off the talks to protest Israeli military operations. Israel
Israel
subsequently appealed to Turkey
Turkey
to resume mediation.

In May 2009, Prime Minister Netanyahu said that returning the Golan Heights would turn it into " Iran
Iran
's front lines which will threaten the whole state of Israel." He said: "I remember the Golan
Golan
Heights without Katzrin , and suddenly we see a thriving city in the Land of Israel
Israel
, which having been a gem of the Second Temple
Second Temple
era has been revived anew." American diplomat Martin Indyk said that the 1999–2000 round of negotiations began during Netanyahu's first term (1996–1999), and he was not as hardline as he made out.

In March 2009, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad claimed that indirect talks had failed after Israel
Israel
did not commit to full withdrawal from the Golan
Golan
Heights. In August 2009, he said that the return of the entire Golan
Golan
Heights was "non-negotiable," it would remain "fully Arab," and would be returned to Syria.

In June 2009, Israeli President Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
said that Syrian President Assad would have to negotiate without preconditions, and that Syria
Syria
would not win territorial concessions from Israel
Israel
on a "silver platter" while it maintained ties with Iran
Iran
and Hezbollah. In response, Syrian Foreign Minister Walid Muallem demanded that Israel unconditionally cede the Golan
Golan
Heights "on a silver platter" without any preconditions, adding that "it is our land," and blamed Israel
Israel
for failing to commit to peace. Syrian President Assad claimed that there was "no real partner in Israel."

In 2010, Israeli foreign minister Avigdor Lieberman
Avigdor Lieberman
said: "We must make Syria
Syria
recognise that just as it relinquished its dream of a greater Syria
Syria
that controls Lebanon
Lebanon
... it will have to relinquish its ultimate demand regarding the Golan
Golan
Heights" Overview of UN zone and Syrian controlled territory from the Golan
Golan
Heights

TERRITORIAL CLAIMS

Claims on the territory include the fact that an area in northwestern of the Golan
Golan
region, delineated by a rough triangle formed by the towns of Banias
Banias
, Quneitra
Quneitra
and the northern tip of the Sea of Galilee , was part of the British Palestine Mandate in which the establishment of a Jewish
Jewish
national home had been promised. In 1923, this triangle in northwestern Golan
Golan
was ceded to the French Mandate in Syria, but in exchange for this, land areas in Syria
Syria
and Lebanon
Lebanon
was ceded to Palestine, and the whole of the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
which previously had its eastern boundary connected to Syria
Syria
was placed inside Palestine. Syrians counter that the region was placed in the Vilayet of Damascus as part of Syria
Syria
under the Ottoman boundaries and that the 1920 British-Franco agreement which had placed part of the Golan
Golan
under the control of Britain was only temporary and that the final border line drawn up in 1923, which excluded the Golan
Golan
triangle, had superseded it, although Syria
Syria
has never recognised the 1923 border as legally binding.

BORDERS, ARMISTICE LINE AND CEASEFIRE LINE

View of Mount Hermon from the road to Masaade.

One of the aspects of the dispute involves the existence prior to 1967 of three different lines separating Syria
Syria
from the area that between 1948 and 1967 was referred to as Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
.

The 1923 boundary between British Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
and the French Mandate of Syria
Syria
was drawn with water in mind. Accordingly, it was demarcated so that all of the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
, including a 10-meter wide strip of beach along its northeastern shore, would stay inside Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
. From the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
north to Lake Hula the boundary was drawn between 50 and 400 meters east of the upper Jordan River , keeping that stream entirely within Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
. The British also received a sliver of land along the Yarmouk River , out to the present-day Hamat Gader .

During the Arab-Israeli War, Syria
Syria
captured various areas of the formerly British controlled Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
, including the 10-meter strip of beach, the east bank of the upper Jordan, as well as areas along the Yarmouk.

While negotiating the 1949 Armistice Agreements
1949 Armistice Agreements
, Israel
Israel
called for the removal of all Syrian forces from the former Palestine territory. Syria
Syria
refused, insisting on an armistice line based not on the 1923 international border but on the military status quo. The result was a compromise. Under the terms of an armistice signed on 20 July 1949, Syrian forces were to withdraw east of the old Palestine-Syria boundary. Israeli forces were to refrain from entering the evacuated areas, which would become a demilitarised zone, "from which the armed forces of both Parties shall be totally excluded, and in which no activities by military or paramilitary forces shall be permitted." Accordingly, major parts of the armistice lines departed from the 1923 boundary and protruded into Israel. There were three distinct, non-contiguous enclaves—in the extreme northeast to the west of Banias, on the west bank of the Jordan River near Lake Hula, and the eastern-southeastern shores of the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
extending out to Hamat Gader, consisting of 66.5 square kilometres (25.7 sq mi) of land lying between the 1949 armistice line and the 1923 boundary, forming the demilitarised zone.

Following the armistice, both Israel
Israel
and Syria
Syria
sought to take advantage of the territorial ambiguities left in place by the 1949 agreement. This resulted in an evolving tactical situation, one "snapshot" of which was the disposition of forces immediately prior to the Six-Day War , the “line of June 4, 1967”.

SHEBAA FARMS

On 7 June 2000, the demarcation Blue Line was established by the UN in order to ensure full Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, according to UN Security Council Resolution 425 . After Israeli troops left Lebanese soil , the UN announced the resolution had been respected. However, Lebanon
Lebanon
continues to claim a small portion of the area occupied by Israel
Israel
and administered as part of the Golan
Golan
Heights. The territory, known as the Shebaa Farms , measures 22 square kilometres (8.5 sq mi) and lies on the border between Lebanon
Lebanon
and the Golan Heights. Maps used by the UN in demarcating the Blue Line were not able to conclusively show the border between Lebanon
Lebanon
and Syria
Syria
in the area. Syria
Syria
agrees that the Shebaa Farms are within Lebanese territory; however, Israel
Israel
considers the area to be inside of Syria's borders and continues to occupy the territory.

AL-GHAJAR

Al Ghajar village is another complex border issue west of Shebaa farms. Before the 1967 war this Alawite village was in Syria. It is divided by an international boundary , with the northern part of the village on the Lebanese side since 2000 . Residents of both parts hold Israeli citizenship, and in the northern part often a Lebanese passport as well. Today the entire village is surrounded by a fence, with no division between the Israeli-occupied and Lebanese sides. There is an Israeli army checkpoint at the entrance to the village from the rest of the Golan
Golan
Heights.

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT′S STANCE ON THE TERRITORIAL DISPUTE

In 1975, U.S. president Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
wrote a letter to Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
stating that the U.S. had not developed a final position on the borders but once it had, it would give great weight to Israel's position that a peace agreement with Syria
Syria
must be predicated on Israel
Israel
remaining on the Golan
Golan
Heights.

In 1991, U.S. Secretary of State James Baker told Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Shamir that the United States would honor the position expressed in Ford's letter. William B. Quandt speculates that Baker told Syrian President Hafez al-Assad
Hafez al-Assad
that the United States did not recognize Israel's annexation of the Golan
Golan
and thought that UN Resolution 242 should apply there. In May 2017, prior to U.S. president Donald Trump
Donald Trump
′s visit to Israel
Israel
as part of a broader tour of the region, a promotional video released by the White House included a map of Israel
Israel
drawn within the 1967 borders — leaving out the West Bank and the Golan.

The United States considers the Golan
Golan
Heights to be Syrian territory held under Israeli occupation subject to negotiation and Israeli withdrawal. The United States considers the application of Israeli law to the Golan
Golan
Heights to be a violation of international law, both the Fourth Geneva Convention's prohibition on the acquisition of territory by force and United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
Resolution 242.

UNDOF SUPERVISION

Golan
Golan
ceasefire line crossing, 2012

UNDOF (the United Nations
United Nations
Disengagement Observer Force) was established in 1974 to supervise the implementation of the Agreement on Disengagement and maintain the ceasefire with an area of separation known as the UNDOF Zone . Currently there are more than 1,000 UN peacekeepers there trying to sustain a lasting peace. Details of the UNDOF mission, mandate, map and military positions can be accessed via the following United Nations
United Nations
link. Syria
Syria
and Israel
Israel
still contest the ownership of the Heights but have not used overt military force since 1974. The great strategic value of the Heights both militarily and as a source of water means that a deal is uncertain. Members of the UN Disengagement force are usually the only individuals who cross the Israeli-Syrian de facto border (cease fire "Alpha Line" ), but since 1988 Israel
Israel
has allowed Druze
Druze
pilgrims to cross into Syria
Syria
to visit the shrine of Abel on Mount Qasioun . Since 1967, Druze
Druze
brides have been allowed to cross into Syria, although they do so in the knowledge that they may not be able to return. A UN Toyota Land Cruiser parked near Majdal Shams displaying UNDOF plates and a UN flag, January 2012

Though the cease fire in the UNDOF zone has been largely uninterrupted since the seventies, in 2012 there have been repeated violations from the Syrian side, including tanks and live fire, though these incidents are attributed to the ongoing Syrian civil war rather than intentionally directed towards Israel.

SYRIAN VILLAGES

View of Beer ajam (بئرعجم), a Syrian Circassian village in the province of Quneitra
Quneitra
founded in 1872 Main article: Syrian towns and villages depopulated in the Arab–Israeli conflict Destroyed buildings in Quneitra
Quneitra

The population of the Golan
Golan
Heights prior to the 1967 Six-Day War has been estimated between 130,000 and 145,000, including 17,000 Palestinian refugees registered with UNRWA. Between 80,000 and 130,000 Syrians fled or were driven from the heights during the Six-Day War and around 7,000 remained in the Israeli-held territory in six villages: Majdal Shams , Mas\'ade , Buq\'ata , Ein Qiniyye , Ghajar and Shayta .

Israel
Israel
demolished over one hundred Syrian villages and farms in the Golan
Golan
Heights. After the demolitions, the lands were given to Israeli settlers.

Quneitra
Quneitra
was the largest town in the Golan
Golan
Heights until 1967, with a population of 27,000. It was occupied by Israel
Israel
on the last day of the Six-Day War and handed back to Syrian civil control per the 1974 Disengagement Agreement. But the Israelis had destroyed Quneitra
Quneitra
with dynamite and bulldozers before they withdrew from the city. East of the 1973 ceasefire line, in the Syrian controlled part of the Golan Heights, an area of 600 square kilometres (232 sq mi), are more than 40 Syrian towns and villages, including Quneitra
Quneitra
, Khan Arnabah , al-Hamidiyah, al-Rafid , al-Samdaniyah, al-Mudariyah, Beer Ajam , Bariqa , Ghadir al-Bustan, Hadar Juba, Kodana, Ufaniyah, Ruwayhinah, Nabe’ al-Sakhar, Trinjah, Umm al-A’zam, and Umm Batna. The population of the Quneitra Governorate numbers 79,000.

Once annexing the Golan
Golan
Heights in 1981, the Israeli government offered all non-Israelis living in the Golan
Golan
citizenship, but until the early 21st century fewer than 10% of the Druze
Druze
were Israeli citizens; the remainder held Syrian citizenship. The Golan
Golan
Alawites in the village of Ghajar accepted Israeli citizenship in 1981. In 2012, due to the situation in Syria, young Druze
Druze
have applied to Israeli citizenship in much larger numbers than in previous years.

In 2012, there were 20,000 Druze
Druze
with Syrian citizenship living in the Israeli-occupied portion Golan
Golan
Heights.

The Druze
Druze
living in the Golan
Golan
Heights are permanent residents of Israel. They hold laissez-passers issued by the Israeli government, and enjoy the country's social welfare benefits. The pro-Israeli Druze
Druze
were historically ostracized by the pro-Syrian Druze. Reluctance to accept citizenship also reflects fear of ill treatment or displacement by Syrian authorities should the Golan
Golan
Heights eventually be returned to Syria. According to The Independent
The Independent
, most Druze
Druze
in the Golan
Golan
Heights live relatively comfortable lives in a freer society than they would have in Syria
Syria
under Assad's government. According to Egypt's Daily Star , their standard of living vastly surpasses that of their counterparts on the Syrian side of the border. Hence their fear of a return to Syria, though most of them identify themselves as Syrian, but feel alienated from the "autocratic " government in Damascus. According to the Associated Press
Associated Press
, "many young Druse have been quietly relieved at the failure of previous Syrian-Israeli peace talks to go forward." On the other hand, expressing pro-Syrian rhetoric, The Economist found, represents the Golan
Golan
Druzes' view that by doing so they may be potentially rewarded by Syria, while simultaneously risking nothing in Israel's freewheeling society. The Economist likewise reported that "Some optimists see the future Golan
Golan
as a sort of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, continuing to enjoy the perks of Israel’s dynamic economy and open society , while coming back under the sovereignty of a stricter , less developed Syria." The Druze
Druze
are also reportedly well-educated and relatively prosperous, and have made use of Israel's universities.

Since 1988, Druze
Druze
clerics have been permitted to make annual religious pilgrimages to Syria. Since 2005, Israel
Israel
has allowed Druze farmers to export some 11,000 tons of apples to the rest of Syria
Syria
each year, constituting the first commercial relations between Syria
Syria
and Israel.

Since the breakout of the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
in 2012, the number of applications for Israeli citizenship is growing, although Syrian loyalty remains strong and those who apply for citizenship are often ostracized by members of the older generation.

ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS

Israeli settlement activity began in the 1970s. The area was governed by military administration until 1981 when Israel
Israel
passed the Golan Heights Law , which extended Israeli law and administration throughout the territory. This move was condemned by the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council in UN Resolution 497 , although Israel
Israel
states it has a right to retain the area, citing the text of UN Resolution 242 , adopted after the Six-Day War, which calls for "safe and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force". The continued Israeli control of the Golan
Golan
Heights remains highly contested and is still regarded as belligerent occupation by most countries. The international community rejects the validity of the Golan Heights Law as an attempted annexation by force, illegal under the UN Charter and the Geneva Conventions . Israeli settlements and human rights policy in the occupied territory have also drawn criticism from the UN.

The Israeli-occupied territory is administered by the Golan
Golan
Regional Council , based in Katzrin , which has a population of 6,400. There are another 19 moshavim and 10 kibbutzim . In 1989, the settler population was 10,000. By 2010 the Jewish
Jewish
settler population had expanded to 20,000 living in 32 settlements.

LANDMARKS

The Golan
Golan
Heights features numerous archeological sites, mountains, streams and waterfalls. Throughout the region 62 ancient synagogues have been found dating back to the Roman and Byzantine
Byzantine
periods.

KURSI

Kursi is the ruins of a Byzantine
Byzantine
Christian monastery.

KATZRIN

Katzrin is the administrative and commercial center of the Israeli-occupied Golan
Golan
Heights. Katzrin Ancient Village is an archaeological site on the outskirts of Katzrin where the remains of a Talmud
Talmud
-era village and synagogue have been reconstructed. Golan Archaeological Museum hosts archaeological finds uncovered in the Golan
Golan
Heights from prehistoric times. A special focus concerns Gamla and excavations of synagogues and Byzantine
Byzantine
churches.

Golan
Golan
Heights Winery , a major Israeli winery , and the mineral water plant of Mey Eden , which derives its water from the spring of Salukiya in the Golan. One can tour these factories as well as factories of oil products and fruit products.

Two open air strip malls , one which holds the Kesem ha- Golan
Golan
(Golan Magic), a three-dimensional movie and model of the geography and history of the Golan
Golan
Heights. Gamla
Gamla
from above

GAMLA NATURE RESERVE

Gamla
Gamla
Nature Reserve is an open park with the archaeological remains of the ancient Jewish
Jewish
city of Gamla
Gamla
— including a tower, wall and synagogue. It is also the site of a large waterfall, an ancient Byzantine
Byzantine
church, and a panoramic spot to observe the nearly 100 vultures that dwell in the cliffs. Israeli scientists study the vultures and tourists can watch them fly and nest.

RUJM EL-HIRI

Hippos odeon

Rujm el-Hiri is a large circular stone monument similar to Stonehenge . Excavations since 1968 have not uncovered material remains common to archaeological sites in the region. Archaeologists believe the site may have been a ritual center linked to a cult of the dead. A 3D model of the site exists in the Museum of Golan
Golan
Antiquities in Katzrin.

UM EL KANATIR

Um el Kanatir is another impressive set of standing ruins of a Jewish village of the Byzantine
Byzantine
era. The site includes a very large synagogue and two arches next to a natural spring.

NIMROD FORTRESS

The Nimrod Fortress was built against the Crusaders , served the Ayyubids and Mamluks , and was captured only once, in 1260, by the Mongols
Mongols
. It is now located inside a nature reserve.

MOUNT HERMON AND LAKE RAM

A ski resort on the slopes of Mount Hermon features a wide range of ski trails and activities. Several restaurants are located in the area. The Lake Ram crater lake is nearby.

HIPPOS/SUSITA

Hippos is an ancient Greco-Roman city, known in Jewish
Jewish
Aramaic
Aramaic
as Susita. The archaeological site includes excavations of the city's forum, the small imperial cult temple, a large Hellenistic temple compound, the Roman city gates, and two Byzantine
Byzantine
churches.

VITICULTURE

Organic vineyard in the Golan
Golan
Heights

On a visit to Israel
Israel
and the Golan
Golan
Heights in 1972, Cornelius Ough, a professor of viticulture and oenology at the University of California, Davis , pronounced conditions in the Golan
Golan
very suitable for the cultivation of wine grapes. A consortium of four kibbutzim and four moshavim took up the challenge, clearing 250 burnt-out tanks in the Golan's Valley of Tears
Valley of Tears
to plant vineyards for what would eventually become the Golan
Golan
Heights Winery . The first vines were planted in 1976, and the first wine was released by the winery in 1983. The heights are now home to about a dozen wineries.

HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION

In the early 1990s, the Israel
Israel
National Oil Company (INOC) was granted shaft-sinking permits in the Golan
Golan
Heights. It estimated a recovery potential of two million barrels of oil, equivalent at the time to $24 million. During the Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
administration (1992–1995), the permits were suspended as efforts were undertaken to restart peace negotiations between Israel
Israel
and Syria. In 1996, Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
granted preliminary approval to INOC to proceed with oil exploration drilling in the Golan. INOC began undergoing a process of privatization in 1997, overseen by then-Director of the Government Companies Authority (GCA), Tzipi Livni
Tzipi Livni
. During that time, it was decided that INOC's drilling permits would be returned to the state. In 2012, National Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau approved exploratory drilling for oil and natural gas in the Golan. The following year, the Petroleum Council of Israel's Ministry of Energy and Water Resources secretly awarded a drilling license covering half the area of the Golan
Golan
Heights to a local subsidiary of New Jersey -based Genie Energy Ltd. headed by Effi Eitam .

Human rights groups have said the drilling violates international law as Golan
Golan
Heights is an occupied territory.

SEE ALSO

* Al-Marsad * Borders of Israel
Israel
* Front for the Liberation of the Golan
Golan
* Golan
Golan
Heights Wind Farm * Golan
Golan
Regional Council * Independent Israel– Syria
Syria
peace initiatives * International law and the Arab–Israeli conflict * Israel– Syria
Syria
relations * Petroleum Road * Shouting Hill * Syrian towns and villages depopulated in the Arab–Israeli conflict * The Syrian Bride * UN Security Council Resolution 452 * UN Security Council Resolution 465 * UN Security Council Resolution 471

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D

* "The international community maintains that the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan
Golan
is null and void and without international legal effect." International Labour Office (2009). The situation of workers of the occupied Arab
Arab
territories (International government publication ed.). International Labour Office. p. 23. ISBN 978-92-2-120630-9 . * "...occupied Syrian Golan
Golan
Heights..." (The Arab
Arab
Peace Initiative, 2002 Archived 4 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine ., www.al-bab.com. Retrieved 1 August 2010.) * In 2008, a plenary session of the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly voted by 161–1 in favour of a motion on the "occupied Syrian Golan" that reaffirmed support for UN Resolution 497. (General Assembly adopts broad range of texts, 26 in all, on recommendation of its fourth Committee, including on decolonization, information, Palestine refugees, United Nations, 5 December 2008.) * "the Syrian Golan
Golan
Heights territory, which Israel
Israel
has occupied since 1967". Also, "the Golan
Golan
Heights, a 450-square mile portion of southwestern Syria
Syria
that Israel
Israel
occupied during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war." (CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues, Congressional Research Service. 19 January 2006)

* ^ A B C D Korman, Sharon, The Right of Conquest: The Acquisition of Territory by Force in International Law and Practice, Oxford University Press, pp. 262–263 * ^ "Human rights in the occupied Syrian Golan". Human Rights Council. United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly. 27 February 2009. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2011. * ^ Tina Shepardson. Stones and Stories: Reconstructing the Christianization of the Golan, Biblisches Forum, 1999. * ^ A B Dt 3:1, Dt 3:2, Dt 3:3, Dt 3:4, Dt 3:5, Dt 3:6, Dt 3:7 * ^ Tatro, Nicolas. "The Golan
Golan
Heights: A Battlefield of the Ages". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 29 November 2011. * ^ Avraham Negev; Shimon Gibson (2005). Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land (Paperback ed.). Continuum. p. 249. ISBN 0-8264-8571-5 . * ^ Dan Urman; Paul Virgil McCracken Flesher (1998). Ancient synagogues: historical analysis and archaeological discovery. BRILL. p. 423. ISBN 978-90-04-11254-4 . Retrieved 2 March 2011. * ^ A B Eric M. Meyers (1996). The Oxford encyclopedia of archaeology in the Near East, Volume 2 (Hardcover ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 421. ISBN 0-19-511216-4 . * ^ "The Golan
Golan
Heights: Geography, Geology
Geology
and History". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 29 November 2011. * ^ "Agreement on Disengagement between Israeli and Syrian Force". Report of the Secretary-General concerning the Agreement on Disengagement between Israeli and Syrian Forces. United Nations. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2011. * ^ Dunstan, Simon (2009). The Six Day War 1967: Jordan
Jordan
and Syria. Osprey. * ^ Herzog, Chaim, The Arab
Arab
Israeli Wars, New York: Random House (1982) p.190-191 * ^ A B C Golan
Golan
Heights Law, MFA. * ^ A B UN Security Council Resolution 497 * ^ A B C Y.Z Blum "Secure Boundaries and Middle East Peace in the Light of International Law and Practice" (1971) pages 24–46

* ^ Occupied territory:

* "Israeli-occupied Golan
Golan
Heights" (Central Intelligence Agency. CIA World Factbook 2010, Skyhorse Publishing Inc., 2009. pg. 339. ISBN 1-60239-727-9 .) * "...the United States considers the Golan
Golan
Heights to be occupied territory subject to negotiation and Israeli withdrawal..." ("CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Israeli-United States Relations", Congressional Research Service, 5 April 2002. pg. 5. Retrieved 1 August 2010.) * "Occupied Golan
Golan
Heights" (Travel advice: Israel
Israel
and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 1 August 2010.) * "In the ICRC's view, the Golan
Golan
is an occupied territory." (ICRC activities in the occupied Golan
Golan
during 2007, International Committee of the Red Cross, 24 April 2008.)

* ^ Korman, Sharon. The right of conquest: the acquisition of territory by force in international law and practice, Oxford University Press, 1996. pg. 265. ISBN 0-19-828007-6 . "The continued occupation of the Syrian Golan
Golan
Heights is recognized by many states as valid and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Charter, on a self-defence basis. Israel, on this view, would be entitled to exact as a condition of withdrawal from the territory the imposition of security measures of an indefinite character--such as perpetual demilitarization, or the emplacement of a United Nations force--which would ensure, or tend to ensure, that the territory would not be used against it for aggression on future occasions. But the notion that Israel
Israel
is entitled to claim any status other than that of belligerent occupant in the territory which it occupies, or to act beyond the strict bounds laid down in the Fourth Geneva Convention, has been universally rejected by the international community--no less by the United States than by any other state." * ^ "As Syria
Syria
Reels, Israel
Israel
Looks to Expand Settlements in Golan Heights". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 December 2015. * ^ "Netanyahu urges Obama to ‘think different’ on Golan Heights annexation". RT America. Retrieved 16 December 2015. * ^ A B "White House Official: U.S. Won\'t Recognize Israeli Sovereignty in Golan". Haaretz. Retrieved 16 December 2015. * ^ A B "Israel\'s Lieberman cautions Syria". Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
. 4 February 2010. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 'We must make Syria
Syria
recognise that just as it relinquished its dream of a greater Syria
Syria
that controls Lebanon
Lebanon
... it will have to relinquish its ultimate demand regarding the Golan
Golan
Heights,' Lieberman said. * ^ At a Glance: The Golan
Golan
Heights World News Australia, 6 June 2011 * ^ A B C "The World Factbook". cia.gov. * ^ A B C D E Moshe Sharon (2004). Corpus inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae, (CIAP) (Hardcover ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. p. 211. ISBN 90-04-13197-3 . * ^ John Lewis Burchhardt (1822). Travels in Syria
Syria
and the Holy Land. Association for the promoting the discovery of the interior parts of Africa. p. 286. * ^ A B E. A. Myers (2010). The Ituraeans and the Roman Near East: Reassessing the Sources (Hardcover ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 43. ISBN 0-521-51887-3 . * ^ "Ancient faiths embodied in ancient names: or, An attempt to trace the religious belief ... of certain nations", by Thomas Inman, 1872 History, page 551 * ^ "A Dictionary of the Bible: Volume II: (Part I: Feign -- Hyssop)". google.com. * ^ A B "Byzantium and the Arabs
Arabs
in the Sixth Century". google.com.

* ^ "Gaulonitis". Jewish
Jewish
Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 December 2011. * ^ CBS, Statistical Abstract of Israel
Israel
2011 AREA OF DISTRICTS, SUB-DISTRICTS, NATURAL REGIONS AND LAKES (table 1.1) * ^ The Syrian Golan
Golan
– Permanent Mission of the Syrian Arab Republic to the United Nations * ^ Henry T. Conserva. Earth Tales: New Perspectives on Geography and History. Golan
Golan
Heights, p. 197, at Google Books * ^ " Israel
Israel
Handbook". google.com. * ^ A B Edgar S. Marshall (2002). Israel: Current Issues and Historical Background. Nova Science Publishers . p. 32. ISBN 1-59033-325-X . * ^ United States, Central Intelligence Agency, Golan
Golan
Heights and Vicinity : Oct 1994 * ^ FSU.edu Archived 27 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine .: International Boundary Study Number 94, 30 December 1969. Jordan— Syria
Syria
Boundary. US Department of State, p. 12 * ^ Haim Gvirtzman, Israel
Israel
Water Resources, Chapters in Hydrology and Environmental Sciences, Yad Ben-Zvi Press, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(in Hebrew) Water.gov.il indicates that the Golan
Golan
Heights contributes no more than 195 million m³ per year to the Sea of Galilee, as well as another 120 million m³ per year from the Banias
Banias
River tributary. Israel's annual water consumption is about 2,000 million m³. * ^ "Venus of Berekhat Ram". visual-arts-cork.com. * ^ Richard 2003 , p. 377 * ^ Dt 33:22 * ^ 1 Kgs 4:13 * ^ Ma'oz, Zvi Uri (1997). "Golan". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. p. 421. ISBN 0195112156 . * ^ Richard 2003 , p. 427 * ^ "The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal". google.com. * ^ Utexas.edu * ^ UMN.edu * ^ Ronnie Ellenblum, Ronnie. Frankish Rural Settlement in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, Cambridge University Press, 2003. pg. 219-20. ISBN 0-521-52187-4 * ^ Shoup, John A. Culture and customs of Jordan, Volume 2006, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. pg. 31. ISBN 0-313-33671-7 . * ^ Porter, Josias Leslie . A handbook for travellers in Syria
Syria
and Palestine, J. Murray, 1868. pg. 439. * ^ The Caspian Region: The Caucasus, M. Gammer, pg. 64. * ^ Gudrun Krämer. A history of Palestine: from the Ottoman conquest to the founding of the state of Israel, Princeton University Press, 2008. pg.137. ISBN 0-691-11897-3 * ^ David Dean Commins. Historical dictionary of Syria, pg. 77. * ^ Bat Yeʼor. The decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: from Jihad to Dhimmitude, Fairleigh Dickinson Univ. Press, 1996. pg. 206. * ^ Martha Mundy, Basim Musallam. The transformation of nomadic society in the Arab
Arab
East, Cambridge University Press, 2000. pg. 40. ISBN 0-521-77057-2 , * ^ A B Kats, Yosef. The "business" of settlement: private entrepreneurship in the Jewish
Jewish
settlement of Palestine, 1900–1914, Magnes Press, Hebrew University, 1994. p. 20. ISBN 965-223-863-5 . * ^ A hundred years of settlement, Keter, 1985. pg. 200. * ^ A B C D E Separation of Trans- Jordan
Jordan
from Palestine, Yitzhak Gil-Har, The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Cathedra, ed. Lee Levine, Yad Yitzhak Ben Zvi and Wayne State University, Jerusalem, 1981, p.306 * ^ "Reshaping Palestine". google.co.il. * ^ A B C D M. R. Fishbach, Jewish
Jewish
property claims against Arab countries, Columbia University Press (2008), pp36-37. * ^ Aharonson, Ran. Rothschild and early Jewish
Jewish
colonization in Palestine, Rowman p. 15. * ^ A B Franco-British Convention on Certain Points Connected with the Mandates for Syria
Syria
and the Lebanon, Palestine and Mesopotamia, signed 23 December 1920. Text available in American Journal of International Law, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1922, 122–126. * ^ Agreement between His Majesty's Government and the French Government respecting the Boundary Line between Syria
Syria
and Palestine from the Mediterranean to El Hámmé, Treaty Series No. 13 (1923), Cmd. 1910. Also Louis, 1969, p. 90. * ^ FSU Law. * ^ A B Robert G. Rabil (2003). Embattled neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon. Lynne Rienner Publishers . pp. 15–16. ISBN 1-58826-149-2 . * ^ The Brink of Peace: The Israeli-Syrian Negotiations By Itamar Rabinovich , page 19 * ^ The UNRWA commissioned a plan for the development of the Jordan River; this became widely known as “The Johnston plan”. The plan was modelled on the Tennessee Valley Authority development plan for the development of the Jordan River as a single unit. Greg Shapland, (1997) Rivers of Discord: International Water Disputes in the Middle East, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 1-85065-214-7 p 14 * ^ Sosland, Jeffrey (2007) Cooperating Rivals: The Riparian Politics of the Jordan River Basin, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-7201-9 p 70 * ^ Moshe Gat (2003). Britain and the Conflict in the Middle East, 1964-1967: The Coming of the Six-Day War. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-275-97514-2 . Retrieved 7 September 2013. "Nasser too, assured the American under Secretary of state, Philip Talbot, that the Arabs
Arabs
would not exceed the water quotas prescribed by the Johnston plan" * ^ Avi Shlaim (2000). The Iron Wall: Israel
Israel
and the Arab
Arab
World. Penguin Books. pp. 229, 230. ISBN 978-0-14-028870-4 . In January 1964 an Arab
Arab
League summit meeting convened in Cairo. The main item on the agenda was the threat posed by Israel's diversion of water … The preamble to its decision stated: "The establishment of Israel
Israel
is the basic threat that the Arab
Arab
nation in its entirety has agreed to forestall. And Since the existence of Israel
Israel
is a danger that threatens the Arab
Arab
nation, the diversion of the Jordan
Jordan
waters by it multiplies the dangers to Arab
Arab
existence. Accordingly, the Arab
Arab
states have to prepare the plans necessary for dealing with the political, economic and social aspects, so that if necessary results are not achieved, collective Arab
Arab
military preparations, when they are not completed, will constitute the ultimate practical means for the final liquidation of Israel
Israel
* ^ Masahiro Murakami (1995). Managing Water for Peace in the Middle East; Alternative Strategies. United Nations
United Nations
University Press. pp. 287–297. ISBN 978-92-808-0858-2 . Retrieved 15 July 2013. The book appears in: http://archive.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80858e/80858E0m.htm . The initial diversion capacity of the National Water Carrier without supplementary booster pumps was 320 million m3, well within the limits of the Johnston Plan. ......Shortly before completion of the Israeli Water Carrier in 1964, an Arab
Arab
summit conference decided to try to thwart it. Discarding direct military attack, the Arab
Arab
states chose to divert the Jordan
Jordan
headwater......the Arab
Arab
states chose to divert the Jordan
Jordan
headwaters.......diversion of both the Hasbani and the Banias to the Yarmouk.....According to neutral assessments, the scheme was only marginally feasible; it was technically difficult and expensive......Political considerations cited by the Arabs
Arabs
in rejecting the 1955 Johnston Plan were revived to justify the diversion scheme. Particular emphasis was placed on the Carrier's capability to enhance Israel's capacity to absorb immigrants to the detriment of Palestinian refugees. In response, Israel
Israel
stressed that the National Water Carrier was within the limits of the Johnston Plan......the Arabs
Arabs
started work on the Headwater Diversion project in 1965. Israel declared that it would regard such diversion as an infringement of its sovereign rights. According to estimates, completion of the project would have deprived Israel
Israel
of 35% of its contemplated withdrawal from the upper Jordan, constituting one-ninth of Israel's annual water budget.......In a series of military strikes, Israel
Israel
hit the diversion works. The attacks culminated in April 1967 in air strikes deep inside Syria. The increase in water-related Arab-Israeli hostility was a major factor leading to the June 1967 war. * ^ M. Shemesh, Prelude to the Six-Day War: The Arab-Israeli Struggle Over Water Resources, Israel
Israel
Studies, vol 9, no. 3, 2004. * ^ A B M. Shemesh, The Fida’iyyun Organization’s Contribution to the Descent to the Six-Day War, Israel
Israel
Studies, vol 11, no. 1, 2006. * ^ M. Shemesh, The IDF Raid On Samu: The Turning-Point In Jordan’s Relations With Israel
Israel
and the West Bank Palestinians, Israel
Israel
Studies, vol 7, no. 1, 2002. * ^ "Six-Day War", Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. Archived 31 October 2009. * ^ Herzog, Chaim, The Arab
Arab
Israeli Wars, New York: Random House (1982) p185 * ^ Sicker, Martin, Israel's quest for security, New York. Praeger Publishing (1989), p. 92-95 * ^ Eban, Abba, Abba Eban. An Autobiography, New York: Random House (1977) p. 313-314 * ^ Herzog, Chaim, The Arab
Arab
Israeli Wars, New York: Random House (1982) p.146-148 * ^ Gilbert, Martin, The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Its History in Maps, 4th ed, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson (1985) p 63-64 * ^ Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, 1991-11. * ^ Yitschak Ben Gad. The road map to nowhere, New Leaf Publishing Group, 2004. pg. 292. ISBN 0-89221-578-X . * ^ Schmemann, Serge (11 May 1997). "General\'s Words Shed a New Light on the Golan". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 May 2010. * ^ Embattled neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon, By Robert G Rabil, p.15-16., They followed to a great extent a pattern of action and reaction. Israel
Israel
would move tractors and equipment, often guarded by police, into disputed areas of the DMZ. From its high ground positions. Syria
Syria
would fire at those advancing, and would frequently shell Israeli settlements in the Huleh Valley. Israel
Israel
would retaliate with excessive raids on Syrian positions, including the use of air power. * ^ "The Defense Policies of Nations". google.co.il. * ^ *"Andere kijk op Zesdaagse Oorlog". Novatv. 4 June 2007. " Six-Day War deliberately provoked by Israel: former Dutch UN observer". DeepJournal. 8 June 2007. * ^ Embattled neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon, By Robert G Rabil, p. 15, "UN officialls found fault with the policies of both Israel
Israel
and Syria
Syria
and often accused the 2 countries of destabilizing the Israeli-Syrian borders". * ^ Robert Slater. Warrior Statesman: The Life of Moshe Dayan, Robson Books, London (1992), pg. 277. * ^ A B Morris (2001), p. 327: "Another eighty to ninety thousand civilians fled or were driven from the Golan
Golan
Heights." * ^ A B C D The Arab
Arab
Centre for Human Rights in the Golan
Golan
Heights: NGO Report, pg. 3. 25 January 2007. (90,000 according to Israeli sources and 115,000 according to Syrian sources, which included 17,000 Palestinian refugees registered with UNRWA, cited in the Report of the Secretary-General under General Assembly resolution 2252 (ES-V) and Security Council resolution 237 (1967, pg. 14. 15 September 1967.) * ^ Different accounts on whether Golan
Golan
inhabitants were expelled or whether they fled (1997–2002) * ^ "A View From Damascus: Internal Refugees From Golan’s 244 Destroyed Syrian Villages". Washington-report.org. Retrieved 26 March 2013. * ^ Golan
Golan
Facts Archived 21 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine .. * ^ Eldar, Akiva. A matter of a few dozen meters, Haaretz, 1 June 2008. * ^ The Middle East and North Africa 2003, Occupied Territories, The Golan
Golan
Heights, page 604. * ^ A B "الوكالة العربية السورية للأنباء". sana.sy. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. * ^ Landmine monitor report, International Campaign to Ban Landmines, pg. 696. ISBN 1-56432-287-4 . * ^ Marshall, Edgar S. Israel: current issues and historical background, Nova Publishers, 2002. pg. 34. ISBN 1-59033-325-X . * ^ Regions and territories: The Golan
Golan
Heights BBC. * ^ " Golan
Golan
Heights" A Dictionary of Contemporary World History. Jan Palmowski. Oxford University Press, 2003. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. * ^ A B United Nations. Security Council Resolutions, 1981. * ^ Council on Foreign Relations . UN Security Council Resolution 497. * ^ "Document 487". Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964–1968, Volume XIX, Arab-Israeli Crisis and War. U.S. State Department. Retrieved 26 October 2010. * ^ (Baron) Caradon, Hugh Foot (1981). U.N. Security Council Resolution 242: A Case Study in Diplomatic Ambiguity. Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University. p. 12. ISBN 0-934742-11-1 . * ^ Moshe Ma'oz (March 2005). "Can Israel
Israel
and Syria
Syria
Reach Peace?: Obstacles, Lessons, and Prospects" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 September 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2008. * ^ Ross, Missing Peace, 589 * ^ Clinton, My Life 883-88,903 * ^ "Olmert to Assad: Israel
Israel
willing to withdraw from Golan Heights". Ynet News. 8 June 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2007. * ^ " Hafez Assad conceded Mt Hermon, says Netanyahu". Ynet News. 8 June 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2007. * ^ "BBC NEWS - Middle East - Israel
Israel
\'ready to return Golan\'". bbc.co.uk. * ^ Nahmias, Roee. "Syrian report: Olmert agreed to concede Golan Heights". Ynet. Retrieved 23 April 2008. * ^ Einav, Hagai. "Attempt to cede Golan
Golan
doomed to fail, say local leaders". Ynet. Retrieved 24 April 2008. * ^ "Poll: 70% oppose relinquishing Golan
Golan
Heights". Jerusalem
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Post. 2008-05-21. * ^ General Assembly adopts broad range of texts, 26 in all, on recommendation of its fourth Committee, including on decolonization, information, Palestine refugees, United Nations, 5 December 2008 * ^ "Report: Israel
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asked to resume Syria
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talks - Israel
Israel
News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 26 March 2013. * ^ "חדשות, ידיעות מהארץ והעולם - עיתון הארץ". הארץ. * ^ Barak Ravid (8 May 2009). "Netanyahu: Israel
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will never withdraw from Golan". Haaretz. * ^ JTA, Netanyahu: Golan
Golan
ours forever, August 1, 2007 * ^ Indyk, Martin (2009). Innocent Abroad: An Intimate Account of American Peace Diplomacy in the Middle East. Simon & Schuster . * ^ "Assad: Golan
Golan
issue non-negotiable - Israel
Israel
News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 26 March 2013. * ^ "Peres: Assad can\'t have both Golan
Golan
and Hezbollah - Israel News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 26 March 2013. * ^ "Syrian FM in response to Peres: Golan
Golan
Heights belongs to us - Israel
Israel
News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 26 March 2013. * ^ A B Edgar S. Marshall. Israel: current issues and historical background. Nova Publishers, 2002. pg. 35. ISBN 1-59033-325-X . * ^ Garfinkle, Adam (1998). "History and Peace: Revisiting two Zionist myths". Israel
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Affairs. Routledge. 5 (1): 135–146. doi :10.1080/13537129808719501 . * ^ A B C "The Line of June 4, 1967". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. * ^ A. Garfinkle, History and Peace: Revisiting two Zionist myths, Israel
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Israel
Syria
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Armistice Agreement * ^ Kaufman, Asher (2004). "Understanding the Sheeba Farms dispute". Palestine- Israel
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Journal. 11 (1). Retrieved 22 July 2006. * ^ "In focus: Shebaa farms". BBC News
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. 25 May 2000. Retrieved 29 September 2006. * ^ A B Border problems. Lebanon, UNIFIL and Italian participation by Lucrezia Gwinnett Liguori * ^ Gold, Dore The Golan
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Heights and the Syrian Israeli-Negotiations JCPA, 22 May 2008 * ^ William B. Quandt, Peace process: American diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli conflict since 1967, University of California Press, 2001 p.309 * ^ Trump\'s visit to Israel
Israel
should be easy. He\'s made it hard. The president has offended Israelis of all stripes — and he hasn\'t left yet. * ^ Israeli-United States Relations Congressional Research Service Reports, U.S. Department of State. 5 April 2002 * ^ " United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)". Un.org. Archived from the original on 12 September 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2013. * ^ Archived 8 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Military: Stray Syrian bullet hits Israeli jeep Nation & World". The Seattle Times. 5 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013. * ^ "Three mortar shells from Syria
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land in Israeli Golan
Golan
Heights". The Jerusalem
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Post - JPost.com. * ^ Fogelman, Shay. The disinherited, Haaretz, 30 July 2010. (90,000 according to Israeli sources and 115,000 according to Syrian sources, which included 17,000 Palestinian refugees registered with UNRWA, cited in the Report of the Secretary-General under General Assembly resolution 2252 (ES-V) and Security Council resolution 237 (1967), pg. 14. 15 September 1967.) * ^ Politicide: Ariel Sharon's war against the Palestinians. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-84467-532-6 . * ^ "The Fate of Abandoned Arab
Arab
Villages, 1965–1969" by Aron Shai (History & Memory – Volume 18, Number 2, Fall/Winter 2006, pp. 86–106) "As the pace of the surveys increased in the West Bank, widespread operations also began on the Golan
Golan
Heights, which had been captured from Syria
Syria
during the war (figure 7). Dan Urman, whose official title was Head of Surveying and Demolition Supervision for the Golan
Golan
Heights, was in charge of this task. Urman submitted a list of 127 villages for demolition to his bosses. ... The demolitions were executed by contractors hired for the job. Financial arrangements and coordination with the ILA and the army were recorded in detail. Davidson commissioned surveys and demolition supervision from the IASS . Thus, for example, in a letter dated 15 May 1968, he wrote to Ze'ev Yavin: 'Further to our meeting, this is to inform you that within a few days we will start demolishing about 90 abandoned villages on the Golan
Golan
Heights (see attached list)." * ^ "The Golan
Golan
Heights under Israeli Occupation 1967 – 1981" p.5. "The remainder of 131 agricultural villages and 61 individual farms were wiped of the face of the earth by the Israeli occupation authorities immediately following the Israeli victory in the 1967 war. They were razed to the ground and their lands handed over to exclusive Israeli- Jewish
Jewish
settlement." * ^ United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld - U.S. Committee for Refugees World Refugee Survey 1999 - Syria". Refworld. Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. * ^ 3240 (XXIX). Report of the Special
Special
Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories Archived 3 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Scott Wilson (30 October 2006). " Golan
Golan
Heights Land, Lifestyle Lure Settlers". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 June 2007. * ^ Ghajar says `don\'t fence me in\' * ^ "With Syria
Syria
ablaze, dozens of Golan
Golan
Heights Druze
Druze
seek Israeli citizenship". The Times of Israel. * ^ Echoes of Syria’s War in the Golan
Golan
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* ^ Joshua
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Mitnick (21 September 2013). "Assad harvests support from Druze
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in Israel
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- with apples". Christian Science Monitor. * ^ "Nobody’s citizens". ynet. * ^ " Israel
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News - Haaretz Israeli News source". haaretz.com. * ^ "After 40 years, could the ice be melting on the Golan Heights?". The Independent. Archived from the original on 4 April 2007. * ^ The Golan’s Druze
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3 June 2007 * ^ A would-be happy link with Syria
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The Economist 19 February 2009 * ^ "Young Druze
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seek Israeli citizenship as Syrian crisis worsens". ynet. * ^ "The Avalon Project : United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 497". yale.edu. * ^ "Yearbook of the United Nations
United Nations
2005, Volume 59" pg.524 * ^ "Report of the Special
Special
Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs
Arabs
of the Occupied Territories" September 2002 * ^ Report of the Director-General, Volume 2, International Labour Conference, 1991.pg. 34. ISBN 92-2-107533-8 . * ^ Regions and territories: The Golan
Golan
Heights BBC * ^ Oudat, Basel.Shouting in the hills, Al-Ahram Weekly, 12–18 June 2008. Issue No. 901. * ^ "Population by District, Sub-District and Religion". Statistical Abstract of Israel, no. 60. Israel
Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics . 2009. * ^ The Ancient world. Ares Publishers. 2002. p. 54. Retrieved 7 March 2011. * ^ Reflections on a Reconstruction of Ancient Qasrin Village, The reconstructed past: reconstructions in the public interpretation of archaeology and history, Ann Killebrew John H. Jameson, Rowman Altamira, 2004, pp. 127-146 * ^ Golan
Golan
Archaeological Museum * ^ Antiquities. * ^ "Morbid theory in mystery of Israel\'s answer to Stone Henge". Haaretz.com. 3 November 2011. * ^ Kanatir, TAU. * ^ A B Tarnopolsky, Noga (15 September 2006). "Upstart Wineries Drench Previously Arid Country". * ^ Battlefield becomes Israeli vineyard * ^ "Wine map". mykerem. * ^ Hayoun, David (15 April 1997). "INOC Will Seek Two Year Extension of Golan
Golan
Heights Drilling Licence". Globes . Archived from the original on 14 July 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. The Israel National Oil Company (INOC), intends shortly to approach the Commissioner for Oil Prospecting at the Ministry of National Infrastructures with a demand for a two-year extension of the licence awarded the company in the past for shaft-sinking on the Golan Heights. * ^ "Netanyahu Approves Oil Drilling In Golan
Golan
Heights". Associated Press . Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. 25 October 1996. Retrieved 14 May 2012. The National Oil Company expects the Golan
Golan
site to yield some 2 million barrels of oil and revenue of about $24 million, Haaretz said. * ^ ההחלטה החשאית של השר לנדאו: ישראל תחפש נפט ברמת הגולן . THEMARKER (IN HEBREW). 13 MAY 2012. RETRIEVED 14 MAY 2012. על פי הדיווח, בראשית שנות ה-90, בימי ממשלתו של יצחק רבין ז"ל, הוחלט להקפיא את את מתן הרישיונות על רקע הנסיונות לנהל משא ומתן לשלום בין ישראל לסוריה. * ^ Hayoun, David (3 July 1997). מחפשים נפט, ושלום . GLOBES (IN HEBREW). ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 2 APRIL 2015. RETRIEVED 14 MAY 2012. תהליך הפרטתה של חנ"ל (חברת הנפט הלאומית) החל ברגל ימין: מנהלת רשות החברות הממשלתיות, ציפי ליבני, היתה מאושרת לפני מספר חודשים לשמוע, כי שבע קבוצות ניגשו למיכרז הראשוני לרכישת החברה. * ^ Hayoun, David (3 July 1997). לבני: הוצאת זיכיון הקידוח בגולן מחנ"ל נועדה למנוע חשיפת המדינה לתביעות . GLOBES (IN HEBREW). ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 2 APRIL 2015. RETRIEVED 14 MAY 2012. נודע, כי מנהלת רשות החברות, ציפי לבני, הודיעה על החלטה לשלול את הזיכיון לקידוחים ברמת הגולן לשלוש הקבוצות המתמודדות על רכישת חנ"ל. * ^ Ben Zion, Ilan (13 May 2012). "Government secretly approves Golan
Golan
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Israel
. Retrieved 14 May 2012. * ^ Barkat, Amiram (20 February 2013). " Israel
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awards first Golan oil drilling license". Globes . Retrieved 22 February 2013. * ^ "N.J. firm wins original rights to drill in Golan
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* The Syrian