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The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰, Kök Türük, Chinese: 突厥/تُكِئ; pinyin: Tūjué, Middle Chinese: *duət̚-kʉɐt̚, Dungan: Тўҗүә; Khotanese Saka
Khotanese Saka
Ttūrka, Ttrūka,[1] Old Tibetan Drugu[1]), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
in medieval Inner Asia. The Göktürks, under the leadership of Bumin Qaghan (d. 552) and his sons, succeeded the Rouran Khaganate
Rouran Khaganate
as the main power in the region and established the Turkic Khaganate, one of several nomadic dynasties which would shape the future geolocation, culture, and dominant beliefs of Turkic peoples.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Origins 3 Expansion 4 Rulers 5 See also 6 References

6.1 Bibliography

Etymology[edit]

Map of the Tujue Khanate (Ashina clan of Göktürks) at its greatest extent in 570

Situation of Interior Asia in Late 6th Century with approximate ranges of Eastern and Western Gokturks (Tujue)

Strictly speaking, the common name Göktürk is the Anatolian Turkish form of the ethnonym. The Old Turkic name for the Göktürks
Göktürks
was 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Türük,[2][3] 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰜𐰇𐰛 Kök Türük,[2][3] or Türk.[4] They were known in Middle Chinese historical sources as the tɦutkyat[1] (Chinese: 突厥; pinyin: Tūjué). According to Chinese sources, the meaning of the word Tujue was "combat helmet" (Chinese: 兜鍪; pinyin: Dōumóu; Wade–Giles: Tou1-mou2), reportedly because the shape of the Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
where they lived, was similar to a combat helmet.[5][6][7] Göktürk means "Celestial Turks",[8] or sometimes "Blue Turks" (i.e. because sky blue is associated with celestial realms). This is consistent with "the cult of heavenly ordained rule" which was a recurrent element of Altaic political culture and as such may have been imbibed by the Göktürks
Göktürks
from their predecessors in Mongolia.[9] The name of the ruling Ashina clan may derive from the Khotanese Saka term for "deep blue", āššɪna.[10] The word Türk meant "strong" in Old Turkic.[11] Origins[edit] See also: Timeline of the Göktürks

Kül Tigin

The Göktürk rulers originated from the Ashina clan, who were first attested to 439. The Book of Sui reports that in that year, on October 18, the Tuoba
Tuoba
ruler Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei overthrew Juqu Mujian of the Northern Liang
Northern Liang
in eastern Gansu,[12][13][14] whence 500 Ashina families fled northwest to the Rouran Khaganate
Rouran Khaganate
in the vicinity of Gaochang.[6][15] Peter Benjamin Golden points out that the khaghans of the Turkic Khaganate, the Ashina, who were of an undetermined ethnic origin, adopted Iranian and Tokharian titles.[16] German Turkologist W.-E. Scharlipp points out that many common terms in Turkic are Iranian in origin.[17] According to the Book of Zhou and the History of the Northern Dynasties, the Ashina clan was a component of the Xiongnu confederation,[5][7] but this connection is disputed,[18] and according to the Book of Sui and the Tongdian, they were "mixed Hu (barbarians)" (雜胡) from Pingliang.[6][19] Indeed, Chinese sources linked the Hu on their northern borders to the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
just as Graeco-Roman historiographers called the Pannonian Avars, Huns
Huns
and Hungarians
Hungarians
"Scythians". Such archaizing was a common literary topos, and implied similar geographic origins and nomadic lifestyle but not direct filiation.[20][page needed] As part of the heterogeneous Rouran Khaganate, the Türks lived for generations north of the Altai Mountains, where they 'engaged in metal working for the Rouran'.[6][21] According to Denis Sinor, the rise to power of the Ashina clan represented an 'internal revolution' in the Rouran Khaganate
Rouran Khaganate
rather than an external conquest.[22] According to Charles Holcombe, the early Tujue population was rather heterogeneous and many of the names of Türk rulers, including the two founding members, are not even Turkic.[23] This is supported by evidence from the Orkhon inscriptions, which include several non-Turkic lexemes, possibly representing Finno-Ugric or Samoyedic words.[24] Expansion[edit] After the collapse of China's Sui dynasty, the Göktürks
Göktürks
intervened in the ensuing civil wars, providing support to the northeastern rebel Liu Heita
Liu Heita
against the rising Tang in 622 and 623. He enjoyed a long string of success but was finally routed by Li Shimin
Li Shimin
and other Tang generals and executed. On May 19, 639[25] Ashina Jiesheshuai
Ashina Jiesheshuai
and his tribesmen directly assaulted Emperor Taizong of Tang
Emperor Taizong of Tang
at Jiucheng Palace (九成宮, in present-day Linyou County, Baoji, Shaanxi). However, they did not succeed and fled to the north, but were caught by pursuers near the Wei River and were killed. Ashina Hexiangu was exiled to Lingbiao.[26] After the unsuccessful raid of Ashina Jiesheshuai, on August 13, 639[27] Taizong installed Qilibi Khan and ordered the settled Turkic people to follow him north of the Yellow River to settle between the Great Wall of China
Great Wall of China
and the Gobi Desert.[28] In 679, Ashide Wenfu and Ashide Fengzhi, who were Turkic leaders of the Chanyu Protectorate (單于大都護府), declared Ashina Nishufu as qaghan and revolted against the Tang dynasty.[29] In 680, Pei Xingjian defeated Ashina Nishufu and his army. Ashina Nishufu was killed by his men.[29] Ashide Wenfu made Ashina Funian a qaghan and again revolted against the Tang dynasty.[29] Ashide Wenfu and Ashina Funian surrendered to Pei Xingjian. On December 5, 681[30] 54 Göktürks
Göktürks
including Ashide Wenfu and Ashina Funian were publicly executed in the Eastern Market of Chang'an.[29] In 682, Ilterish Qaghan and Tonyukuk revolted and occupied Heisha Castle (northwest of present-day Hohhot, Inner Mongolia) with the remnants of Ashina Funian's men.[31] Rulers[edit] Main article: Qaghans of the Turkic khaganates See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Göktürks.

Ethnic groups in Chinese history Göktürk family tree Turkmens
Turkmens
(on the Y-DNA of Turkmens) Horses in East Asian warfare Kankalis Khazars Kürşat (hero) Timeline of the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
(500–1300) Turkic peoples Temir Kapig Xiongnu

References[edit]

^ a b c Golden 2011, p. 20. ^ a b Kultegin's Memorial Complex, Türik Bitig Orkhon inscriptions ^ a b Bilge Kagan's Memorial Complex, Türik Bitig ^ Tonyukuk's Memorial Complex, Türik Bitig Bain Tsokto inscriptions ^ a b Linghu Defen et al., Book of Zhou, Vol. 50. (in Chinese) ^ a b c d Wei Zheng
Wei Zheng
et al., Book of Sui, Vol. 84. (in Chinese) ^ a b Li Yanshou (李延寿), History of the Northern Dynasties, Vol. 99. (in Chinese) ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation 2006, p. 545. ^ Wink 64. ^ Findley 2004, p. 39. ^ American Heritage Dictionary (2000). "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition - "Turk"". bartleby.com. Retrieved 2006-12-07. [dead link] ^ Wei Shou, Book of Wei, Vol. 4-I. (in Chinese) ^ Sima Guang, Zizhi Tongjian, Vol. 123. (in Chinese) ^ 永和七年 (太延五年) 九月丙戌 Academia Sinica (in Chinese)[dead link] ^ Christian, p. 249. ^ Golden 1992, p. 126. ^ „(...) Über die Ethnogenese dieses Stammes ist viel gerätselt worden. Auffallend ist, dass viele zentrale Begriffe iranischen Ursprungs sind. Dies betrifft fast alle Titel (...). Einige Gelehrte wollen auch die Eigenbezeichnung türk auf einen iranischen Ursprung zurückführen und ihn mit dem Wort „Turan“, der persischen Bezeichnung für das Land jeneseits des Oxus, in Verbindung bringen.“ Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp in Die frühen Türken in Zentralasien, p. 18 ^ Christian, p. 249 ^ 杜佑, 《通典》, 北京: 中華書局出版, (Du You, Tongdian, Vol.197), 辺防13 北狄4 突厥上, 1988, ISBN 7-101-00258-7, p. 5401. (in Chinese) ^ Sinor 1990. ^ Sima Guang, Zizhi Tongjian, Vol. 159. (in Chinese) ^ Sinor 1990, p. 295. ^ Holcombe 2001, p. 114. ^ Sinor 1990, p. 291. ^ 貞觀十三年 四月戊寅 Academia Sinica Archived 2010-05-22 at the Wayback Machine. (in Chinese) ^ Sima Guang, Zizhi Tongjian, Vol. 195. (in Chinese) ^ 貞觀十三年 七月庚戌 Academia Sinica Archived 2010-05-22 at the Wayback Machine. (in Chinese) ^ Ouyang Xiu et al., New Book of Tang, Vol. 215-I. ^ a b c d Sima Guang, Zizhi Tongjian, Vol. 202 (in Chinese) ^ 開耀元年 十月乙酉 Academia Sinica Archived 2010-05-22 at the Wayback Machine. (in Chinese) ^ Sima Guang, Zizhi Tongjian, Vol. 203 (in Chinese)

Bibliography[edit]

Christian, David. A history of Russia, Central Asia
Central Asia
and Mongolia, Vol. 1: Inner Eurasia from prehistory to the Mongol Empire. Blackwell, 1998. Findley, Carter Vaughn (2004). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-988425-4.  Golden, Peter B. (1992). An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. O. Harrassowitz.  Golden, Peter Benjamin (2011). "Ethnogenesis in the tribal zone: The Shaping of the Turks". Studies on the peoples and cultures of the Eurasian steppes. Bucureşti: Ed. Acad. Române. ISBN 978-973-1871-96-7.  Great Soviet Encyclopaedia, 3rd ed. Article "Turkic Khaganate" (online). Grousset, René. The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press, 1970. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9. Gumilev, Lev
Gumilev, Lev
(2007) (in Russian) The Göktürks
Göktürks
(Древние тюрки ;Drevnie ti︠u︡rki). Moscow: AST, 2007. ISBN 5-17-024793-1. Skaff, Jonathan Karem (2009). Nicola Di Cosmo, ed. Military Culture in Imperial China. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03109-8.  Yu. Zuev (I︠U︡. A. Zuev) (2002) (in Russian), "Early Türks: Essays on history and ideology" (Rannie ti︠u︡rki: ocherki istorii i ideologii), Almaty, Daik-Press, p. 233, ISBN 9985-4-4152-9 Wechsler, Howard J. (1979). "T'ai-Tsung (Reign 626-49): The Consolidator". In Denis Twitchett; John Fairbank. The Cambridge History of China, Volume 3: Sui and T'ang China Part I. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-21446-9.  Wink, André. Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Brill Academic Publishers, 2002. ISBN 0-391-04173-8. Zhu, Xueyuan (朱学渊) (2004) (in Chinese) The Origins of the Ethnic Groups of Northern China (中国北方诸族的源流). Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju (中华书局) ISBN 7-101-03336-9 Xue, Zongzheng (薛宗正) (1992) (in Chinese) A History of the Turks (突厥史). Beijing: Chinese Social Sciences Press (中国社会科学出版社) ISBN 7-5004-0432-8 Nechaeva, Ekaterina (2011). "The "Runaway" Avars and Late Antique Diplomacy". In Ralph W. Mathisen, Danuta Shanzer. Romans, Barbarians, and the Transformation of the Roman World: Cultural Interaction and the Creation of Identity in Late Antiquity. Ashgate. pp. 175–181. ISBN 9780754668145.  Sinor, Denis (1990). The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24304-9. 

v t e

Göktürks

Turkic Khaganate

Bumin Qaghan Issik Qaghan Muqan Qaghan Taspar Qaghan Ashina Anluo Ishbara Qaghan Bagha Qaghan Tulan Qaghan (Istämi) (Empress Ashina) (Apa Qaghan) (Tamgan)

Western Turkic Khaganate

Tardu Niri Qaghan Heshana Khan Sheguy Tong Yabghu Qaghan Külüg Sibir Irbis Bolun Cabgu Dulu Khan Ishbara Qaghan Yukuk Shad Irbis Seguy Hallig (Bagha Shad) (Böri Shad)

Eastern Turkic Khaganate

Yami Qaghan Shibi Qaghan Chulo Qaghan Illig Qaghan Qilibi Qaghan Chebi Qaghan Ashina Nishufu Ashina Funian (Ashina Jiesheshuai)

Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate

Ilterish Qaghan Qapaghan Qaghan Inel Khagan Bilge Khagan Yollıg Khagan Tengri Qaghan Kutluk Yabgu Khagan Irterish Qaghan Özmiş Khagan Kulun Beg (Kul Tigin) (Tonyukuk) (Po Beg)

Western Turkic Protectorate

Exiled House A

Ashina Mishe Ashina Yuanqing Ashina Xian Ashina Zhen

Exiled House B

Ashina Buzhen Bugri qaghan (Ashina Qushraq) Ashina Huaidao Ashina Xin

Göktürk culture

Ashina tribe Ashide clan Tengrism Asena Otukan Suyab Khagan Kurultai Yabgu Ishad Elteber Old Turkic language Old Turkic alphabet Orkhon inscriptions Orkhon Valley Turks in the Tang military Ülüş system

Göktürk wars and treaties

Göktürk civil war Battle of Bukhara Göktürk–Persian Wars

First Second Third

Tang Eastern Turk campaign Xueyantuo Tang Western Turk campaigns

Conquest

Battle of Bolchu Ili River Treaty

v t e

Turkic topics

Languages

Afshar Altay Äynu Azerbaijani Bashkir Bulgar Chagatai Chulym Chuvash Crimean Tatar Cuman Dolgan Fuyü Gïrgïs Gagauz Ili Turki Karachay-Balkar Karaim Karakalpak Karamanli Turkish Kazakh Khakas Khalaj Khazar Khorasani Turkic Kipchak Krymchak Kumyk Kipchak languages Kyrgyz Nogai Old Turkic Ottoman Turkish Pecheneg Qashqai Sakha/Yakut Salar Shor Siberian Tatar Tatar Tofa Turkish Turkmen Tuvan Urum Uyghur Uzbek Western Yugur

Peoples

Afshar Ahiska Altays Azerbaijanis Balkars Bashkirs Bulgars Chulyms Chuvash Crimean Tatars Cumans Dolgans Dughlats Gagauz Iraqi Turkmens Karachays Karaites Karakalpaks Karluks Kazakhs Khakas Khalajs Khazars Khorasani Turks Kimek Kipchaks Krymchaks Kumandins Kumyks Kyrgyz Nogais Oghuz Turks Qarapapaqs Qashqai Salar Shatuo Shors Sybyrs Syrian Turkmen Tatars Telengits Teleuts Tofalar Turgesh Turkish people

in Bulgaria Turkish Cypriots in Kosovo in Egypt in the Republic of Macedonia in Romania in Western Thrace

Turkmens Tuvans Uyghurs Uzbeks Western Yugurs Yakuts Yueban

Politics

Grey Wolves Kemalism Burkhanism Pan-Turkism Turanism

Origins

Turkestan History Timeline of the Göktürks

Timeline 500–1300 migration

Nomadic empire Tian Shan / Altai Mountains Otuken

Locations

Sovereign states

Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus1 Turkey Turkmenistan Uzbekistan

Autonomous areas

Altai Republic Bashkortostan Chuvashia Gagauzia Kabardino-Balkaria Karachay-Cherkessia Karakalpakstan Khakassia Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic Sakha Republic Tatarstan Tuva Xinjiang

Studies

Old Turkic alphabet Proto-Turkic language Turkology

Religions

Turkic mythology Tengrism Shamanism Islam Alevism Batiniyya Bayramiye Bektashi Order Christianity Hurufism Kadiri Khalwati order Malamatiyya Qalandariyya Qizilbash Rifa'i* Safaviyya Zahediyeh Vattisen Yaly

Traditional sports

Kyz kuu Jereed Kokpar Dzhigit Chovgan

Organizations

Turkic Council International Organization of Turkic Culture
International Organization of Turkic Culture
(TÜRKSOY) Organization of the Eurasian Law Enforcement Agencies with Military Status (TAKM) World Turks Qurultai

1 State with limited international recognition.

Authority control

.