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Goguryeo
Goguryeo
(고구려; 高句麗; [ko.ɡu.ɾjʌ], 37 BCE[note 1]–668 CE), also called Goryeo
Goryeo
(고려; 高麗; [ko.ɾjʌ]) was a Korean kingdom[3][4][5][6][7] located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
and the southern and central parts of Manchuria. Along with Baekje
Baekje
and Silla, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. It was an active participant in the power struggle for control of the Korean peninsula
Korean peninsula
and was also associated with the foreign affairs of neighboring polities in China
China
and Japan. The Samguk sagi, a 12th-century text from Goryeo, indicates that Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was founded in 37 BCE by Jumong
Jumong
(Hangul: 주몽; Hanja: 朱蒙), a prince from Buyeo, who was enthroned as Dongmyeong. Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was one of the great powers in East Asia,[8][9][10] until its defeat by a Silla–Tang alliance in 668 after prolonged exhaustion and internal strife caused by the death of Yeon Gaesomun.[11] After its fall, its territory was divided among the states of Later Silla and Balhae. The name Goryeo
Goryeo
(alternately spelled Koryŏ), a shortened form of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
(Koguryŏ), was adopted as the official name in the 5th century,[12] and is the origin of the English name "Korea".

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origin 1.2 Jumong
Jumong
and the foundation myth 1.3 Centralization and early expansion (mid-first century) 1.4 Goguryeo–Wei Wars 1.5 Revival and further expansion (300 to 390) 1.6 Zenith of Goguryeo's Power (391 to 531 AD) 1.7 Internal strife (531 to 551) 1.8 Conflicts of the late 6th and 7th centuries

1.8.1 Goguryeo's loss of the Han River Valley 1.8.2 Goguryeo–Sui War 1.8.3 Goguryeo–Tang War
Goguryeo–Tang War
and the Silla–Tang alliance 1.8.4 Fall 1.8.5 Revival movements

2 Military

2.1 Equipment 2.2 Fortifications 2.3 Organization 2.4 Strategy

3 Foreign relations 4 Culture

4.1 Lifestyle 4.2 Festivals and pastimes 4.3 Religion 4.4 Cultural linkage

5 Legacy

5.1 World Heritage Site 5.2 Name

6 Language 7 Controversies 8 See also 9 References

9.1 Note 9.2 Citations 9.3 Sources

10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] Origin[edit] In the geographic monographs of the Book of Han, the word Goguryeo (hanja: 高句驪) made its first appearance in 113 BCE in the name of Gaogouli County
Gaogouli County
under the jurisdiction of Xuantu Commandery.[13] In the Old Book of Tang
Old Book of Tang
(945), it is recorded that Emperor Taizong refers to Goguryeo's history as being some 900 years old. According to the 12th-century Samguk sagi
Samguk sagi
and the 13th-century Samgungnyusa, a prince from the Buyeo
Buyeo
kingdom named Jumong
Jumong
fled after a power struggle with other princes of the court[14] and founded Goguryeo
Goguryeo
in 37 BCE in a region called Jolbon Buyeo, usually thought to be located in the middle Yalu and Tongjia River basin, overlapping the current China- North Korea
North Korea
border. In 75 BCE, a group of Yemaek who may have originated from Goguryeo made an incursion into China's Xuantu Commandery
Xuantu Commandery
west of the Yalu.[15] However, the weight of textual evidence from the Old Book of Tang, New Book of Tang, the Samguk sagi, the Nihon Shoki
Nihon Shoki
as well as other ancient sources would support a 37 BCE or "middle" first century BCE foundation date for Goguryeo.[citation needed] Archaeological evidence would support centralized groups of Yemaek tribes in the 2nd century BC, but there is no direct evidence that would suggest these Yemaek groups were known as or would identify themselves as Goguryeo. The first mention of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
as a group label associated with Yemaek tribes is a reference in the Han Shu that discusses a Goguryeo
Goguryeo
revolt in 12 CE, during which they broke away from the influence of the Chinese at Xuantu.[16] At its founding, the Goguryeo
Goguryeo
people are believed to be a blend of people from Buyeo
Buyeo
and Yemaek, as leadership from Buyeo
Buyeo
may have fled their kingdom and integrated with existing Yemaek chiefdoms.[17] The Records of the Three Kingdoms, in the section titled "Accounts of the Eastern Barbarians", implied that Buyeo
Buyeo
and the Yemaek people were ethnically related and spoke a similar language.[18] Goguryeo
Goguryeo
and Baekje
Baekje
shared founding myths and originated from Buyeo.[19] Jumong
Jumong
and the foundation myth[edit] Main article: Jumong

Image of the mythical figure from the Goguryeo-era Ohoe Tomb 4.

The earliest mention of Jumong
Jumong
is in the 4th century Gwanggaeto Stele. Jumong
Jumong
is the modern Korean transcription of the hanja 朱蒙 Jumong, 鄒牟 Chumo, or 仲牟 Jungmo. The Stele states that Jumong
Jumong
was the first king and ancestor of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
and that he was the son of the prince of Buyeo
Buyeo
and daughter of the Chinese deity of the Yellow River
Yellow River
Habaek
Habaek
(Hangul: 하백; Hanja: 河伯).[20][21][22][23] The Samguk sagi
Samguk sagi
and Samgungnyusa paint additional detail and names Jumong's mother as Yuhwa (Hangul: 유화; Hanja: 柳花), daughter of the Chinese deity of the Yellow River
Yellow River
Habaek.[20][22][23] Jumong's biological father was said to be a man named Haemosu (Hangul: 해모수; Hanja: 解慕漱) who is described as a "strong man" and "a heavenly prince."[24] The river god chased Yuhwa away to the Ubal River (Hangul: 우발수; Hanja: 優渤水) due to her pregnancy, where she met and became the concubine of Geumwa. Jumong
Jumong
was well known for his exceptional archery skills. Eventually, Geumwa's sons became jealous of him, and Jumong
Jumong
was forced to leave Eastern Buyeo.[25] The Stele and later Korean sources disagree as to which Buyeo
Buyeo
Jumong
Jumong
came from. The Stele says he came from Buyeo
Buyeo
and the Samgungnyusa
Samgungnyusa
and Samguk sagi
Samguk sagi
say he came from Eastern Buyeo. Jumong
Jumong
eventually made it to Jolbon, where he married Soseono, daughter of its ruler. He subsequently became king himself, founding Goguryeo
Goguryeo
with a small group of his followers from his native country. A traditional account from the "Annals of Baekje" section in the Samguk sagi
Samguk sagi
says that Soseono was the daughter of Yeon Tabal, a wealthy influential figure in Jolbon[26] and married to Jumong. However, the same source officially states that the king of Jolbon gave his daughter to Jumong, who had escaped with his followers from Eastern Buyeo, in marriage. She gave her husband, Jumong, financial support[27] in founding the new statelet, Goguryeo. After Yuri, son of Jumong
Jumong
and his first wife, Lady Ye, came from Dongbuyeo and succeeded Jumong, she left Goguryeo, taking her two sons Biryu and Onjo south to found their own kingdoms, one of which was Baekje. Jumong's given surname was "Hae" (Hangul: 해; Hanja: 解), the name of the Buyeo
Buyeo
rulers. According to the Samgungnyusa, Jumong changed his surname to "Go" (Hangul: 고; Hanja: 高) in conscious reflection of his divine parentage.[28] Jumong
Jumong
is recorded to have conquered the tribal states of Biryu (Hangul: 비류국; Hanja: 沸流國) in 36 BCE, Haeng-in (Hangul: 행인국; Hanja: 荇人國) in 33 BCE, and Northern Okjeo
Okjeo
in 28 BCE.[29][30] Centralization and early expansion (mid-first century)[edit] Goguryeo
Goguryeo
developed from a league of various Yemaek tribes to an early state and rapidly expanded its power from their original basin of control in the Hun River drainage. In the time of Taejodae in 53 CE, five local tribes were reorganized into five centrally ruled districts. Foreign relations and the military were controlled by the king. Early expansion might be best explained by ecology; Goguryeo controlled territory in what is currently central and southern Manchuria
Manchuria
and northern Korea, which are both very mountainous and lacking in arable land. Upon centralizing, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
might have been unable to harness enough resources from the region to feed its population and thus, following historical pastoralist tendencies, would have sought to raid and exploit neighboring societies for their land and resources. Aggressive military activities may have also aided expansion, allowing Goguryeo
Goguryeo
to exact tribute from their tribal neighbors and dominate them politically and economically.[31] Taejo conquered the Okjeo
Okjeo
tribes of what is now northeastern Korea
Korea
as well as the Dongye
Dongye
and other tribes in Southeastern Manchuria
Manchuria
and Northern Korea. From the increase of resources and manpower that these subjugated tribes gave him, Taejodae led Goguryeo
Goguryeo
in attacking the Han Commanderies of Lelang and Xuantu in the Korean and Liaodong Peninsulas, becoming fully independent from them.[32] Generally, Taejodae allowed the conquered tribes to retain their chieftains, but required them to report to governors who were related to Goguryeo's royal line; tribes under Goguryeo's jurisdiction were expected to provide heavy tribute. Taejodae and his successors channeled these increased resources to continuing Goguryeo's expansion to the north and west. New laws regulated peasants and the aristocracy, as tribal leaders continued to be absorbed into the central aristocracy. Royal succession changed from fraternal to patrilineal, stabilizing the royal court.[33] The expanding Goguryeo
Goguryeo
kingdom soon entered into direct military contact with the Liaodong commandery to its west. Pressure from Liadong forced Goguryeo
Goguryeo
to move their capital in the Hun River valley to the Yalu River
Yalu River
valley near Hwando.[34] Goguryeo–Wei Wars[edit] Main article: Goguryeo–Wei War In the chaos following the fall of the Han Dynasty, the former Han commanderies had broken free of control and were ruled by various independent warlords. Surrounded by these commanderies, who were governed by aggressive warlords, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
moved to improve relations with the newly created dynasty of Cao Wei
Cao Wei
in China
China
and sent tribute in 220. In 238, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
entered into a formal alliance with Wei to destroy the Liaodong commandery. When Liaodong was finally conquered by Wei, cooperation between Wei and Goguryeo
Goguryeo
fell apart and Goguryeo
Goguryeo
attacked the western edges of Liaodong, which incited a Wei counterattack in 244. Thus, Goguryeo initiated the Goguryeo–Wei War
Goguryeo–Wei War
in 242, trying to cut off Chinese access to its territories in Korea
Korea
by attempting to take a Chinese fort. However, the Wei state responded by invading and defeated Goguryeo. The capital at Hwando
Hwando
was destroyed by Wei forces in 244.[35] It is said that Dongcheon, with his army destroyed, fled for a while to the Okjeo
Okjeo
state in the east.[36] Wei invaded again in 259 but was defeated at Yangmaenggok;[37] according to the Samguk sagi, Jungcheon assembled 5,000 elite cavalry and defeated the invading Wei troops, beheading 8,000 enemies.[38] Revival and further expansion (300 to 390)[edit]

Seated buddhas and bodhisattvas from Wono-ri, Goguryeo.

A gilt-bronze crown from Goguryeo
Goguryeo
believed to have once adorned the head of a bodhisattva image.

In only 70 years, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
rebuilt its capital Hwando
Hwando
and again began to raid the Liaodong, Lelang and Xuantu commandaries. As Goguryeo extended its reach into the Liaodong Peninsula, the last Chinese commandery at Lelang was conquered and absorbed by Micheon in 313, bringing the remaining northern part of the Korean peninsula
Korean peninsula
into the fold.[39] This conquest resulted in the end of Chinese rule over territory in the northern Korean peninsula, which had spanned 400 years.[40][41] From that point on, until the 7th century, territorial control of the peninsula would be contested primarily by the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo
Goguryeo
met major setbacks and defeats during the reign of Gogukwon in the 4th century. In the early 4th century, the nomadic proto-Mongol Xianbei
Xianbei
people occupied northern China;[40] during the winter of 342, the Xianbei
Xianbei
of Former Yan, ruled by the Murong
Murong
clan, attacked and destroyed Goguryeo's capital, Hwando, capturing 50,000 Goguryeo
Goguryeo
men and women to use as slave labor in addition to taking the Queen Dowager and Queen prisoner,[42] and forced Gogukwon to flee for a while. The Xianbei
Xianbei
also devastated Buyeo
Buyeo
in 346, accelerating Buyeo migration to the Korean peninsula.[40] In 371, Geunchogo of Baekje killed Gogukwon in the Battle of Chiyang and sacked Pyongyang, one of Goguryeo's largest cities.[43] Sosurim, who succeeded the slain Gogukwon, reshaped the nation's institutions to save it from a great crisis.[44] Turning to domestic stability and the unification of various conquered tribes, Sosurim proclaimed new laws, embraced Buddhism
Buddhism
as the state religion in 372, and established a national educational institute called the Taehak (Hangul: 태학; Hanja: 太學).[45] Due to the defeats that Goguryeo
Goguryeo
had suffered at the hands of the Xianbei
Xianbei
and Baekje, Sosurim instituted military reforms aimed at preventing such defeats in the future.[44][46] Sosurim's internal arrangements laid the groundwork for Gwanggaeto's expansion.[45] His successor and the father of Gwanggaeto the Great, Gogukyang, invaded Later Yan, the successor state of Former Yan, in 385 and Baekje
Baekje
in 386.[47][48] Goguryeo
Goguryeo
used its military to protect and exploit semi-nomadic peoples, who served as vassals, foot soldiers, or slaves, such as the Okjeo
Okjeo
people in the northeast end of the Korean peninsula, and the Mohe people in Manchuria, who would later become the Jurchens.[49] Zenith of Goguryeo's Power (391 to 531 AD)[edit]

Detail of a rubbing of the Gwanggaeto Stele
Gwanggaeto Stele
(414 AD), one of the few surviving records made by Goguryeo, written in Classical Chinese.

A royal tomb, located in Ji'an, Jilin, was built by the Goguryeo Kingdom.

Goguryeo
Goguryeo
experienced a golden age under Gwanggaeto the Great
Gwanggaeto the Great
and his son Jangsu.[50][51][52][53] During this period, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
territories included three fourths of the Korean Peninsula, including what is now Seoul, almost all of Manchuria,[54] parts of Inner Mongolia,[55] and parts of Russia.[56] There is archaeological evidence that Goguryeo's maximum extent lay even further west in present-day Mongolia, based on discoveries of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
fortress ruins in Mongolia.[57][58][59] Gwanggaeto the Great
Gwanggaeto the Great
(r. 391–412) was a highly energetic emperor who is remembered for his rapid military expansion of the realm.[46] He instituted the era name of Yeongnak or Eternal Rejoicing, affirming that Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was on equal standing with the dynasties in the Chinese mainland.[54][45][60] Gwanggaeto conquered 64 walled cities and 1,400 villages during his campaigns.[45][54][61] To the west, he destroyed neighboring Khitan tribes and invaded Later Yan, conquering the entire Liaodong Peninsula;[45][54][60] to the north and east, he annexed much of Buyeo
Buyeo
and conquered the Sushen, who were Tungusic ancestors of the Jurchens and Manchus;[62] and to the south, he defeated and subjugated Baekje, contributed to the dissolution of Gaya, and vassalized Silla after defending it from a coalition of Baekje, Gaya, and Wa.[63] Gwanggaeto brought about a loose unification of the Korean Peninsula,[54][64] and achieved undisputed control of most of Manchuria
Manchuria
and over two thirds of the Korean Peninsula.[54] Gwanggaeto's exploits were recorded on a huge memorial stele erected by his son Jangsu, located in present-day Ji'an on the border between China
China
and North Korea. Jangsu (r. 413–491) ascended to the throne in 413 and moved the capital in 427 to Pyongyang, a more suitable region to grow into a burgeoning metropolitan capital,[65] which led Goguryeo
Goguryeo
to achieve a high level of cultural and economic prosperity.[66] Jangsu, like his father, continued Goguryeo's territorial expansion into Manchuria
Manchuria
and reached the Songhua River
Songhua River
to the north.[54] He invaded the Khitans, and then attacked the Didouyu, located in eastern Mongolia, with his Rouran allies.[67] Like his father, Jangsu also achieved a loose unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.[54] He defeated Baekje
Baekje
and Silla
Silla
and gained large amounts of territory from both.[45][54] In addition, Jangsu's long reign saw the perfecting of Goguryeo's political, economic and other institutional arrangements.[45] Jangsu ruled Goguryeo
Goguryeo
for 79 years until the age of 98,[68] the longest reign in East Asian history.[69] During the reign of Munja, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
completely annexed Buyeo, signifying Goguryeo's furthest-ever expansion north, while continuing its strong influence over the kingdoms of Silla
Silla
and Baekje, and the tribes of Wuji and Khitan. Internal strife (531 to 551)[edit] Goguryeo
Goguryeo
reached its zenith in the 6th century. After this, however, it began a steady decline. Anjang was assassinated, and succeeded by his brother Anwon, during whose reign aristocratic factionalism increased. A political schism deepened as two factions advocated different princes for succession, until the eight-year-old Yang-won was finally crowned. But the power struggle was never resolved definitively, as renegade magistrates with private armies appointed themselves de facto rulers of their areas of control. Taking advantage of Goguryeo's internal struggle, a nomadic group called the Tuchueh attacked Goguryeo's northern castles in the 550s and conquered some of Goguryeo's northern lands. Weakening Goguryeo even more, as civil war continued among feudal lords over royal succession, Baekje
Baekje
and Silla
Silla
allied to attack Goguryeo
Goguryeo
from the south in 551. Conflicts of the late 6th and 7th centuries[edit] In the late 6th and early 7th centuries, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was often in military conflict with the Sui and Tang dynasties of China. Its relations with Baekje
Baekje
and Silla
Silla
were complex and alternated between alliances and enmity. A neighbor in the northwest were the Eastern Göktürk which was a nominal ally of Goguryeo. Goguryeo's loss of the Han River Valley[edit] In 551 AD, Baekje
Baekje
and Silla
Silla
entered into an alliance to attack Goguryeo
Goguryeo
and conquer the Han River valley, an important strategic area close to the center of the peninsula and a very rich agricultural region. After Baekje
Baekje
exhausted themselves with a series of costly assaults on Goguryeo
Goguryeo
fortifications, Silla
Silla
troops, arriving on the pretense of offering assistance, attacked and took possession of the entire Han River valley in 553. Incensed by this betrayal, Seong launched a retaliatory strike against Silla's western border in the following year but was captured and killed. The war, along the middle of the Korean peninsula, had very important consequences. It effectively made Baekje
Baekje
the weakest player on the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
and gave Silla
Silla
an important resource and population rich area as a base for expansion. Conversely, it denied Goguryeo
Goguryeo
the use of the area, which weakened the kingdom. It also gave Silla
Silla
direct access to the Yellow Sea, opening up direct trade and diplomatic access to the Chinese dynasties and accelerating Silla's adoption of Chinese culture. Thus, Silla
Silla
could rely less on Goguryeo
Goguryeo
for elements of civilization and could get culture and technology directly from China. This increasing tilt of Silla
Silla
to China
China
would result in an alliance that would prove disastrous for Goguryeo
Goguryeo
in the late 7th century. Goguryeo–Sui War[edit] Main articles: Goguryeo–Sui War and Battle of Salsu Goguryeo's expansion conflicted with Sui China
China
and increased tensions. In 598, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
made a preemptive attack on Liaoxi,[70] leading Emperor Wen to launch a counterattack by land and sea that ended in disaster for Sui.[71] Sui's most disastrous campaign against Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was in 612, in which Sui, according to the History of the Sui Dynasty, mobilized 30 Division armies, about 1,133,800 combat troops. Pinned along Goguryeo's line of fortifications on the Liao River, a detachment of nine division armies, about 305,000 troops, bypassed the main defensive lines and headed towards the Goguryeo
Goguryeo
capital of Pyongyang to link up with Sui naval forces, who had reinforcements and supplies. However, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was able to defeat the Sui navy, thus when the Sui's nine division armies finally reached Pyongyang, they didn't have the supplies for a lengthy siege. Sui troops retreated, but General Eulji Mundeok led the Goguryeo
Goguryeo
troops to victory by luring the Sui into an ambush outside of Pyongyang. At the Battle of Salsu, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
soldiers released water from a dam, which split the Sui army and cut off their escape route. Of the original 305,000 soldiers of Sui's nine division armies, it is said that only 2,700 escaped to Sui China. The 613 and 614 campaigns were aborted after launch—the 613 campaign was terminated when the Sui general Yang Xuangan
Yang Xuangan
rebelled against Emperor Yang, while the 614 campaign was terminated after Goguryeo offered a truce and returned Husi Zheng (斛斯政), a defecting Sui general who had fled to Goguryeo, Emperor Yang later had Husi executed. Emperor Yang planned another attack on Goguryeo
Goguryeo
in 615, but due to Sui's deteroriating internal state he was never able to launch it. Sui was weakened due to rebellions against Emperor Yang's rule and his failed attempts to conquer Goguryeo. They could not attack further because the provinces in the Sui heartland would not send logistical support. Emperor Yang's disastrous defeats in Korea
Korea
greatly contributed to the collapse of the Sui dynasty.[71][72][73] Goguryeo–Tang War
Goguryeo–Tang War
and the Silla–Tang alliance[edit] Main articles: Goguryeo–Tang War, First campaign in the Goguryeo–Tang War, and Siege of Ansi

First campaign in the Goguryeo–Tang War.

In the winter of 642, King
King
Yeongnyu was apprehensive about Yeon Gaesomun, one of the great nobles of Goguryeo,[74] and plotted with other officials to kill him. However, Yeon Gaesomun caught news of the plot and killed Yeongnyu and 100 officials, initiating a coup d'état. He proceeded to enthrone Yeongnyu's nephew, Go Jang, as King
King
Bojang while wielding de facto control of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
himself as the generalissimo ((in Korean)). Yeon Gaesomun took an increasingly provocative stance against Silla
Silla
and Tang China. In 643, under pressure from the Goguryeo– Baekje
Baekje
alliance, Silla
Silla
requested military aid from Tang. In 644, Tang began preparations for a major campaign against Goguryeo.[74] In 645, Emperor Taizong, who had a personal ambition to defeat Goguryeo
Goguryeo
and was determined to succeed where Emperor Yang had failed, personally led an attack on Goguryeo. The Tang army captured a number of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
fortresses, including the important Yodong/Liaodong Fortress (遼東城, in modern Liaoyang, Liaoning), and defeated large Goguryeo
Goguryeo
armies in its path. Ansi City
Ansi City
(in modern Haicheng, Liaoning) was the last fortress that would clear the Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
of significant defensive works and was promptly put under siege. However, the capable defense put up by Ansi's commanding general (whose name is controversial but traditionally is believed to be Yang Manchun) stymied Tang forces and, in late fall, with winter fast approaching and his supplies running low, Emperor Taizong withdrew. The campaign was unsuccessful for the Tang Chinese,[43] failing to capture Ansi Fortress after a protracted siege that lasted more than 60 days.[75] Emperor Taizong invaded Goguryeo
Goguryeo
again in 647 and 648, but was defeated both times.[76][77][78][79][80] Emperor Taizong prepared another invasion in 649, but died in the summer, possibly due to an illness he contracted during his Korean campaigns.[79][76] His son Emperor Gaozong continued his campaigns. Upon the suggestion of Kim Chunchu, the Silla–Tang alliance first conquered Baekje
Baekje
in 660 to break up the Goguryeo– Baekje
Baekje
alliance, and then turned its full attention to Goguryeo.[81] However, Emperor Gaozong, too, was unable to defeat Goguryeo
Goguryeo
led by Yeon Gaesomun;[81][82] one of Yeon Gaesomun's most notable victories came in 662 at the Battle of Sasu (蛇水), where he annihilated the Tang forces and killed the invading general Pang Xiaotai (龐孝泰) and all 13 of his sons.[83][84] Therefore, while Yeon Gaesomun was alive, Tang could not defeat Goguryeo.[85] Fall[edit] In the summer of 666, Yeon Gaesomun died of a natural cause and Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was thrown into chaos and weakened by a succession struggle among his sons and younger brother.[86] He was initially succeeded as Dae Mangniji, the highest position newly made under the ruling period of Yeon Gaesomun, by his oldest son Yeon Namsaeng. As Yeon Namsaeng subsequently carried out a tour of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
territory, however, rumors began to spread both that Yeon Namsaeng was going to kill his younger brothers Yeon Namgeon and Yeon Namsan, whom he had left in charge at Pyongyang, and that Yeon Namgeon and Yeon Namsan were planning to rebel against Yeon Namsaeng. When Yeon Namsaeng subsequently sent officials close to him back to Pyongyang
Pyongyang
to try to spy on the situation, Yeon Namgeon arrested them and declared himself Dae Mangniji, attacking his brother. Yeon Namsaeng sent his son Cheon Heonseong (泉獻誠), as Yeon Namsaeng changed his family name from Yeon (淵) to Cheon (泉) observe naming taboo for Emperor Gaozu, to Tang to seek aid. Emperor Gaozong saw this as an opportunity and sent an army to attack and destroy Goguryeo. In the middle of Goguryeo's power struggles between Yeon Gaesomun's successors, his younger brother, Yeon Jeongto, defected to the Silla
Silla
side.[86] In 667, the Chinese army crossed the Liao River
Liao River
and captured Shin/Xin Fortress (新城, in modern Fushun, Liaoning). The Tang forces thereafter fought off counterattacks by Yeon Namgeon, and joined forces with and received every possible assistance from the defector Yeon Namsaeng,[86] although they were initially unable to cross the Yalu River
Yalu River
due to resistance. In spring of 668, Li Ji turned his attention to Goguryeo's northern cities, capturing the important city of Buyeo
Buyeo
(扶餘, in modern Nong'an, Jilin). In fall of 668, he crossed the Yalu River
Yalu River
and put Pyongyang
Pyongyang
under siege in concert with the Silla
Silla
army. Yeon Namsan and Bojang surrendered, and while Yeon Namgeon continued to resist in the inner city, his general, the Buddhist monk Shin Seong (信誠) turned against him and surrendered the inner city to Tang forces. Yeon Namgeon tried to commit suicide, but was seized and treated. This was the end of Goguryeo, and Tang annexed Goguryeo
Goguryeo
into its territory, with Xue Rengui
Xue Rengui
being put initially in charge of former Goguryeo
Goguryeo
territory as protector general. The violent dissension resulting from Yeon Gaesomun's death proved to be the primary reason for the Tang– Silla
Silla
triumph, thanks to the division, defections, and widespread demoralization it caused.[11] The alliance with Silla
Silla
had also proved to be invaluable, thanks to the ability to attack Goguryeo from opposite directions, and both military and logistical aid from Silla.[11] However, there was much resistance to Tang rule (fanned by Silla, which was displeased that Tang did not give it Goguryeo
Goguryeo
or Baekje's territory), and in 669, following Emperor Gaozong's order, a part of the Goguryeo
Goguryeo
people were forced to move to the region between the Yangtze River and the Huai River, as well as the regions south of the Qinling Mountains and west of Chang'an, only leaving old and weak inhabitants in the original land. Some people entered the service of the Tang government, such as Go Sagye and his son Gao Xianzhi
Gao Xianzhi
(Go Seonji in Korean), the famed general who commanded the Tang forces at the Battle of Talas.[87][88][89][90][91] Silla
Silla
thus unified most of the Korean peninsula
Korean peninsula
in 668, but the kingdom's reliance on China's Tang Dynasty had its price. Tang set up the Protectorate General to Pacify the East, governed by Xue Rengui, but faced increasing problems ruling the former inhabitants of Goguryeo, as well as Silla's resistance to Tang's remaining presence on the Korean Peninsula. Silla
Silla
had to forcibly resist the imposition of Chinese rule over the entire peninsula, which lead to the Silla–Tang Wars, but their own strength did not extend beyond the Taedong River.[citation needed] Revival movements[edit] Main article: Goguryeo
Goguryeo
revival movements See also: Balhae After the fall of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
in 668, many Goguryeo
Goguryeo
people rebelled against the Tang and Silla
Silla
by starting Goguryeo
Goguryeo
revival movements. Among these were Geom Mojam, Dae Jung-sang, and several famous generals. The Tang Dynasty tried but failed to establish several commanderies to rule over the area. In 677, Tang crowned Bojang as the " King
King
of Joseon" and put him in charge of the Liaodong commandery of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East. However, Bojang continued to foment rebellions against Tang in an attempt to revive Goguryeo, organizing Goguryeo refugees and allying with the Mohe tribes. He was eventually exiled to Sichuan
Sichuan
in 681, and died the following year. The Protectorate General to Pacify the East
Protectorate General to Pacify the East
was installed by the Tang government to rule and keep control over the former territories of the fallen Goguryeo. It was first put under the control of Tang General Xue Rengui, but was later replaced by Bojang due the negative responses of the Goguryeo
Goguryeo
people. Bojang was sent into exile for assisting Goguryeo
Goguryeo
revival movements, but was succeeded by his descendants. Bojang's descendants declared independence from Tang during the same period as the An Lushan Rebellion
An Lushan Rebellion
and Li Zhengji (Yi Jeong-gi in Korean)'s rebellion in Shandong.[92][93] The Protectorate General to Pacify the East was renamed "Little Goguryeo" until its eventual absorption into Balhae
Balhae
under the reign of Seon. Geom Mojam and Anseung rose briefly at the Han Fortress (한성, 漢城, in modern Chaeryong, South Hwanghae), but failed, when Anseung surrendered to Silla. Go Anseung ordered the assassination of Geom Mojam, and defected to Silla, where he was given a small amount of land to rule over. There, Anseung established the State of Bodeok (보덕, 報德), incited a rebellion, which was promptly crushed by Sinmun. Anseung was then forced to reside in the Silla
Silla
capital, given a Silla
Silla
bride and had to adopt the Silla
Silla
Royal surname of "Kim." Dae Jung-sang and his son Dae Jo-yeong, both former Goguryeo
Goguryeo
generals, regained most of Goguryeo's northern land after its downfall in 668, established the Kingdom of Jin (진, 震), which was renamed to Balhae after 713. To the south of Balhae, Silla
Silla
controlled the Korean peninsula south of the Taedong River, and Manchuria
Manchuria
(present-day northeastern China) was conquered by Balhae. Balhae
Balhae
considered itself (particularly in diplomatic correspondence with Japan) a successor state of Goguryeo. In 901, the general Gung Ye
Gung Ye
rebelled against Later Silla
Silla
and founded Later Goguryeo
Goguryeo
(renamed to Taebong
Taebong
in 911), which considered itself to be a successor of Goguryeo. Later Goguryeo
Goguryeo
originated in the northern regions, including Songak (modern Kaesong), which were the strongholds of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
refugees.[94][95] Later Goguryeo's original capital was established in Songak, the hometown of Wang Geon, a prominent general under Gung Ye.[96] Wang Geon was a descendant of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
and traced his ancestry to a noble Goguryeo
Goguryeo
clan.[97] In 918, Wang Geon overthrew Gung Ye
Gung Ye
and established Goryeo, as the successor of Goguryeo, and laid claim to Manchuria
Manchuria
as Goryeo's rightful legacy.[98][99][100][101] Wang Geon unified the Later Three Kingdoms in 936, and Goryeo
Goryeo
ruled the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
until 1392. In the 10th century, Balhae
Balhae
collapsed and much of its ruling class and the last crown prince Dae Gwang-hyeon fled to Goryeo. The Balhae refugees were warmly welcomed and included in the ruling family by Wang Geon, who felt a strong familial kinship with Balhae,[99][102][103] thus unifying the two successor nations of Goguryeo.[104] Military[edit] Main article: Military history of Goguryeo Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was a highly militaristic state.[105] Goguryeo
Goguryeo
has been described as an empire by Korean scholars.[106][107] Initially, there were four partially autonomous districts based on the cardinal directions, and a central district led by the monarch; however, in the first century the cardinal districts became centralized and administrated by the central district, and by the end of the 3rd century, they lost all political and military authority to the monarch.[108] In the 4th century, after suffering defeats against the Xianbei
Xianbei
and Baekje
Baekje
during the reign of Gogukwon, Sosurim instituted military reforms that paved the way for Gwanggaeto's conquests.[44][45] During its height, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was able to mobilize 300,000 troops.[109][110] Goguryeo
Goguryeo
often enlisted semi-nomadic vassals, such as the Mohe people, as foot soldiers.[49] Every man in Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was required to serve in the military, or could avoid conscription by paying extra grain tax. A Tang treatise of 668 records a total of 675,000 displaced personnel and 176 military garrisons after the surrender of Bojang. Equipment[edit]

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The main projectile weapon used in Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was the bow. The bows were modified to be more composite and increase throwing ability on par with crossbows. To a lesser extent, stone-throwing machines and crossbows were also used. Polearms, used against the cavalry and in open order, were mostly spears. Two types of swords were used by Goguryeo
Goguryeo
warriors. The first was a shorter double-edged variant mostly used for throwing. The other was longer single-edged sword with minimal hilt and ring pommel, of obvious eastern han influence. The helmets were similar to helmets used by Central Asian peoples, decorated with wings, leathers and horsetails. The shield was the main protection, which covered most of the soldier's body. These cavalry were called Gaemamusa (개마무사, 鎧馬武士), which is similar type with that of Cataphract. Fortifications[edit] See also: Korean fortress
Korean fortress
and List of Korean fortresses in China The most common form of the Goguryeo
Goguryeo
fortress was one made in the shape of the moon, located between a river and its tributary. Ditches and ground walls between the shores formed an extra defense line. The walls were extensive in their length, and they were constructed from huge stone blocks fixed with clay, and even Chinese artillery had difficulty to break through them. Walls were surrounded by a ditch to prevent an underground attack, and equipped with guard towers. All fortresses had sources of water and enough equipment for a protracted siege. If rivers and mountains were absent, extra defense lines were added. Organization[edit] Two hunts per year, led by the king himself, maneuvers exercises, hunt-maneuvers and parades were conducted to give the Goguryeo
Goguryeo
soldier a high level of individual training. There were five armies in the capital, mostly cavalry that were personally led by the king, numbering approximately 12,500. Military units varied in number from 21,000 to 36,000 soldiers, were located in the provinces, and were led by the governors. Military colonies near the boundaries consisted mostly of soldiers and peasants. There were also private armies held by aristocrats. This system allowed Goguryeo to maintain and utilize an army of 50,000 without added expense, and 300,000 through large mobilization in special cases. Goguryeo
Goguryeo
units were divided according to major weapons: spearmen, axemen, archers composed of those on foot and horseback, and heavy cavalry that included armored and heavy spear divisions. Other groups like the catapult units, wall-climbers, and storm units were part of the special units and were added to the common. The advantage of this functional division is highly specialized combat units, while the disadvantage is that it was impossible for one unit to make complex, tactical actions. Strategy[edit] The military formation had the general and his staff with guards in the middle of the army. The archers were defended by axemen. In front of the general were the main infantry forces, and on the flanks were rows of heavy cavalry ready to counterattack in case of a flank attack by the enemy. In the very front and rear was the light cavalry, used for intelligence, pursuit, and for weakening the enemy's strike. Around the main troops were small groups of heavy cavalrymen and infantry. Each unit was prepared to defend the other by providing mutual support. Goguryeo
Goguryeo
implemented a strategy of active defense based on cities. Besides the walled cities and fortified camps, this active defense system used small units of light cavalry to continuously harass the enemy, de-blockade units and strong reserves, consisting of the best soldiers, to strike hard at the end. Goguryeo
Goguryeo
also employed military intelligence and special tactics as an important part of the strategy. Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was good at disinformation, such as sending only stone spearheads as tribute to the Chinese court when they were in the Iron Age. Goguryeo
Goguryeo
had developed its system of espionage. One of the most famous spies, Baekseok, mentioned in the Samguk yusa, was able to infiltrate the Hwarangs of Silla. Foreign relations[edit] The militaristic nature of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
has frequently drawn them into conflicts with dynasties in China.[citation needed] In the times when they are not in war with China, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
occasionally sent tributes to some of the Chinese dynasties as a form of trade and nonaggression pact. These activities of exchange promoted cultural and religious flow from China
China
into the Korean peninsula. Goguryeo
Goguryeo
has also received tribute from other Korean kingdoms and neighboring tribal states, and frequently mobilized Malgal people in their military. Baekje
Baekje
and Goguryeo
Goguryeo
maintained their regional rivalry throughout their history, although they eventually formed an alliance in their wars against Silla
Silla
and Tang.[citation needed] Culture[edit]

Goguryeo
Goguryeo
roof-tile

The culture of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was shaped by its climate, religion, and the tense society that people dealt with due to the numerous wars Goguryeo waged. Not much is known about Goguryeo
Goguryeo
culture, as many records have been lost. Lifestyle[edit] The inhabitants of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
wore a predecessor of the modern hanbok, just as the other cultures of the three kingdoms. There are murals and artifacts that depict dancers wearing elaborate white dresses. Festivals and pastimes[edit] Common pastimes among Goguryeo
Goguryeo
people were drinking, singing, or dancing. Games such as wrestling attracted curious spectators. Every October, the Dongmaeng Festival was held. The Dongmaeng Festival was practiced to worship the gods. The ceremonies were followed by huge celebratory feasts, games, and other activities. Often, the king performed rites to his ancestors. Hunting was a male activity and also served as an appropriate means to train young men for the military. Hunting parties rode on horses and hunted deer and other game with bows-and-arrows. Archery
Archery
contests also occurred. Religion[edit]

A Goguryeo
Goguryeo
tomb mural.

A mural of a three-legged bird in a Goguryeo
Goguryeo
tomb.

Goguryeo
Goguryeo
people worshipped ancestors and considered them to be supernatural.[111][better source needed] Jumong, the founder of Goguryeo, was worshipped and respected among the people. There was even a temple in Pyongyang
Pyongyang
dedicated to Jumong. At the annual Dongmaeng Festival, a religious rite was performed for Jumong, ancestors, and gods.[citation needed] Mythical beasts and animals were also considered to be sacred in Goguryeo. The phoenix and dragon were both worshipped, while the Samjogo, the three-legged crow that represented the sun, was considered the most powerful of the three. Paintings of mythical beasts exist in Goguryeo
Goguryeo
king tombs today.[citation needed] They also believed in the 'Sasin', who were 4 mythical animals. Chungryong or Chunryonga (blue dragon) guarded the east, baek-ho (white tiger) guarded the west, jujak (red phoenix (bird)) guarded the south, and hyunmu (black turtle (sometimes with snakes for a tail)) guarded the north. These mythical animals are similar to the Azure Dragon, Vermilion Bird, White Tiger, and Black Tortoise
Black Tortoise
of the Four Symbols.[citation needed] Buddhism
Buddhism
was first introduced to Goguryeo
Goguryeo
in 372.[112] The government recognized and encouraged the teachings of Buddhism
Buddhism
and many monasteries and shrines were created during Goguryeo's rule, making Goguryeo
Goguryeo
the first kingdom in the region to adopt Buddhism. However, Buddhism
Buddhism
was much more popular in Silla
Silla
and Baekje, which Goguryeo passed Buddhism
Buddhism
to.[112]

Ssireum
Ssireum
depicted on Goguryeo
Goguryeo
mural

Cultural linkage[edit] Goguryeo
Goguryeo
art, preserved largely in tomb paintings, is noted for the vigour of its imagery. Fine detail can be seen in Goguryeo
Goguryeo
tomb and other murals. Many of the art pieces has an original style of painting. Cultural legacies of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
may be found in modern Korean culture, for example: Korean fortress, ssireum,[113] taekkyeon,[114][115] Korean dance, ondol, Goguryeo's floor heating system, and the hanbok.[116] Legacy[edit] Remains of walled towns, fortresses, palaces, tombs, and artifacts have been found in North Korea
North Korea
and Manchuria, including ancient paintings in a Goguryeo
Goguryeo
tomb complex in Pyongyang. Some ruins are also still visible in present-day China, for example at Wunü Mountain, suspected to be the site of Jolbon fortress, near Huanren in Liaoning province on the present border with North Korea. Ji'an is also home to a large collection of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
era tombs, including what Chinese scholars consider to be the tombs of Gwanggaeto and his son Jangsu, as well as perhaps the best-known Goguryeo
Goguryeo
artifact, the Gwanggaeto Stele, which is one of the primary sources for pre-5th-century Goguryeo
Goguryeo
history. World Heritage Site[edit] UNESCO
UNESCO
added Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient
Ancient
Koguryo Kingdom in present-day China
China
and Complex of Goguryeo Tombs
Complex of Goguryeo Tombs
in present-day North Korea
North Korea
to the World Heritage Sites in 2004. Name[edit] The modern English name "Korea" derives from Goryeo
Goryeo
(also spelled as Koryŏ) (918–1392), which regarded itself as the legitimate successor of Goguryeo.[98][99][100][101] The name Goryeo
Goryeo
was first used during the reign of Jangsu in the 5th century. Goguryeo
Goguryeo
is also referred to as Goryeo
Goryeo
after 520 AD in Chinese and Japanese historical and diplomatic sources.[117][118] Language[edit] Main article: Goguryeo
Goguryeo
language See also: Old Korean and Buyeo
Buyeo
Languages There have been some academic attempts to reconstruct the Goguryeo words based on the fragments of toponyms, recorded in the Samguk sagi, of the areas once possessed by Goguryeo. However, the reliability of the toponyms as linguistic evidence is still in dispute.[1] Some linguists propose the so-called " Buyeo
Buyeo
languages" family that includes the languages of Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje. Chinese records also suggest that the languages of Goguryeo, Buyeo, East Okjeo, and Gojoseon
Gojoseon
were similar, while Goguryeo language
Goguryeo language
differed from that of Malgal (Mohe).[119][120][121] Controversies[edit]

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Main article: Goguryeo
Goguryeo
controversies See also: Northeast Project of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Goguryeo
Goguryeo
was traditionally viewed in China
China
as a Korean kingdom, but in modern times, the Chinese government began to recharacterize Goguryeo as a part of the Chinese empire rather than an independent Korean kingdom. This received heated criticisms from Korean scholars, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
experts from various countries and also some Chinese scholars.[122][123][124] Both South Korea
South Korea
and North Korea
North Korea
officially condemned China's attempt to rewrite history. Online discussion regarding this topic has increased. The Internet has provided a platform for a broadening participation in the discussion of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
in both South Korea
South Korea
and China. Thomas Chase points out that despite the growing online discussion on this subject, this has not led to a more objective treatment of this history, nor a more critical evaluation of its relationship to national identity.[125] See also[edit]

Cheolli Jangseong History of Korea Taebong Military history of Korea Koma clan

References[edit] Note[edit]

^ a b North Korea
North Korea
claims that the country was established in 277 BC: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, North Korea.

Citations[edit]

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유화부인 柳花夫人. Doosan Encyclopedia.  ^ a b Doosan Encyclopedia
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하백 河伯. Doosan Encyclopedia.  ^ a b Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
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Online (in Korean) ^ Ilyon, "Samguk Yusa", p. 46–47 ^ 《三国史记》:“六年 秋八月 神雀集宫庭 冬十月 王命乌伊扶芬奴 伐太白山东南人国 取其地为城邑。十年 秋九月 鸾集于王台 冬十一月 王命扶尉 伐北沃沮灭之 以其地为城邑” ^ (My Goguryeo
Goguryeo
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Korea
(illustrated ed.). Kegan Paul International. p. 22. ISBN 0-7103-0532-X. Retrieved 9 February 2012. Wei. In 242, under King
King
Tongch'ŏn, they attacked a Chinese fortress near the mouth of the Yalu in an attempt to cut the land route across Liao, in return for which the Wei invaded them in 244 and sacked Hwando.  ^ 'Gina L. Barnes', "State Formation in Korea", 2001 Curzon Press, page 23' ^ Injae, Lee; Miller, Owen; Jinhoon, Park; Hyun-Hae, Yi. Korean History in Maps. Cambridge University Press. p. 30. ISBN 9781107098466. Retrieved 10 October 2016.  ^ Kim Bu-sik. Samguk Sagi. 17. 十二年冬十二月王畋于杜訥之谷魏將尉遲楷名犯長陵諱將兵來伐王簡精騎五千戰於梁貊之谷敗之斬首八千餘級  ^ 'Ki-Baik Lee', "A New History of Korea", 1984 Harvard University Press, page 20 ^ a b c Tennant, Charles Roger. A History of Korea. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 9780710305329. Retrieved 10 October 2016. Soon after, the Wei fell to the Jin and Koguryŏ grew stronger, until in 313 they finally succeeded in occupying Lelang and bringing to an end the 400 years of China's presence in the peninsula, a period sufficient to ensure that for the next 1,500 it would remain firmly within the sphere of its culture. After the fall of the Jin in 316, the proto-Mongol Xianbei
Xianbei
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Murong
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Shandong
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Sources[edit]

Beckwith, Christopher I. (2007). Koguryo: The Language of Japan’s Continental Relatives: An Introduction to the Historical-Comparative Study of the Japanese-Koguryoic Languages, with a Preliminary Description of Archaic Northeastern Middle Chinese (Second Edition. ed.). BRILL. ISBN 978-90-474-2028-6.  Pozzi, Alessandra; Janhunen, Juha Antero; Weiers, Michael, eds. (2006). Tumen Jalafun Jecen Aku: Manchu Studies in Honour of Giovanni Stary. Volume 20 of Tunguso Sibirica. Giovanni Stary (Contributor). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 344705378X. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Byeon, Tae-seop (1999). 韓國史通論 (Outline of Korean history), 4th ed. Unknown Publisher. ISBN 89-445-9101-6.  Metropolitan Museum, Unknown Author (n.d.), Korea, 1-500AD, Unknown Publisher  Beckwith, Christopher I. (August 2003), Ancient
Ancient
Koguryo, Old Koguryo, and the Relationship of Japanese to Korean (PDF), Michigan State University, retrieved 2006-03-12  Unknown Author (n.d.), Koguryo, Britannica Encyclopedia, archived from the original on 2007-02-12  Unknown Author (2005), "Korea", Columbia Encyclopedia, Bartleby.com, retrieved 2007-03-12  Sun, Jinji (1986), Zhongguo Gaogoulishi yanjiu kaifang fanrong de liunian (Six Years of Opening and Prosperity of Koguryo History Research), Heilongjiang People's Publishing House  Byington, Mark (2004b), The War of Words Between South Korea
South Korea
and China Over An Ancient
Ancient
Kingdom: Why Both Sides Are Misguided, History News Network (WWW)  Chase, Thomas (2011), "Nationalism on the Net: Online discussion of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
history in China
China
and South Korea", China
China
Information, 25 (1): 61–82  ScienceView, Unknown Author (n.d.), Cultural Development of the Three Kingdoms, ScienceView (WWW), archived from the original on 2006-08-22  Rhee, Song nai (1992) Secondary State Formation: The Case of Koguryo State. In Aikens, C. Melvin (1992). Pacific northeast Asia in prehistory: hunter-fisher-gatherers, farmers, and sociopolitical elites. WSU Press. ISBN 978-0-87422-092-6.  Asmolov, V. Konstantin. (1992). The System of Military Activity of Koguryo, Korea
Korea
Journal, v. 32.2, 103–116, 1992.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Goguryeo
Goguryeo
Kingdom.

(in English) Encyclopædia Britannica (in English) Encarta (Archived 2009-10-31) (in English) Columbia Encyclopedia (in Korean) Information about the ancient kingdom (in English) Goguryeo
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