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Godzilla
Godzilla
(Japanese: ゴジラ, Hepburn: Gojira) (/ɡɒdˈzɪlə/; [ɡoꜜdʑiɾa] ( listen)) is a monster originating from a series of tokusatsu films of the same name from Japan. The character first appeared in Ishirō Honda's 1954 film Godzilla
Godzilla
and become a worldwide pop culture icon, appearing in media including 29 films produced by Toho, three Hollywood films, and numerous video games, novels, comic books, television shows. It is often dubbed the "King of the Monsters", a phrase first used in Godzilla, King of the Monsters!, the Americanized version of the original film. Godzilla
Godzilla
is depicted as an enormous, destructive, prehistoric sea monster awakened and empowered by nuclear radiation. With the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Lucky Dragon 5 incident still fresh in the Japanese consciousness, Godzilla
Godzilla
was conceived as a metaphor for nuclear weapons.[23] As the film series expanded, some stories took on less serious undertones, portraying Godzilla
Godzilla
as an antihero, or a lesser threat who defends humanity. With the end of the Cold War, several post-1984 Godzilla
Godzilla
films shifted the character's portrayal to themes including Japan's forgetfulness over its imperial past,[24] natural disasters, and the human condition.[25] Godzilla
Godzilla
has been featured alongside many supporting characters. It has faced human opponents such as the JSDF, or other monsters, including King Ghidorah, Gigan
Gigan
and Mechagodzilla. Godzilla
Godzilla
sometimes has allies, such as Mothra, Rodan
Rodan
and Anguirus, and offspring, such as Minilla
Minilla
and Godzilla
Godzilla
Junior. Godzilla
Godzilla
has also fought characters from other franchises in crossover media, such as RKO Pictures/Universal Studios movie monster King Kong
King Kong
and American comic books
American comic books
publisher Marvel Comics' characters S.H.I.E.L.D.,[26] the Fantastic Four[27] and the Avengers.[28]

Contents

1 Overview

1.1 Name 1.2 Characteristics 1.3 Roar 1.4 Size 1.5 Special
Special
effects details

2 Appearances 3 Cultural impact

3.1 Cultural ambassador

4 References

4.1 Bibliography

5 External links

Overview Name Gojira (ゴジラ) is a portmanteau of the Japanese words: gorira (ゴリラ, "gorilla"), and kujira (鯨 (クジラ), "whale"), which is fitting because in one planning stage, Godzilla
Godzilla
was described as "a cross between a gorilla and a whale",[29] alluding to its size, power and aquatic origin. One popular story is that "Gojira" was actually the nickname of a corpulent stagehand at Toho
Toho
Studio.[30] Kimi Honda, the widow of the director, dismissed this in a 1998 BBC documentary devoted to Godzilla, "The backstage boys at Toho
Toho
loved to joke around with tall stories".[31] Godzilla's name was written in ateji as Gojira (呉爾羅), where the kanji are used for phonetic value and not for meaning.[citation needed] The Japanese pronunciation of the name is [ɡoꜜdʑiɾa] ( listen); the Anglicized form is /ɡɒdˈzɪlə/, with the first syllable pronounced like the word "god", and the rest rhyming with "gorilla". In the Hepburn romanization system, Godzilla's name is rendered as "Gojira", whereas in the Kunrei romanization system it is rendered as "Gozira".[citation needed] During the development of the American version of Godzilla
Godzilla
Raids Again (1955), Godzilla's name was changed to "Gigantis", a move initiated by producer Paul Schreibman, who wanted to create a character distinct from Godzilla.[32] Characteristics

Every film incarnation of Godzilla
Godzilla
between 1954–2017

Within the context of the Japanese films, Godzilla's exact origins vary, but it is generally depicted as an enormous, violent, prehistoric sea monster awakened and empowered by nuclear radiation.[33] Although the specific details of Godzilla's appearance have varied slightly over the years, the overall impression has remained consistent.[34] Inspired by the fictional Rhedosaurus created by animator Ray Harryhausen
Ray Harryhausen
for the film The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms,[35] Godzilla's iconic character design was conceived as that of an amphibious reptilian monster based around the loose concept of a dinosaur[36] with an erect standing posture, scaly skin, an anthropomorphic torso with muscular arms, spikes on its back and tail, and a furrowed brow.[37] Art director Akira Watanabe combined attributes of a Tyrannosaurus, an Iguanodon, a Stegosaurus
Stegosaurus
and an alligator[38] to form a sort of blended chimera, inspired by illustrations from an issue of Life magazine.[39] To emphasise the monster's relationship with the atomic bomb, its skin texture was inspired by the keloid scars seen on survivors in Hiroshima.[40] The basic design has a reptilian visage, a robust build, an upright posture, a long tail and rows of serrated fins along the back. In the original film, the fins were added for purely aesthetic purposes, in order to further differentiate Godzilla
Godzilla
from any other living or extinct creature. Godzilla
Godzilla
is sometimes depicted as green in comics, cartoons and movie posters, but the costumes used in the movies were usually painted charcoal grey with bone-white dorsal fins up until the film Godzilla
Godzilla
2000.[41]

Godzilla's atomic breath, as shown in Godzilla
Godzilla
(1954)

Godzilla's signature weapon is its "atomic breath," a nuclear blast that it generates inside of its body and unleashes from its jaws in the form of a blue or red radioactive heat ray.[42] Toho’s special effects department has used various techniques to render the breath, from physical gas-powered flames[43] to hand-drawn or computer-generated fire. Godzilla
Godzilla
is shown to possess immense physical strength and muscularity. Haruo Nakajima, the actor who played Godzilla
Godzilla
in the original films, was a black belt in Judo and used his expertise to choreograph the battle sequences.[44] Godzilla
Godzilla
can breathe underwater,[42] and is described in the original film by the character Dr. Yamane as a transitional form between a marine and a terrestrial reptile. Godzilla
Godzilla
is shown to have great vitality: it is immune to conventional weaponry thanks to its rugged hide and ability to regenerate,[45] and as a result of surviving a nuclear explosion, it cannot be destroyed by anything less powerful. Various films, television shows, comics and games have depicted Godzilla
Godzilla
with additional powers such as an atomic pulse,[46] magnetism,[47] precognition,[48] fireballs,[49] an electric bite,[50] superhuman speed,[51] eye beams[52] and even flight.[53] Godzilla's allegiance and motivations have changed from film to film to suit the needs of the story. Although Godzilla
Godzilla
does not like humans,[54] it will fight alongside humanity against common threats. However, it makes no special effort to protect human life or property[55] and will turn against its human allies on a whim. It is not motivated to attack by predatory instinct: it does not eat people,[56] and instead sustains itself on radiation[57] and an omnivorous diet.[58] When inquired if Godzilla
Godzilla
was "good or bad", producer Shogo Tomiyama likened it to a Shinto
Shinto
"God of Destruction" which lacks moral agency and cannot be held to human standards of good and evil. "He totally destroys everything and then there is a rebirth. Something new and fresh can begin."[56]

Godzilla
Godzilla
battles King Kong
King Kong
in King Kong
King Kong
vs. Godzilla
Godzilla
(1962). This film has the highest Japanese box office attendance figures in the entire Godzilla
Godzilla
series to date.[59]

In the original Japanese films, Godzilla
Godzilla
and all the other monsters are referred to with gender-neutral pronouns equivalent to "it",[60] while in the English dubbed versions, Godzilla
Godzilla
is explicitly described as a male, such as in the title of Godzilla, King of the Monsters!. The creature in the 1998 Godzilla
Godzilla
film was depicted laying eggs through parthenogenesis.[61][62][63] Roar Godzilla
Godzilla
has a distinctive disyllabic roar (transcribed in several comics as Skreeeonk!),[64][65] which was created by composer Akira Ifukube, who produced the sound by rubbing a pine-tar-resin-coated glove along the string of a contrabass and then slowing down the playback.[66] In the American version of Godzilla Raids Again
Godzilla Raids Again
(1955) entitled Gigantis the Fire Monster, Godzilla's iconic roar was substituted with that of the monster Anguirus.[32] From The Return of Godzilla
Godzilla
(1984) to Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. King Ghidorah
King Ghidorah
(1991), Godzilla
Godzilla
was given a deeper and more threatening-sounding roar than in previous films, though this change was reverted from Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Mothra
Mothra
(1992) onwards.[67] For the 2014 American film, sound editors Ethan Van der Ryn and Erik Aadahl refused to disclose the source of the sounds used for their Godzilla's roar.[66] Aadahl described the two syllables of the roar as representing two different emotional reactions, with the first expressing fury, and the second conveying the character's soul.[68] Size

Toho's Heisei Godzilla
Godzilla
(left, 100 metres tall) confronting Legendary's Godzilla
Godzilla
(right, 108.2 metres tall) as shown in Bandai Namco's 2014 video game Godzilla

Godzilla's size is inconsistent, changing from film to film and even from scene to scene for the sake of artistic license.[56] The miniature sets and costumes were typically built at a ​1⁄25–​1⁄50 scale[69] and filmed at 240 frames per second, to create the illusion of great size.[70] In the original 1954 film, Godzilla
Godzilla
was scaled to be 50 m (164 ft) tall.[71] This was done so Godzilla
Godzilla
could just peer over the largest buildings in Tokyo at the time.[2] In the 1956 American version, Godzilla
Godzilla
is estimated to be 122 m (400 ft) tall, because producer Joseph E. Levine felt that 50 m did not sound "powerful enough".[72] As the series progressed Toho
Toho
would rescale the character, eventually making Godzilla
Godzilla
as tall as 100 m (328 ft).[73] This was so that it would not be dwarfed by the newer bigger buildings in Tokyo's skyline such as the 243-meter-tall (797 ft) Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building which Godzilla
Godzilla
destroyed in the film Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. King Ghidorah (1991). Supplementary information such as character profiles would also depict Godzilla
Godzilla
as weighing between 20,000 and 60,000 metric tons (22,000 and 66,000 short tons).[71][73] In the American film Godzilla
Godzilla
(2014) from Legendary Pictures, Godzilla
Godzilla
was scaled to be 108.2 m (355 ft) and weighing 90,000 metric tons (99,000 short tons), making it the largest film version to that time.[74] Director Gareth Edwards wanted Godzilla
Godzilla
"to be so big as to be seen from anywhere in the city, but not too big that he couldn’t be obscured".[75] For Shin Godzilla
Shin Godzilla
(2016), Godzilla
Godzilla
was made even taller than the Legendary version, at 118.5 m (389 ft).[76][77] Special
Special
effects details

Suit fitting on the set of Godzilla Raids Again
Godzilla Raids Again
(1955), with Haruo Nakajima portraying Godzilla
Godzilla
on the left

Godzilla's appearance has traditionally been portrayed in the films by an actor wearing a latex costume, though the character has also been rendered in animatronic, stop-motion and computer-generated form.[78][79] Taking inspiration from King Kong, special effects artist Eiji Tsuburaya had initially wanted Godzilla
Godzilla
to be portrayed via stop-motion, but prohibitive deadlines and a lack of experienced animators in Japan
Japan
at the time made suitmation more practical. The first suit consisted of a body cavity made of thin wires and bamboo wrapped in chicken wire for support, and covered in fabric and cushions, which were then coated in latex. The first suit was held together by small hooks on the back, though subsequent Godzilla
Godzilla
suits incorporated a zipper. Its weight was in excess of 100 kg (220 lb).[41] Prior to 1984, most Godzilla
Godzilla
suits were made from scratch, thus resulting in slight design changes in each film appearance.[80] The most notable changes during the 1960s-70s were the reduction in Godzilla's number of toes and the removal of the character's external ears and prominent fangs, features which would later be reincorporated in the Godzilla
Godzilla
designs from The Return of Godzilla
Godzilla
(1984) onward.[81] The most consistent Godzilla
Godzilla
design was maintained from Godzilla vs Biollante
Godzilla vs Biollante
(1989) to Godzilla
Godzilla
vs Destoroyah (1995), when the suit was given a cat-like face and double rows of teeth.[82] Several suit actors had difficulties in performing as Godzilla, due to the suits' weight, lack of ventilation and diminished visibility.[41] Kenpachiro Satsuma in particular, who portrayed Godzilla
Godzilla
from 1984 to 1995, described how the Godzilla
Godzilla
suits he wore were even heavier and hotter than their predecessors, because of the incorporation of animatronics.[83] Satsuma himself suffered numerous medical issues during his tenure, including oxygen deprivation, near drowning, concussions, electric shocks, and lacerations to the legs from the suits' steel wire reinforcements wearing through the rubber padding.[84] The ventilation problem was partially solved in the suit used in 1994's Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. SpaceGodzilla, which was the first to include an air duct, which allowed suit actors to last longer during performances.[85] In The Return of Godzilla
The Return of Godzilla
(1984), some scenes made use of a 16-foot high robotic Godzilla
Godzilla
(dubbed "Cybot Godzilla") for use in close-up shots of the creature's head. The Cybot Godzilla consisted of a hydraulically-powered mechanical endoskeleton covered in urethane skin containing 3,000 computer operated parts which permitted it to tilt its head, and move its lips and arms.[86] In Godzilla
Godzilla
(1998), special effects artist Patrick Tatopoulos was instructed to redesign Godzilla
Godzilla
as an incredibly fast runner.[87] At one point, it was planned to use motion capture from a human to create the movements of the computer-generated Godzilla, but it ended up looking too much like a human in a suit.[88] Tatopoulos subsequently reimagined the creature as a lean, digitigrade bipedal iguana that stood with its back and tail parallel to the ground, rendered via CGI.[89] Several scenes had the monster portrayed by stuntmen in suits. The suits were similar to those used in the Toho
Toho
films, with the actors' heads being located in the monster's neck region, and the facial movements controlled via animatronics. However, because of the creature's horizontal posture, the stuntmen had to wear metal leg extenders, which allowed them to stand two meters (six feet) off the ground with their feet bent forward. The film's special effects crew also built a ​1⁄6 scale animatronic Godzilla
Godzilla
for close-up scenes, whose size outmatched that of Stan Winston's T. rex in Jurassic Park.[90] Kurt Carley performed the suitmation sequences for the adult Godzilla.[10] In Godzilla
Godzilla
(2014), the character was portrayed entirely via CGI. Godzilla's design in the reboot was intended to stay true to that of the original series, though the film's special effects team strove to make the monster "more dynamic than a guy in a big rubber suit."[91] To create a CG version of Godzilla, The Moving Picture Company (MPC) studied various animals such as bears, Komodo dragons, lizards, lions and wolves which helped the visual effects artists visualize Godzilla's body structure like that of its underlying bone, fat and muscle structure as well as the thickness and texture of its scale.[92] Motion capture
Motion capture
was also used for some of Godzilla's movements. TJ Storm provided the motion capture performance for Godzilla
Godzilla
by wearing sensors in front of a green screen.[11][12] In Shin Godzilla, a majority of the character was portrayed via CGI, with Mansai Nomura portraying Godzilla
Godzilla
through motion capture.[9] Appearances Main articles: Godzilla (comics)
Godzilla (comics)
and Godzilla
Godzilla
(franchise) Cultural impact Main article: Godzilla
Godzilla
in popular culture

Godzilla's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame

Godzilla
Godzilla
is one of the most recognizable symbols of Japanese popular culture worldwide[93][94] and remains an important facet of Japanese films, embodying the kaiju subset of the tokusatsu genre. Godzilla’s vaguely humanoid appearance and strained, lumbering movements endeared it to Japanese audiences, who could relate to Godzilla
Godzilla
as a sympathetic character despite its wrathful nature.[95] Audiences respond positively to the character because it acts out of rage and self-preservation and shows where science and technology can go wrong.[96] In 1967, The Keukdong Entertainment Company of South Korea, with production assistance from Toei Company, produced Yongary: Monster from the Deep, a reptilian monster who invades South Korea to consume oil. The film and character has often been branded as a knock-off of Godzilla.[97][98] Godzilla
Godzilla
has been considered a filmographic metaphor for the United States, as well as an allegory of nuclear weapons in general. The earlier Godzilla
Godzilla
films, especially the original, portrayed Godzilla
Godzilla
as a frightening, nuclear monster. Godzilla
Godzilla
represented the fears that many Japanese held about the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the possibility of recurrence.[99] As the series progressed, so did Godzilla, changing into a less destructive and more heroic character as the films became geared more towards children. Since then, the character has fallen somewhere in the middle, sometimes portrayed as a protector of the world from external threats and other times as a bringer of destruction.[100][101] In 1996, Godzilla
Godzilla
received the MTV Lifetime Achievement Award,[102] as well, Godzilla
Godzilla
was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
in 2004 to celebrate the premiere of the character's 50th anniversary film, Godzilla: Final Wars.[103] Godzilla's pop-cultural impact has led to the creation of numerous parodies and tributes, as seen in media such as Bambi Meets Godzilla, which was ranked as one of the "50 greatest cartoons",[104] various episodes of Mystery Science Theater 3000,[105] and the song "Godzilla", by Blue Öyster Cult.[106] Godzilla
Godzilla
has also been used in advertisements, such as in a commercial for Nike, where Godzilla
Godzilla
lost a game of basketball to NBA player Charles Barkley.[107] The commercial was subsequently adapted into a comic book illustrated by Jeff Butler.[108] Godzilla
Godzilla
has also appeared in a commercial for Snickers candy bars, which served as an indirect promo for the 2014 movie. Godzilla's success inspired the creation of numerous other monster characters, such as Gamera,[109][110] Reptilicus
Reptilicus
of Denmark,[111] Yonggary of South Korea,[97] Pulgasari
Pulgasari
of North Korea,[112] Gorgo of the United Kingdom,[113] and the Cloverfield monster of the United States.[114] Godzilla's fame and saurian appearance has influenced the scientific community. Gojirasaurus
Gojirasaurus
is a dubious genus of coelophysid dinosaur, named by paleontologist and admitted Godzilla
Godzilla
fan Kenneth Carpenter.[115] Dakosaurus
Dakosaurus
is an extinct marine crocodile of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period, which researchers informally nicknamed "Godzilla".[116] Paleontologists have written tongue-in-cheek speculative articles about Godzilla's biology, with Ken Carpenter tentatively classifying it as a ceratosaur based on its skull shape, four-fingered hands and dorsal scutes, and paleontologist Darren Naish expressing skepticism while commenting on Godzilla's unusual morphology.[117] Godzilla's ubiquity in pop-culture has led to the mistaken assumption that the character is in the public domain, resulting in litigation by Toho
Toho
to protect their corporate asset from becoming a generic trademark. In April 2008, Subway depicted a giant monster in a commercial for their Five Dollar Footlong sandwich promotion. Toho filed a lawsuit against Subway for using the character without permission, demanding $150,000 in compensation.[118] In February 2011, Toho
Toho
sued Honda
Honda
for depicting a fire-breathing monster in a commercial for the Honda
Honda
Odyssey. The monster was never mentioned by name, being seen briefly on a video screen inside the minivan.[119] The Sea Shepherd Conservation Society christened a vessel Gojira. Its purpose is to target and harass Japanese whalers in defense of whales in the Southern Ocean Whale
Whale
Sanctuary. The Gojira was renamed MV Brigitte Bardot in May 2011 due to legal pressure from Toho.[120] Gojira is the name of a French death metal band, formerly known as Godzilla; legal problems forced the band to change their name.[121] In May 2015, Toho
Toho
launched a lawsuit against Voltage Pictures over a planned picture starring Anne Hathaway. Promotional material released at the Cannes Film Festival used images of Godzilla.[122] Cultural ambassador To encourage tourism in April 2015 the central Shinjuku
Shinjuku
ward of Tokyo named Godzilla
Godzilla
an official cultural ambassador. During an unveiling of a giant Godzilla
Godzilla
bust at Toho
Toho
headquarters, Shinjuku
Shinjuku
mayor Kenichi Yoshizumi stated " Godzilla
Godzilla
is a character that is the pride of Japan." The mayor extended a residency certificate to an actor in a rubber suit representing Godzilla, but as the suit's hands were not designed for grasping it was accepted on Godzilla's behalf by a Toho
Toho
executive. Reporters noted that Shinjuku
Shinjuku
ward has been flattened by Godzilla
Godzilla
in three Toho
Toho
movies.[123][124] References

Notes

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Godzilla
Resurgence's Motion Capture Actor". Kotaku. Retrieved August 1, 2016.  ^ a b Mirjahangir, Chris (November 7, 2014). "Nakajima and Carley: Godzilla's 1954 and 1998". Toho
Toho
Kingdom. Retrieved April 5, 2015.  ^ a b Arce, Sergio (May 29, 2014). "Meet the actor who gives life to Godzilla". crhoy.com. Retrieved March 26, 2015.  ^ a b Oceanside Intl Film Festival (March 28, 2016). "Interview with Mocap Artist/Voice Actor T.J. Storm". Youtube. Retrieved June 4, 2016.  ^ "Making of the Godzilla
Godzilla
Suit". Gojira - Classic Media 2006 Blu-ray/DVD Release. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ Godzilla, King of the Monsters!
Godzilla, King of the Monsters!
(1956). Directed by Ishirō Honda and Terry O. Morse. Toho ^ Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Megaguirus
Megaguirus
(2000). Directed by Masaaki Tezuka. Toho ^ Godzilla: Final Wars (2004). Directed by Ryuhei Kitamura. Toho ^ "Godzilla, Marvel 1977 series". Comics.org. Retrieved October 18, 2011.  ^ Godzilla Raids Again
Godzilla Raids Again
(US release) 1959 Toho/Warner Bros. ^ Invasion of Astro-Monster
Invasion of Astro-Monster
(1965). Directed by Ishirō Honda. Toho ^ Godzila, Mothra, and King Ghidorah
King Ghidorah
(2001). Directed by Shusuke Kaneko. Toho ^ DeSentis, John. "GODZILLA SOUNDTRACK PERFECT COLLECTION BOX 6". Scifi Japan. Retrieved November 23, 2014.  ^ Godzilla
Godzilla
(2014). Directed by Gareth Edwards. Legendary Pictures ^ Brothers 2009. ^ Barr 2016, p. 83. ^ Robbie Collin (May 13, 2014). "Gareth Edwards interview: 'I wanted Godzilla
Godzilla
to reflect the questions raised by Fukushima'". The Telegraph. Retrieved May 19, 2016.  ^ Godzilla
Godzilla
#1 (vol. 1) (Marvel Comics, 1977) ^ Godzilla
Godzilla
#20 (vol. 1) (Marvel Comics, 1979) ^ Godzilla
Godzilla
#23 (vol. 1) (Marvel Comics, 1979) ^ Ryfle 1998, p. 22. ^ "Gojira Media". Godzila Gojimm. Toho
Toho
Co., Ltd. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved November 19, 2010.  ^ Ryfle 1998, p. 23. ^ a b Ryfle 1998, p. 74. ^ Peter Bradshaw (October 14, 2005). " Godzilla
Godzilla
Culture". London: The Guardian. Retrieved September 25, 2013.  ^ Biondi, R, "The Evolution of Godzilla
Godzilla
– G-Suit Variations Throughout the Monster King’s Twenty One Films", G-FAN Issue #July 16/August 1995 ^ Greenberger, R. (2005). Meet Godzilla. Rosen Pub Group. p. 15. ISBN 1404202692 ^ Kishikawa, O. (1994), Godzilla
Godzilla
First, 1954 ~ 1955, Big Japanese Painting, ASIN B0014M3KJ6 ^ Kravets, David (November 24, 2008). "Think Godzilla's Scary? Meet His Lawyers". Wired. Retrieved May 21, 2013.  ^ Snider, Mike (August 29, 2006). " Godzilla
Godzilla
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Godzilla
Suit!. Ed Godziszewski. Youtube (December 24, 2010) ^ a b An Anatomical Guide to Monsters, Shoji Otomo, 1967 ^ "Interview with Haruo Nakajima". Godzilla
Godzilla
- Criterion Collection 2012 Blu-ray/DVD Release.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ The Art of Suit Acting - Classic Media Godzilla Raids Again
Godzilla Raids Again
DVD featurette ^ Godzilla 2000
Godzilla 2000
(1999). Directed by Takao Okawara. Toho. ^ Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. King Ghidorah
King Ghidorah
(1991). Directed by Kazuki Ōmori. Toho ^ Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Mechagodzilla
Mechagodzilla
(1974). Directed by Jun Fukuda. Toho ^ Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Biollante
Biollante
(1989). Directed by Kazuki Ōmori. Toho ^ Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters
Destroy All Monsters
Melee (2002). Pipeworks Software ^ CR Godzilla
Godzilla
Pachinko (2006). Newgin ^ Zone Fighter (1973). Directed by Ishirō Honda
Ishirō Honda
et al. Toho ^ The Godzilla
Godzilla
Power Hour (1978). Directed by Ray Patterson and Carl Urbano. Hanna-Barbera Productions ^ Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Hedorah
Hedorah
(1971). Directed by Yoshimitsu Banno. Toho ^ Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster
Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster
(1964). Directed by Ishirō Honda. Toho. ^ Godzilla: Unleashed - Godzilla 2000
Godzilla 2000
character profile ^ a b c "Ryuhei Ktamura & Shogo Tomiyama interview - Godzilla Final Wars premiere - PennyBlood.com". Web.archive.org. February 3, 2005. Archived from the original on February 3, 2005. Retrieved September 25, 2013.  ^ The Return of Godzilla
The Return of Godzilla
(1985). Directed by Koji Hashimoto. Toho ^ Milliron, K. & Eggleton, B. (1998), Godzilla
Godzilla
Likes to Roar!, Random House Books for Young Readers, ISBN 0679891250 ^ Peter H. Brothers. Mushroom Clouds and Mushroom Men: The Fantastic Cinema of Ishiro Honda. Author House. 2009. Pgs. 47-48 ^ Tsutsui 2003, p. 12. ^ Ryfle 1998, p. 336. ^ Kalat 2010, p. 225. ^ Seibold, Witney (May 26, 2014). " Godzilla
Godzilla
Goodness: Godzilla (1998)". Nerdist. Retrieved March 19, 2018.  ^ Stradley, R., Adams, A., et. al. Godzilla: Age of Monsters (February 18, 1998), Dark Horse; Gph edition. ISBN 1569712778 ^ Various. Godzilla: Past, Present, Future (March 5, 1998), Dark Horse; Gph edition. ISBN 1569712786 ^ a b NPR Staff. "What's In A Roar? Crafting Godzilla's Iconic Sound". National Public Radio. Retrieved September 7, 2015.  ^ David Milner, " Takao Okawara Interview I", Kaiju
Kaiju
Conversations (December 1993) ^ Ray, Amber (May 22, 2014). "'Godzilla': The secrets behind the roar". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 19, 2016.  ^ "Godzilla". Gvsdestoroyah.dulcemichaelanya.com. Retrieved September 25, 2013.  ^ "Amazing and Interesting Facts about Godzilla
Godzilla
Special
Special
Effects - Special
Special
Effects in Godzilla
Godzilla
Movies - Hi-tech - Kids". Web Japan. Retrieved September 25, 2013.  ^ a b " Godzilla
Godzilla
(1954) stats and bio page". www.tohokingdom.com. Retrieved March 8, 2013.  ^ Tsutsui 2003, p. 54-55. ^ a b " Godzilla
Godzilla
(1991) stats and bio page". www.tohokingdom.com. Retrieved June 3, 2015.  ^ " Godzilla
Godzilla
Ultimate Trivia". The Movie Bit. Retrieved May 21, 2014.  ^ Owusu, Kwame (February 28, 2014). "The New Godzilla
Godzilla
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Godzilla
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Is the History of Special
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Effects". Inverse. Retrieved March 19, 2018.  ^ Ryūsuke, Hikawa (June 26, 2014). "Godzilla's Analog Mayhem and the Japanese Special
Special
Effects Tradition". Nippon.com. Retrieved March 19, 2018.  ^ Kalat 2010, p. 36. ^ Kalat 2010, p. 160. ^ Ryfle 1998, p. 254-257. ^ Clements, J. (2010), Schoolgirl Milky Crisis: Adventures in the Anime and Manga Trade, A-Net Digital LLC, pp. 117-118, ISBN 0984593748 ^ Kalat 2010, p. 258. ^ Ryfle 1998, p. 298. ^ Ryfle 1998, p. 232. ^ Rickitt, Richard (2006). Designing Movie Creatures and Characters: Behind the Scenes With the Movie Masters. Focal Press. pp. 74–76. ISBN 0-240-80846-0.  ^ Rickitt, Richard (2000). Special
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Effects: The History and Technique. Billboard Books. p. 174. ISBN 0-8230-7733-0.  ^ " Godzilla
Godzilla
Lives! - page 1". Theasc.com. Retrieved January 22, 2014.  ^ Ryfle 1998, p. 337-339. ^ Dudek, Duane (November 8, 2013). "Oscar winner & Kenosha native Jim Rygiel gets UWM award". Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2013.  ^ Carolyn Giardina (December 25, 2014). "Oscars: 'Interstellar,' 'Hobbit' Visual Effects Artists Reveal How They Did It". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 28, 2014.  ^ Sharp, Jasper (2011). Historical Dictionary of Japanese Cinema. Scarecrow Press. p. 67. ISBN 9780810857957.  ^ West, Mark (2008). The Japanification of Children's Popular Culture: From Godzilla
Godzilla
to Miyazaki. Scarecrow Press. p. vii. ISBN 9780810851214.  ^ "Interview with Tadao Sato". Godzilla
Godzilla
- Criterion Collection 2012 Blu-ray/DVD Release.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "The Psychological Appeal of Movie Monsters" (PDF). Calstatela.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 19, 2007. Retrieved September 28, 2013.  ^ a b Kalat 2010, p. 92. ^ Demoss, David (June 18, 2010). "Yongary, Monster from the Deep". And You Thought It Was...Safe(?). Retrieved March 19, 2018.  ^ Rafferty, T., The Monster That Morphed Into a Metaphor, NYTimes (May 2, 2004) ^ Lankes, Kevin (June 22, 2014). "Godzilla's Secret History". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 19, 2018.  ^ Goldstein, Rich (May 18, 2014). "A Comprehensive History of Toho's Original Kaiju
Kaiju
(and Atomic Allegory) Godzilla". Daily Beast. Retrieved March 19, 2018.  ^ " Godzilla
Godzilla
Wins The MTV Lifetime Achievement Award In 1996 – Godzilla
Godzilla
video". Fanpop. November 3, 1954. Retrieved April 13, 2010.  ^ "USATODAY.com - Godzilla
Godzilla
gets Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
star". Usatoday30.usatoday.com. November 30, 2004. Retrieved September 25, 2013.  ^ Beck, Jerry (ed.) (1994). The 50 Greatest Cartoons: As Selected by 1,000 Animation Professionals. Atlanta: Turner Publishing. ISBN 1-878685-49-X. ^ " Godzilla
Godzilla
Genealogy Bop" - MST3K season 2, episode 13, aired February 2, 1991 ^ Song Review by Donald A. Guarisco. " Godzilla
Godzilla
- Blue Öyster Cult
Blue Öyster Cult
Listen, Appearances, Song Review". AllMusic. Retrieved September 25, 2013.  ^ Martha T. Moore. " Godzilla
Godzilla
Meets Barkley on MTV". USA Today. September 9, 1992. 1.B. ^ Paul Gravett and Peter Stanbury. Holy Sh*t! The World's Weirdest Comic Books. St. Martin's Press, 2008. 104. ^ Kalat 2010, p. 23. ^ Phipps, Keith (June 2, 2010). "Gamera: The Giant Monster". AV Club. Retrieved March 19, 2018.  ^ Don (June 16, 2015). "Reptilicus: Godzilla
Godzilla
Goes To Denmark". Schlockmania. Retrieved March 19, 2018.  ^ Romano, Nick (April 6, 2015). "How Kim Jong Il Kidnapped a Director, Made a Godzilla
Godzilla
Knockoff, and Created a Cult Hit". Vanity Fair. Retrieved March 19, 2018.  ^ Murray, Noel (May 8, 2014). "Meet Gorgo, the "British Godzilla"". The Dissolve. Retrieved March 19, 2018.  ^ Monetti, Sandro (January 13, 2008). "Cloverfield: Making of a monster". Express. Retrieved March 19, 2018.  ^ K. Carpenter, 1997, "A giant coelophysoid (Ceratosauria) theropod from the Upper Triassic of New Mexico, USA", Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 205(2): 189-208 ^ Gasparini Z, Pol D, Spalletti LA. 2006. An unusual marine crocodyliform from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary of Patagonia. Science 311: 70-73. ^ Naish, Darren (November 1, 2010). "The science of Godzilla, 2010 – Tetrapod Zoology". Scienceblogs.com. Retrieved September 25, 2013.  ^ Toho
Toho
sues Subway over unauthorized Godzilla
Godzilla
ads, The Japan
Japan
Times (April 18, 2008) ^ Toho
Toho
suing Honda
Honda
over Godzilla, TokyoHive (February 12, 2011) ^ "Sea Shepherd Conservation Society :: The Beast Transforms into a Beauty as Godzilla
Godzilla
Becomes the Brigitte Bardot". Seashepherd.org. May 25, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2013. [permanent dead link] ^ Gojira htm Biography and Band at the Gauntlet, The Gauntlet ^ " Voltage Pictures Sued For Copyright Infringement". torrentfreak.com. Retrieved July 9, 2015.  ^ " Godzilla
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Bibliography

Barr, Jason (2016). The Kaiju
Kaiju
Film: A Critical Study of Cinema's Biggest Monsters. McFarland. ISBN 1476623953.  Brothers, Peter H. (2009). Mushroom Clouds and Mushroom Men - The Fantastic Cinema of Ishiro Honda. CreateSpace Books. ISBN 1492790354.  Galbraith IV, Stuart (1998). Monsters Are Attacking Tokyo: The Incredible World of Japanese Fantasy Films. Feral House. ISBN 0922915474.  Godziszewski, Ed (1994). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Godzilla. Daikaiju Enterprises.  Kalat, David (2010). A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla
Godzilla
Series (2nd Edition). McFarland. ISBN 9780786447497.  Lees, J.D.; Cerasini, Marc (1998). The Official Godzilla
Godzilla
Compendium. Random House. ISBN 0-679-88822-5.  Ragone, August (2014). Eiji Tsuburaya: Master of Monsters (2nd Edition). Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0-8118-6078-9.  Ryfle, Steve (1998). Japan’s Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G. ECW Press. ISBN 1550223488.  Ryfle, Steve; Godziszewski, Ed (2017). Ishiro Honda: A Life in Film, from Godzilla
Godzilla
to Kurosawa. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0-8195-7087-1.  Tsutsui, William M. (2003). Godzilla
Godzilla
on My Mind: Fifty Years of the King of Monsters. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403964742. 

External links

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Official Website of Toho
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(Japanese) Gozilla on IMDb

v t e

Godzilla

Toho
Toho
films

Shōwa series

Godzilla
Godzilla
(1954) Godzilla Raids Again
Godzilla Raids Again
(1955) King Kong
King Kong
vs. Godzilla
Godzilla
(1962) Mothra
Mothra
vs. Godzilla
Godzilla
(1964) Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster
Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster
(1964) Invasion of Astro-Monster
Invasion of Astro-Monster
(1965) Ebirah, Horror of the Deep
Ebirah, Horror of the Deep
(1966) Son of Godzilla
Godzilla
(1967) Destroy All Monsters
Destroy All Monsters
(1968) All Monsters Attack
All Monsters Attack
(1969) Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Hedorah
Hedorah
(1971) Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Gigan
Gigan
(1972) Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Megalon
Megalon
(1973) Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Mechagodzilla
Mechagodzilla
(1974) Terror of Mechagodzilla
Mechagodzilla
(1975)

Heisei series

The Return of Godzilla
The Return of Godzilla
(1984) Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Biollante
Biollante
(1989) Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. King Ghidorah
King Ghidorah
(1991) Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Mothra
Mothra
(1992) Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Mechagodzilla
Mechagodzilla
II (1993) Godzilla vs. SpaceGodzilla
Godzilla vs. SpaceGodzilla
(1994) Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Destoroyah
Destoroyah
(1995)

Millennium series

Godzilla 2000
Godzilla 2000
(1999) Godzilla
Godzilla
vs. Megaguirus
Megaguirus
(2000) Godzilla, Mothra
Mothra
and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack (2001) Godzilla
Godzilla
Against Mechagodzilla
Mechagodzilla
(2002) Godzilla: Tokyo S.O.S. (2003) Godzilla: Final Wars (2004)

Current series

Shin Godzilla
Shin Godzilla
(2016) Godzilla: Planet of the Monsters (2017) Godzilla: City on the Edge of Battle (2018)

American films

Adaptations

Godzilla, King of the Monsters!
Godzilla, King of the Monsters!
(1956) Godzilla
Godzilla
1985 (1985)

TriStar Pictures

Godzilla
Godzilla
(1998)

Legendary Pictures

Godzilla
Godzilla
(2014) Godzilla: King of the Monsters (2019)

Television

Ike! Godman
Ike! Godman
(1972-1973) Ike! Greenman
Ike! Greenman
(1973-1974) Zone Fighter (1973) Godzilla
Godzilla
(1978–1979) Godzilla
Godzilla
Island (1997–1998) Godzilla: The Series (1998–2000)

Video games

List of Godzilla
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games (1983–present)

Miscellaneous

Godzilla
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in popular culture Comics Locations The Movie Monster Game Battle Soccer: Champions of the Field Godzilla
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Game Aliens Godzilla
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(Scott Ciencin series) Godzilla
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(Marc Cerasini series) Bambi Meets Godzilla Godzilla
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March SciFi Japan
Japan
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Kaiju

Godzilla Anguirus Rodan Moguera Varan Mothra King Kong Manda Dogora King Ghidorah Baragon Frankenstein's monster Gaira Sanda Ebirah Mechani-Kong Gorosaurus Kamacuras Kumonga Minilla Gezora Kamoebas Hedorah Gigan Megalon Jet Jaguar King Caesar Mechagodzilla Titanosaurus Biollante Mecha-King Ghidorah Battra Godzilla
Godzilla
Junior Bagan SpaceGodzilla Destoroyah Dagahra Orga Megaguirus Kiryu Zilla Monster X Krystalak Obsidius MUTO Trilopod Magita

Related films

Rodan
Rodan
(1956) The Mysterians
The Mysterians
(1957) Varan the Unbelievable (1958) Battle in Outer Space
Battle in Outer Space
(1959) Mothra
Mothra
(1961) Gorath
Gorath
(1962) Atragon
Atragon
(1963) Dogora
Dogora
(1964) Frankenstein Conquers the World
Frankenstein Conquers the World
(1965) The War of the Gargantuas
War of the Gargantuas
(1966) King Kong
King Kong
Escapes (1967) Latitude Zero (1969) Space Amoeba
Space Amoeba
(1970) The War in Space
The War in Space
(1977) Gunhed (1989) Yamato Takeru (1994) Rebirth of Mothra
Mothra
(1996) Rebirth of Mothra
Mothra
II (1997) Rebirth of Mothra
Mothra
III (1998) Chousei Kantai Sazer-X the Movie: Fight! Star Warriors (2005) Always: Sunset on Third Street 2 (2007) Kong: Skull Island
Skull Island
(2017)

See also

Gamera Ultraman Ultra Series The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms Gojirasaurus Gorgo The Giant Behemoth Reptilicus Yongary: Monster from the Deep

Book Category

v t e

King Kong

Films

King Kong
King Kong
(1933) Son of Kong
Kong
(1933) King Kong
King Kong
vs. Godzilla
Godzilla
(1962) King Kong
King Kong
Escapes (1967) King Kong
King Kong
(1976) King Kong
King Kong
Lives (1986) King Kong
King Kong
(2005) Kong: Skull Island
Skull Island
(2017)

Related films

Creation (unfinished) Wasei Kingu Kongu
Wasei Kingu Kongu
(1933) King Kong
King Kong
Appears in Edo (1938) Mighty Joe Young (1949) Queen Kong
Kong
(1976) Bye Bye Monkey
Bye Bye Monkey
(1978) Mighty Joe Young (1998)

Theatre

King Kong
King Kong
(2013)

Characters

King Kong Carl Denham Jack Driscoll Mechani-Kong Gorosaurus Godzilla

Animation

The King Kong
King Kong
Show (1966–1969) The Mighty Kong
Kong
(1998) Kong: The Animated Series (2000-2001) Kong: King of the Apes (2016)

Video games

King Kong
King Kong
2: Ikari no Megaton Punch (1986) King Kong
King Kong
2: Yomigaeru Densetsu (1986) Peter Jackson's King Kong
King Kong
(2005)

Attractions

King Kong
King Kong
Encounter (1986) Kongfrontation
Kongfrontation
(1990) King Kong: 360 3-D (2010) Skull Island: Reign of Kong
Kong
(2016)

Miscellaneous

Comics Popular culture Skull Island Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Nintendo Co., Ltd.

Kaiju

Godzilla MonsterVerse Monsterland and Monster Island

Category

v t e

Tokyo Sports Film Award for Best Actor

Claude Maki (1991) Godzilla
Godzilla
(1992) Eiji Okuda
Eiji Okuda
(1994) Tetta Sugimoto (1996) Takeshi Kitano
Takeshi Kitano
(1998-1999) Yōsuke Kubozuka (2001) Takeshi Kitano
Takeshi Kitano
(2003-2005) Takuya Kimura
Takuya Kimura
(2006) Joe Odagiri
Joe Odagiri
(2007) Masahiro Motoki (2008) Shōfukutei Tsurube (2009) Etsushi Toyokawa (2010) Toshiyuki Nishida, Tomokazu Miura, Ryo Kase, Hideo Nakano, Yutaka Matsushige, Fumiyo Kohinata, Katsunori Takahashi, Kenta Kiritani, Hirofumi Arai, Sansei Shiomi, Akira Nakao, Shigeru Kōyama (2012) Ryuhei Matsuda
Ryuhei Matsuda
(2013) Ryūhei Ueshima (2014) Tatsuya Fuji (2015) Tomokazu Miura
Tomokazu Miura
(2016) Toshiyuki Nishida, Sansei Shiomi (2017)

v t e

MonsterVerse

Films

Godzilla
Godzilla
(2014) Kong: Skull Island
Skull Island
(2017) Godzilla: King of the Monsters (2019)

Related

Godzilla King Kong King Ghidorah Mothra MUTO Rodan

Miscellaneous

Godzilla
Godzilla
(franchise)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 43147905265179092517 LCCN: nb2016020875 SUDOC: 053502035 BNF: cb136010376 (data)

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