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GOD THE FATHER is a title given to God
God
in various religions, most prominently in Christianity
Christianity
. In mainstream trinitarian Christianity, God
God
the Father is regarded as the first person of the Trinity
Trinity
, followed by the second person God the Son ( Jesus
Jesus
Christ) and the third person God
God
the Holy Spirit
Spirit
. Since the second century, Christian creeds included affirmation of belief in " God
God
the Father (Almighty)", primarily as his capacity as "Father and creator of the universe". Yet, in Christianity
Christianity
the concept of God
God
as the father of Jesus
Jesus
Christ goes metaphysically further than the concept of God
God
as the Creator and father of all people, as indicated in the Apostle\'s Creed
Creed
where the expression of belief in the "Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth" is immediately, but separately followed by in " Jesus
Jesus
Christ, his only Son, our Lord", thus expressing both senses of fatherhood.

CONTENTS

* 1 Christianity
Christianity

* 1.1 Overview * 1.2 History * 1.3 New Testament
New Testament
* 1.4 Old Testament
Old Testament
* 1.5 Trinitarian * 1.6 Nontrinitarian

* 2 Other religions

* 2.1 Bahá\'í * 2.2 Hinduism * 2.3 Islam * 2.4 Judaism * 2.5 Sikhism

* 3 In Western art * 4 See also * 5 References

CHRISTIANITY

A figurative drawing of God, in the old German prayer books (Waldburg-Gebetbuch), about 1486 Main article: God
God
in Christianity
Christianity
See also: Patriology (Christianity) and Name of God
God
in Christianity
Christianity

OVERVIEW

An image of God
God
the Father by Julius Schnorr , 1860.

In Christianity, God
God
is addressed as the Father, in part because of his active interest in human affairs, in the way that a father would take an interest in his children who are dependent on him and as a father, he will respond to humanity, his children, acting in their best interests. Many believe they can communicate with God
God
and come closer to him through prayer – a key element of achieving communion with God.

In general, the title _Father_ (capitalized) signifies God's role as the life-giver, the authority , and powerful protector, often viewed as immense, omnipotent , omniscient , omnipresent with infinite power and charity that goes beyond human understanding. For instance, after completing his monumental work _ Summa Theologica
Summa Theologica
_, Catholic St. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
concluded that he had not yet begun to understand ‘ God
God
the Father’. Although the term "Father" implies masculine characteristics , God
God
is usually defined as having the form of a spirit without any human biological gender, e.g. the Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
#239 specifically states that "_ God
God
is neither man nor woman: he is God_". Although God
God
is never directly addressed as "Mother", at times motherly attributes may be interpreted in Old Testament references such as Isa 42:14, Isa 49:14–15 or Isa 66:12–13.

In the New Testament
New Testament
, the Christian concept of God
God
the Father may be seen as a continuation of the Jewish concept, but with specific additions and changes, which over time made the Christian concept become even more distinct by the start of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. The conformity to the Old Testament
Old Testament
concepts is shown in Matthew 4:10 and Luke 4:8 where in response to temptation Jesus
Jesus
quotes Deuteronomy 6:13 and states: "It is written, you shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve." 1 Corinthians 8:6 shows the distinct Christian teaching about the _agency of Christ_ by first stating: "there is one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we unto him" and immediately continuing with "and one Lord, Jesus
Jesus
Christ, through whom are all things, and we through him." This passage clearly acknowledges the Jewish teachings on the uniqueness of God, yet also states the role of Jesus
Jesus
as an agent in creation. Over time, the Christian doctrine began to fully diverge from Judaism through the teachings of the Church Fathers in the second century and by the fourth century belief in the Trinity
Trinity
was formalized. According to Mary Rose D'Angelo and James Barr, the Aramaic term _Abba _ was in the early times of the New Testament
New Testament
neither markedly a term of endearment , nor a formal word; but the word normally used by sons and daughters, throughout their lives, in the family context.

HISTORY

Since the second century, creeds in the Western Church have included affirmation of belief in " God
God
the Father (Almighty)", the primary reference being to " God
God
in his capacity as Father and creator of the universe". This did not exclude either the fact the "eternal father of the universe was also the Father of Jesus
Jesus
the Christ" or that he had even "vouchsafed to adopt as his son by grace".

Creeds in the Eastern Church
Eastern Church
(known to have come from a later date) began with an affirmation of faith in "one God" and almost always expanded this by adding "the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible" or words to that effect.

By the end of the first century, Clement of Rome
Clement of Rome
had repeatedly referred to the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, and linked the Father to creation, 1 Clement 19.2 stating: "let us look steadfastly to the Father and Creator of the universe". Around AD 213 in _Adversus Praxeas_ (chapter 3) Tertullian is believed to have provided a formal representation of the concept of the Trinity
Trinity
, i.e. that God
God
exists as one "substance" but three "Persons": The Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, and with God
God
the Father being the Head. Tertullian also discussed how the Holy Spirit
Spirit
proceeds from the Father and the Son. While the expression "from the Father through the Son" is also found among them.

The Nicene Creed
Creed
, which dates to 325, states that the Son (Jesus Christ) is "eternally begotten of the Father", indicating that their _divine_ Father-Son relationship is seen as not tied to an event within time or human history.

NEW TESTAMENT

There is a deep sense in which Christians believe that they are made participants in the eternal relationship of Father and Son, through Jesus
Jesus
Christ. Christians call themselves _adopted_ children of God:

But when the fullness of time had come, God
God
sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law, to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive adoption as sons. And because you are sons, God
God
has sent the Spirit
Spirit
of his Son into our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!” So you are no longer a slave, but a son, and if a son, then an heir through God. — Galatians 4:4–7

In Christianity
Christianity
the concept of God
God
as the Father of Jesus
Jesus
is distinct from the concept of God
God
as the Creator and Father of all people, as indicated in the Apostle\'s Creed
Creed
. The profession in the creed begins with expressing belief in the "Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth" and then immediately, but separately, in "Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord", thus expressing both senses of fatherhood within the creed.

OLD TESTAMENT

According to Marianne Meye Thompson, in the Old Testament
Old Testament
, God
God
is called "Father" with a unique sense of familiarity. In addition to the sense in which God
God
is "Father" to all men because he created the world (and in that sense "fathered" the world), the same God
God
is also uniquely the law-giver to his chosen people . He maintains a special, covenantal father-child relationship with the people, giving them the Shabbat
Shabbat
, stewardship of his prophecies , and a unique heritage in the things of God, calling Israel "my son" because he delivered the descendants of Jacob out of slavery in Egypt according to his covenants and oaths to their fathers, Avraham , Isaac
Isaac
and Yaacov . In the Hebrew Scriptures , in Isaiah 63:16 (JP) it reads: "For You are our father, for Abraham did not know us, neither did Israel recognize us; You, O Lord, are our father; our redeemer of old is your name." To God, according to Judaism, is attributed the fatherly role of protector. He is titled the Father of the poor, of the orphan and the widow, their guarantor of justice. He is also titled the Father of the king, as the teacher and helper over the judge of Israel. According to Alon Goshen-Gottstein, in the Old Testament
Old Testament
"Father" is generally a metaphor ; it is not a proper name for God
God
but rather one of many titles by which Jews speak of and to God. In Christianity
Christianity
fatherhood is taken in a more literal and substantive sense, and is explicit about the need for the Son as a means of accessing the Father, making for a more metaphysical rather than metaphorical interpretation.

TRINITARIAN

A depiction of the Trinity
Trinity
consisting of God
God
the Father along with God the Son ( Jesus
Jesus
) and God
God
the Holy Spirit
Spirit

To Trinitarian Christians (which include Roman Catholics , Eastern Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox , and most but not all Protestant denominations ), God
God
the Father is not at all a separate god from God the Son (of whom Jesus
Jesus
is the incarnation ) and the Holy Spirit
Spirit
, the other Hypostases of the Christian Godhead . In Eastern Orthodox Trinitarian theology, God
God
the Father is the _arche_ or _principium_ ("beginning"), the "source" or "origin" of both the Son and the Holy Spirit, and is considered the eternal source of the Godhead. The Father is the one who eternally begets the Son, and the Father eternally breathes the Holy Spirit.

As a member of the Trinity, God
God
the Father is one with, co-equal to, co-eternal, and con-substantial with the Son and the Holy Spirit, each Person being the one eternal God
God
and in no way separated: all alike are uncreated and omnipotent. Because of this, the Trinity
Trinity
is beyond reason and can only be known by revelation.

The Trinitarian concept of God
God
the Father is not pantheistic in that he is not viewed as identical to the universe or a vague notion that persists in it, but exists fully outside of creation, as its Creator. He is viewed as a loving and caring God, a Heavenly Father who is active both in the world and in people's lives. He created all things visible and invisible in love and wisdom, and created man for his own sake.

The emergence of Trinitarian theology of God
God
the Father in early Christianity
Christianity
was based on two key ideas: first the shared identity of the Yahweh
Yahweh
of the Old Testament
Old Testament
and the God
God
of Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament , and then the self-distinction and yet the unity between Jesus
Jesus
and his Father. An example of the unity of Son and Father is Matthew 11:27: "No one knows the Son except the Father and no one knows the Father except the Son", asserting the mutual knowledge of Father and Son.

The concept of fatherhood of God
God
does appear in the Old Testament, but is not a major theme. While the view of God
God
as the Father is used in the Old Testament, it only became a focus in the New Testament, as Jesus
Jesus
frequently referred to it. This is manifested in the Lord\'s prayer which combines the earthly needs of daily bread with the reciprocal concept of forgiveness. And Jesus' emphasis on his special relationship with the Father highlights the importance of the distinct yet unified natures of Jesus
Jesus
and the Father, building to the unity of Father and Son in the Trinity.

The paternal view of God
God
as the Father extends beyond Jesus
Jesus
to his disciples, and the entire Church, as reflected in the petitions Jesus submitted to the Father for his followers at the end of the _Farewell Discourse _, the night before his crucifixion . Instances of this in the Farewell Discourse are John 14:20 as Jesus
Jesus
addresses the disciples: "I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you" and in John 17:22 as he prays to the Father: "I have given them the glory that you gave me, that they may be one as we are one."

NONTRINITARIAN

Main article: Nontrinitarianism Mormon depiction of God
God
the Father and the Son Jesus
Jesus
.

A number of Christian groups reject the doctrine of the Trinity, but differ from one another in their views regarding God
God
the Father.

In Mormon theology , the most prominent conception of God
God
is as a divine council of three distinct beings: Elohim
Elohim
(the Father), Jehovah (the Son, or Jesus), and the Holy Spirit
Spirit
. The Father and Son are considered to have perfected, physical bodies, while the Holy Spirit has a body of spirit. Mormons believe that God
God
the Father presides over both the Son and Holy Spirit, where God
God
the Father is greater than both, but they are one in the sense that they have a unity of purpose. Mormons do not distinguish God
God
as a separate ontological species from humans, a concept they believe was originated by post-apostolic theologians who incorporated elements of Greek philosophy into Christian doctrine. Mormons teach that the title of Father is not figurative, because humans are literally the spirit offspring of God
God
(Acts 17:28-29, Hebrews 12:9). In this sense, they consider Jesus
Jesus
Christ their older brother (John 20:17), as He is the first born, or first begotten of God's children (Colossians 1:15, Hebrews 1:26; 12:23). Biblical references to Christ as the "only begotten", in contrast, refer to God
God
being the Father of Christ's mortal body, born of the virgin Mary. The terms "Father" and "Son" imply a lineage of beings in Mormonism and in all non-symbolic usage of these words. In the Mormon hymn, " If You Could Hie to Kolob ", there is no beginning to the lineage of exalted, resurrected personages that are in perfect unity.

In Jehovah\'s Witness theology, only God
God
the Father ( Jehovah ) is the one true almighty God, even over his Son Jesus
Jesus
Christ. They teach that the pre-existent Christ is God's First-begotten Son, and that the Holy Spirit
Spirit
is God's active force (projected energy). They believe these three are united in purpose, but are not one being and are not equal in power. While the Witnesses acknowledge Christ's pre-existence, perfection, and unique "Sonship" from God
God
the Father, and believe that Christ had an essential role in creation and redemption, and is the Messiah, they believe that only the Father is without beginning. They say that the Son was the Father's only direct creation, before all ages. God
God
the Father is emphasized in Jehovah's Witness meetings and services more than Christ the Son, as they teach that the Father is greater than the Son.

Oneness Pentecostalism teaches that God
God
is a singular spirit who is one person, not three divine persons, individuals or minds. God
God
the Father is the title of the Supreme Creator. The titles of the Son and Holy Spirit
Spirit
are merely titles reflecting the different personal manifestations of the One True God
God
the Father in the universe.

OTHER RELIGIONS

Although similarities exist among religions, the common language and the shared concepts about God
God
and his title _Father_ among the Abrahamic religions is quite limited, and each religion has very specific belief structures and religious nomenclature with respect to the subject. While a religious teacher in one faith may be able to explain the concepts to his own audience with ease, significant barriers remain in communicating those concepts across religious boundaries.

BAHá\'í

See also: God
God
in the Bahá\'í Faith
Faith

In the Bahá\'í faith God
God
is also addressed as father. The Bahá'í view of God
God
is essentially monotheistic . God
God
is the imperishable, uncreated being who is the source of all existence.

HINDUISM

Main article: God
God
in Hinduism

In Hinduism , Bhagavan Krishna
Krishna
in the Bhagavad Gita , chapter 9, verse 17, stated: "I am the Father of this world, the Mother, the Dispenser and the Grandfather", one commentator adding: " God
God
being the source of the universe and the beings in it, He is held as the Father, the Mother and the Grandfather". A genderless Brahman is also considered the Creator and Life-giver, and the Shakta
Shakta
Goddess is viewed as the divine mother and life-bearer.

ISLAM

Main article: God
God
in Islam

The Islamic concept of God
God
differs from the Christian and Jewish views, the term "father" is not formally applied to God
God
by Muslims, and the Christian notion of the Trinity
Trinity
is rejected in Islam. Also Muslims believe God
God
is Wali
Wali
. Wali
Wali
means "custodian", "protector" and "helper". In Quran 9:23, Allah is more preferred to Father. Also, Allah is called as Rahim
Rahim
. Rahim
Rahim
means both "Merciful, Compassionate" and "Womb, Uterus".

In Islamic theology , God
God
is the all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer, and judge of the universe.

Even though traditional Islamic teaching does not formally prohibit using the term "Father" in reference to God, it does not propagate or encourage it. There are some narratives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in which he compares the mercy of God
God
toward his worshipers to that of a mother to her infant child,

Islamic teaching rejects the Christian Father-Son relationship of God and Jesus
Jesus
, and states that Jesus
Jesus
is a prophet of God, not the Son of God. Islamic theology strictly reiterates the Absolute Oneness of God, and totally separates him from other beings (whether humans, angel or any other holy figure), and rejects any form of Dualism
Dualism
or Trinitarianism
Trinitarianism
. Chapter 112 of the Qur'an states:

"Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (Sura 112:1–4, _Yusuf Ali_)

JUDAISM

Main articles: God
God
in Judaism and Names of God
God
in Judaism See also: Av

In Judaism, God
God
is described as "Father" as he is seen as the absolute one, indivisible and incomparable, transcendent, immanent, and non-corporeal God
God
of creation and history. The God
God
in Judaism is the giver of the sabbath and the two torahs—written , oral , mystical tradition —to his chosen people . In Judaism, the use of the "Father" title is generally a metaphor , referring to the role as Life-giver and Law-giver, and is one of many titles by which Jews speak of and to God.

The Jewish concept of God
God
is similar to the Christian view, being that Christianity
Christianity
has Jewish roots, though there are some differences, regarding things like the role of a Mediator. And also the concept of " God
God
the Father" in Biblical Judaism is generally more metaphorical. (Numbers 23:19).

The Jewish concept of God
God
is that God
God
is non-corporeal, transcendent and immanent, the ultimate source of love, and a metaphorical "Father". The Torah
Torah
declares: " God
God
is not a man (איש : ) that He should lie, nor is He a mortal (בן–אדם : ) that He should relent". ( Book of Numbers 23:19 Hebrew : לא אישׁ אל ויכזב ובן־אדם ויתנחם ההוא אמר ולא יעשׂה ודבר ולא יקימנה‎‎)

The Aramaic term for father (Hebrew : אבא ‎‎, _abba _) appears in traditional Jewish liturgy
Jewish liturgy
and Jewish prayers to God
God
(e.g. in the Kaddish ).

According to Ariela Pelaia, in a prayer of Rosh Hashanah , Areshet Sfateinu, an ambivalent attitude toward God
God
is demonstrated, due to His role as a Father and as a King. Free translation of the relevant sentence may be: "today every creature is judged, either as sons or as slaves. If as sons, forgive us like a father forgives his son. If as slaves, we wait, hoping for good, until the verdict, your holy majesty." Another famous prayer emphasizing this dichotomy is called Avinu Malkeinu , which means “Our Father Our King” in Hebrew. Usually the entire congregation will sing the last verse of this prayer in unison, which says: "Our Father, our King, answer us as though we have no deed to plead our cause, save us with mercy and loving-kindness."

SIKHISM

Main article: God
God
in Sikhism

In Sikhism , God
God
is considered uncompromisingly monotheistic , as symbolized by _ Ik Onkar _ (one Creator), a central tenet of Sikh philosophy. The Guru Granth
Guru Granth
consistently refers to the creator as "He" and "Father". This is because the Granth is written in north Indian Indo-Aryan languages (mixture of Punjabi and dialects of Hindi) which have no neutral gender. Since the Granth says that the God
God
is indescribable, the God
God
has no gender according to Sikhism.

God
God
in the Sikh scriptures has been referred to by several names, picked from Indian and Semitic traditions. He is called in terms of human relations as father, mother, brother, relation, friend, lover, beloved, husband. Other names, expressive of his supremacy, are _thakur_, _prabhu_, _svami_, _sah_, _patsah_, _sahib_, _sain_ (Lord, Master).

IN WESTERN ART

Main article: God
God
the Father in Western art Depiction of God the Father (detail), Pieter de Grebber , 1654.

For about a thousand years, no attempt was made to portray God
God
the Father in human form, because early Christians believed that the words of Exodus 33:20 "Thou canst not see my face: for there shall no man see Me and live" and of the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
1:18: "No man hath seen God at any time" were meant to apply not only to the Father, but to all attempts at the depiction of the Father. Typically only a small part of the body of Father would be represented, usually the hand, or sometimes the face, but rarely the whole person, and in many images, the figure of the Son supplants the Father, so a smaller portion of the person of the Father is depicted.

In the early medieval period God
God
was often represented by Christ as the _Logos _, which continued to be very common even after the separate figure of God
God
the Father appeared. Western art eventually required some way to illustrate the presence of the Father, so through successive representations a set of artistic styles for the depiction of the Father in human form gradually emerged around the tenth century AD.

By the twelfth century depictions of a figure of God
God
the Father, essentially based on the Ancient of Days in the Book of Daniel had started to appear in French manuscripts and in stained glass church windows in England. In the 14th century the illustrated Naples Bible had a depiction of God
God
the Father in the Burning bush . By the 15th century, the Rohan Book of Hours included depictions of God
God
the Father in human form or anthropomorphic imagery. The depiction remains rare and often controversial in Eastern Orthodox art, and by the time of the Renaissance
Renaissance
artistic representations of God
God
the Father were freely used in the Western Church.

SEE ALSO

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to GOD THE FATHER _.

* Eugenia Elisabetta Ravasio * Divine filiation * God
God
Alone * Jesus
Jesus
Christ the Father

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Kelly, J.N.D. _Early Christian Creeds_ Longmans:1960, p.136; p.139; p.195 respectively * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ " God
God
the Father in Rabbinic Judaism and Christianity: Transformed Background or Common Ground?, Alon Goshen-Gottstein. The Elijah Interfaith Institute, first published in Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 38:4, Spring 2001" (PDF). _elijah-interfaith.org_. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _Symbols of Jesus: a Christology of symbolic engagement_ by Robert C. Neville 2002 ISBN 0-521-00353-9 page 26 * ^ Bartolo-Abela, M. (2012). _The Divine Heart of God
God
the Father_ (2nd ed.). p. 108. ISBN 978-0-9837152-9-0 . * ^ _Calling God
God
"Father"_ by John W. Miller (Nov 1999) ISBN 0809138972 pages x–xii * ^ Diana L. Eck (2003) _Encountering God: A Spiritual Journey from Bozeman to Banaras_ ISBN 0807073024 p. 98 * ^ _Church Dogmatics, Vol. 2.1, Section 31: The Doctrine of God_ by Karl Barth (Sep 23, 2010) ISBN 0567012859 pages 15–17 * ^ _Devotion to the Divine Heart of God
God
the Father_ (3rd ed.). 2012. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-9837152-8-3 . * ^ Floyd H. Barackman, 2002 _Practical Christian Theology_ ISBN 0-8254-2380-5 page 117 * ^ _Calling God
God
"Father"_ by John W. Miller (Nov 1999) ISBN 0809138972 page 51 * ^ _Church Dogmatics, Vol. 2.1, Section 31: The Doctrine of God_ by Karl Barth (Sep 23, 2010) ISBN 0567012859 pages 73–74 * ^ Lawrence Kimbrough, 2006 _Contemplating God
God
the Father_ B&H Publishing ISBN 0-8054-4083-6 page 3 * ^ Thomas W. Petrisko, 2001 _The Kingdom of Our Father_ St. Andrew's Press ISBN 1-891903-18-7 page 8 * ^ David Bordwell, 2002, _Catechism of the Catholic Church_,Continuum International Publishing ISBN 978-0-86012-324-8 page 84 * ^ Catechism at the Vatican website Archived 3 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ _Calling God
God
"Father": Essays on the Bible, Fatherhood and Culture by John W. Miller (Nov 1999) ISBN 0809138972 pages 50–51_ * ^ _A_ _B_ _Early Jewish and Christian Monotheism_ by Wendy North and Loren T. Stuckenbruck (May 27, 2004) ISBN 0567082938 pages 111–112 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _One God, One Lord: Early Christian Devotion and Ancient Jewish Monotheism_ by Larry W. Hurtado (Oct 25, 2003) ISBN pages 96-100 * ^ _A_ _B_ _A History of the Christian Tradition, Vol. I_ by Thomas D. McGonigle and James F. Quigley (Sep 1988) ISBN 0809129647 pages 72–75 and 90 * ^ James Barr, "Abba isn't 'daddy'", Journal of Theological Studies, 39:28-47. * ^ "The Aramaic Blog: Abba Isn\'t Daddy – The Traditional Aramaic Father\'s Day Discussion". _aramaicdesigns.blogspot.com_. * ^ Mary Rose D'Angelo, "Abba and 'Father': Imperial Theology and the Jesus
Jesus
Traditions", Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 111, No. 4 (Winter, 1992), pp. 615-616 * ^ Bauckham, Richard (2011). _Jesus_. Oxford University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-19-957527-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _The Doctrine of God: A Global Introduction_ by Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen 2004 ISBN 0801027527 pages 70–74 * ^ _A_ _B_ _The Trinity_ by Roger E. Olson, Christopher Alan Hall 2002 ISBN 0802848273 pages 29–31 * ^ _Tertullian, First Theologian of the West_ by Eric Osborn (4 Dec 2003) ISBN 0521524954 pages 116–117 * ^ Tertullian _Adversus Praxeas_ 4 (ANF 3:599–600): "I believe the Spirit
Spirit
to proceed from no other source than from the Father through the Son" * ^ Tertullian _Adversus Praxeas_ 5 (ANF 3:600–601). * ^ O\'Collins & Farrugia 2015 , p. 157. * ^ _Paul's Way of Knowing_ by Ian W. Scott (Dec 1, 2008) ISBN 0801036097 pages 159–160 * ^ _Pillars of Paul's Gospel: Galatians and Romans_ by John F. O?Grady (May 1992) ISBN 080913327X page 162 * ^ Marianne Meye Thompson _The promise of the Father: Jesus
Jesus
and God
God
in the New Testament_ ch.2 God
God
as Father in the Old Testament
Old Testament
and Second Temple Judaism p35 2000 "Christian theologians have often accentuated the distinctiveness of the portrait of God
God
as Father in the New Testament
New Testament
on the basis of an alleged discontinuity" * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia: E-J_ by Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Mar 1982) ISBN 0802837824 pages 515–516 * ^ _A_ _B_ _The Oxford Handbook of the Trinity_ by Gilles Emery O. P. and Matthew Levering (27 Oct 2011) ISBN 0199557810 page 263 * ^ _Critical Terms for Religious Studies._ Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998. _Credo Reference._ 27 July 2009 * ^ _A_ _B_ _The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology_ by Alan Richardson and John Bowden (Jan 1, 1983) ISBN 0664227481 page 36 * ^ Catholic catechism at the Vatican web site, items: 242 245 237 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _ God
God
Our Father_ by John Koessler (Sep 13, 1999) ISBN 0802440681 page 68 * ^ Catholic Catechism items: 356 and 295 at the Vatican web site * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _The Trinity: Global Perspectives_ by Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen (Jan 17, 2007) ISBN 0664228909 pages 10–13 * ^ _Global Dictionary of Theology_ by William A. Dyrness, Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, Juan F. Martinez and Simon Chan (Oct 10, 2008) ISBN 0830824545 pages 169–171 * ^ _The International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia_ by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1988 ISBN 0-8028-3785-9 page 571-572 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _The Doctrine of God: A Global Introduction_ by Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen 2004 ISBN 0801027527 pages 37–41 * ^ _Symbols of Jesus_ by Robert C. Neville (Feb 4, 2002) ISBN 0521003539 pages 26–27 * ^ _ Jesus
Jesus
and His Own: A Commentary on John 13–17 by Daniel B. Stevick (Apr 29, 2011) Eeardmans ISBN 0802848656 page 46_ * ^ _Trinitarian Soundings in Systematic Theology_ by Paul Louis Metzger 2006 ISBN 0567084108 pages 36 and 43 * ^ "Godhead", _True to the Faith_, The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2004 . See also: " God
God
the Father", _True to the Faith_, The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2004 . * ^ "ONE. See God, Godhead; Unity", _Guide to the Scriptures_, The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2005 . * ^ "The only true God
God
and Jesus
Jesus
Christ whom He hath sent", _Jeffrey R Holland_, The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2007 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Saints, The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter Day. "God the Father". _www.lds.org_. * ^ Anderson, Elder Joseph. "A Testimony of Christ – Elder Joseph Anderson". _lds.org_. * ^ _Insight on the Scriptures_. 2. 1988. p. 1019. * ^ James Roberts – Oneness vs. Trinitarian Theology – Westland United Pentecostal Church. Retrieved 13 April 2012. * ^ See also David Bernard, _A Handbook of Basic Doctrines_, Word Aflame Press, 1988. ISBN 0-932581-37-4 needs page num * ^ _A_ _B_ _The Names of God
God
in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: A Basis for Interfaith Dialogue:_ by Máire Byrne (Sep 8, 2011) ISBN 144115356X pages 2–3 * ^ "The Bhagavad Gita" by Srimath Swami Chidbhavananda 2009 ISBN 81-8085-147-8 page 501 * ^ _Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology Set_ by C. Scott Littleton 2005 ISBN 0-7614-7559-1 page 908 * ^ _Fundamentals of the Faith_ by Peter Kreeft 1988 ISBN 0-89870-202-X page 93 * ^ _A_ _B_ _The Concept of Monotheism in Islam and Christianity_ by Hans Köchler 1982 ISBN 3-7003-0339-4 page 38 * ^ _Christian Theology: An Introduction_ by Alister E. McGrath (Oct 12, 2010) ISBN 1444335146 pages 237–238 * ^ Gerhard Böwering, _ God
God
and his Attributes_, Encyclopedia of the Quran * ^ John L. Esposito, _Islam: The Straight Path_, Oxford University Press, 1998, p.22 * ^ " Hadith
Hadith
– Book of Good Manners and Form (Al-Adab) – Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". _sunnah.com_. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Berger, David; Wyschogrod, Michael (1978). _Jews and "Jewish Christianity"_. : KTAV Publ. House. ISBN 0-87068-675-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Singer, Tovia (2010). _Let's Get Biblical_. RNBN Publishers; 2nd edition (2010). ISBN 978-0-615-34839-1 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Singer, Tovia (2010). _Let's Get Biblical – In depth Study Guide_. Outreach Judaism (1998). ASIN B0006RBS3K . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kaplan, Aryeh (1985). _The real Messiah? a Jewish response to missionaries_ (New ed.). New York: National Conference of Synagogue Youth. ISBN 978-1-879016-11-8 . The real Messiah (pdf) * ^ Gerald J. Blidstein, 2006 _Honor thy father and mother: filial responsibility in Jewish law and ethics_ ISBN 0-88125-862-8 page 1 * ^ Rashi : " God
God
is not a man that He should lie": He has already promised them to bring them to and give them possession of the land of the seven nations, and you expect to kill them in the desert? "Would He say…": Heb. הַהוּא. This is in the form of a question. And the Targum renders "who later relent". They reconsider and change their minds. * ^ Singer, Tovia. "Monotheism". Retrieved 19 August 2013. * ^ Spiro, Ken (Rabbi, Masters Degree in History). "JEWISH FOLLOWERS OF JESUS". _Seeds of Christianity_. Simpletoremember.com. Retrieved 19 August 2013. * ^ Ariela Pelaia – What Is Rosh HaShanah? – The Jewish New Year of Rosh HaShanah – Rosh HaShanah Liturgy – About.com – Judaism. Retrieved 7 December 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Real Sikhism God
God
– Who is God? What does God
God
look like? – Real Sikhism – Exploring the Sikh Religion. Retrieved 8 April 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ James Cornwell, 2009 _Saints, Signs, and Symbols: The Symbolic Language of Christian Art_ ISBN 0-8192-2345-X page 2 * ^ Adolphe Napoléon Didron, 2003 _Christian iconography: or The history of Christian art in the middle ages_ ISBN 0-7661-4075-X pages 169 * ^ George Ferguson, 1996 _Signs ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Christian theology

SYSTEMATIC

SCRIPTURE

* Inspiration * Preservation * Canonics * Biblical studies * Exegesis
Exegesis
* Law and Gospel * Hermeneutics

GOD

* Attributes * Patriology * Christology * Pneumatology * Theocentricism * Theology proper * Immutability * Impassibility

TRINITY

* Father * Son ( Hypostatic union * Incarnation
Incarnation
* Jesus
Jesus
* Logos * Christocentric ) * Holy Spirit
Spirit

COSMOLOGY

* Creation * Angels * Angelic hierarchy * Humanity * Fallen angels * Satan * Theodicy
Theodicy

SOTERIOLOGY

* Absolution
Absolution
* Adoption * Assurance * Atonement * Baptism
Baptism
* Calling * Conversion * Election * Eternal life * Faith
Faith
* Forgiveness * Glorification * Grace * Irresistible grace * Imputation * Justification * Lapsarianism * Means of grace
Means of grace
* Monergism
Monergism
* Mortification * _ Ordo salutis _ * Perseverance * Predestination * Recapitulation * Reconciliation * Redemption * Regeneration * Repentance * Resurrection * Salvation * Sanctification * Synergism * Theosis * Union with Christ

HAMARTIOLOGY

* Adam * Anthropology * The Fall * _ Incurvatus in se _ * Original sin * Sin * Theodicy
Theodicy
* Total depravity

ECCLESIOLOGY

* Sacrament
Sacrament

* Eucharist

* Missiology * Polity (Congregational * Episcopal * Presbyterian ) * Synod * Conciliarity

ESCHATOLOGY

* Summary of differences * Historicism * Idealism * Dispensationalism
Dispensationalism
* Futurism * Preterism * Millenarianism (Pre- / Post- / A-millennialism ) * Adventism * Antichrist * Apocalypse
Apocalypse
* Apocalypticism * Covenant / New Covenant theology * End times * Heaven
Heaven
* Hell * Last Judgment * Millennialism * New Jerusalem
New Jerusalem
* Rapture
Rapture
* Second Coming * Soul sleep * Tribulation * War in Heaven
Heaven

HISTORICAL

* History of Christian theology * Calvinist–Arminian debate * Apostolic Age * Canon * Patristics * Caesaropapism
Caesaropapism
* Semipelagianism * Iconoclasm * Scholasticism
Scholasticism
* Thomism * Conciliarism
Conciliarism
* Renaissance
Renaissance
* Reformation
Reformation
* Counter- Reformation
Reformation
* Pietism
Pietism
* Great Awakenings

PRACTICAL

* Apologetics * Biblical law * Education * Ethics * Homiletics * Liturgics * Missiology * Moral * Pastoral * Polemics * Political

BY TRADITION

EASTERN ORTHODOX

* Apophatic theology
Apophatic theology
* Cataphatic theology * Economy * Essence–energies * Filioque
Filioque
* Gnomic will * Metousiosis * Phronema * Phyletism * Proskynesis * Sobornost * Symphonia * Tabor Light
Tabor Light
* Theoria * Theosis * Theotokos
Theotokos

ROMAN CATHOLIC

* Absolution
Absolution
* Apostolic succession * Assumption of Mary
Assumption of Mary
* Traditionalism * Ecumenical Councils * Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
* Indulgences * Infant baptism * Josephology * Liturgy * Mariology * Mass * Modernism * Natural law
Natural law
* Papal infallibility * Priesthood * Purgatory * Quartodecimanism * Real presence * Sacerdotalism * Sacrament
Sacrament
* Sainthood * Thomism * Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
* Ultramontanism * Veneration

PROTESTANT

GENERAL

* Adiaphora * Assurance * Believer\'s baptism * Protestant ecclesiology ( Branch theory ) * Priesthood of all believers

ANGLICAN

* Anglo- Catholicism * Evangelical Catholic
Evangelical Catholic
* High church
High church
* Latitudinarian * Low church

ARMINIAN / WESLEYAN

* Christian perfection
Christian perfection
* Conditional preservation of the saints * Imparted righteousness * Lordship salvation * Prevenient grace

LUTHERAN

* Two kingdoms * Loci Theologici * Theology of the Cross * Confessional Lutheranism * Haugean * Lutheran orthodoxy * Lutheran scholasticism * Neo- Lutheranism

REFORMED (CALVINIST)

* Christian Reconstructionism * Covenant theology * Free Grace * Monergism
Monergism
* Predestination * Five _solae_ (_ Sola fide
Sola fide
_ * _ Sola gratia _ * _ Sola scriptura _ * _ Soli Deo gloria _ * _ Solus Christus _) * Supersessionism * Total depravity * TULIP
TULIP

PENTECOSTALIST

* Baptism
Baptism
with the Holy Spirit
Spirit
* Faith
Faith
healing * Fivefold ministry * Glossolalia
Glossolalia

OTHER

* Adventism * Anabaptism * Dispensationalism
Dispensationalism
* Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism
* Fundamentalism * Messianic Judaism * Pietism
Pietism
* Prosperity theology * Restorationism
Restorationism

* Outline of Christian theology * CHRISTIANITY PORTAL

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