* 1 Definition * 2 Godliness * 3 Five supreme beings * 4 Arihant * 5 Tīrthaṅkara * 6 Siddhas * 7 Heavenly beings * 8 Jain opposition to creationism * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 External links
From the essential perspective, the soul of every living organism is
perfect in every way, is independent of any actions of the organism,
and is considered
According to _
In Jainism, godliness is said to be the inherent quality of every
soul (or every living organism) characterizing infinite bliss,
infinite power, _
Kevala Jnana_ (pure infinite knowledge), infinite
perception, and perfect manifestations of (countably) infinite other
attributes. There are two possible views after this point. One is to
look at the soul from the perspective of the soul itself. This entails
explanations of the properties of the soul, its exact structure,
composition and nature, the nature of various states that arise from
it and their source attributes as is done in the deep and arcane texts
Jains believe that to attain enlightenment and ultimately liberation from all karmic bonding, one must practice the ethical principles not only in thought, but also in words (speech) and action. Such a practice through lifelong work towards oneself is regarded as observing the _ Mahavrata_ ("Great Vows").
Gods can be thus categorized into embodied gods also known as
_arihantas_ and non-embodied formless gods who are called _Siddhas_.
Thus, there are infinite gods in Jainism, all equivalent, liberated,
and infinite in the manifestation of all attributes. The Self and
karmas are separate substances in Jainism, the former living and the
latter non-living. The attainment of enlightenment and the one who
exists in such a state, then those who have achieved such a state can
be termed gods. Therefore, beings (Arihant ) who've attained
omniscience (_kevala jnana_) are worshipped as gods. The quality of
godliness is one and the same in all of them.
FIVE SUPREME BEINGS
In Jainism, the _Pañca-Parameṣṭhi_ (Sanskrit for "five supreme beings") are a fivefold hierarchy of religious authorities worthy of veneration. The five supreme beings are:
* _Arihant _
A human being who conquers all inner passions and possesses infinite
right knowledge (_
Kevala Jnana_) is revered as an _arihant _ in
* _Sāmānya Kevalin_–Ordinary victors, who are concerned with
their own salvation.
The word _Tīrthaṅkara_ signifies the founder of a _tirtha_ which
means a fordable passage across a sea. The _Tirthankara_ show the
'fordable path' across the sea of interminable births and deaths.
_Tirthankara_ revive the fourfold order of _Shraman, Shramani,
Śrāvaka , and Śrāvika_ called _sangha_. As per
exactly 24 _Tirthankara_ grace each half of the cosmic time cycle.
_Tirthamkara-nama-karma_ is a special type of _karma_, bondage of which raises a soul to the supreme status of a _tirthankara_.
Ultimately all _arihantas_ become _siddhas_, or liberated souls, at the time of their nirvana . A _siddha_ is a soul who is permanently liberated from the transmigratory cycle of birth and death . Such a soul, having realized its true self, is free from all the _Karmas_ and embodiment. They are formless and dwell in _ Siddhashila_ (the realm of the liberated beings) at the apex of the universe in infinite bliss, infinite perception, infinite knowledge and infinite energy.
The liberated soul is not long nor small nor round nor triangular nor
quadrangular nor circular; it is not black nor blue nor red nor green
nor white; neither of good nor bad smell; not bitter nor pungent nor
astringent nor sweet; neither rough nor soft; neither heavy nor light;
neither cold nor hot; neither harsh nor smooth; it is without body,
without resurrection, without contact (of matter), it is not feminine
nor masculine nor neuter. The siddha perceives and knows all, yet is
beyond comparison. Its essence is without form; there is no condition
of the unconditioned. It is not sound, not colour, not smell, not
taste, not touch or anything of that kind. Thus I say.
Siddhashilaas per the
Siddhahood is the ultimate goal of all souls. There are infinite souls who have become _siddhas_ and infinite more who will attain this state of liberation. According to Jainism, Godhood is not a monopoly of some omnipotent and powerful being(s). All souls, with right perception, knowledge and conduct can achieve self-realisation and attain this state. Once achieving this state of infinite bliss and having destroyed all desires, the soul is not concerned with worldly matters and does not interfere in the working of the universe, as any activity or desire to interfere will once again result in influx of karmas and thus loss of liberation.
Jains pray to these passionless Gods not for any favors or rewards
but rather pray to the qualities of the
According to Anne Vallely:
Deva (Jainism) _ Idol of Padmāvatī devī,
śāsanadevī of Lord
* _Bhavanapatis_ – Deva dwelling in abodes * _Vyantaras_ – Intermediary devas * _Jyotiṣkas_ – Luminaries * _Vaimānikas_ – Astral devas
The souls on account of accumulation of meritorious _karmas_ reincarnate in heavens as devas. Although their life span is quite long, after their merit _karmas _ are exhausted, they once again have to reincarnate back into the realms of humans, animals or hells depending on their karmas. As these devas themselves are not liberated, they have attachments and passions and hence not worthy of worship.
These heavenly beings (devas above) tainted with attachment and passion; having women and weapons by their side, favour some and disfavour some; Such heavenly beings (devas) should not be worshipped by those who desire emancipation
JAIN OPPOSITION TO CREATIONISM
Jain scriptures reject
This universe is not created nor sustained by anyone;
It is self-sustaining, without any base or support
Besides scriptural authority, Jains also resorted to syllogism and
deductive reasoning to refute the creationist theories. Various views
on divinity and the universe held by the Vedics , samkhyas ,
Some foolish men declare that creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill advised and should be rejected.
If you declare that this raw material arose naturally you fall into another fallacy, for the whole universe might thus have been its own creator, and have arisen quite naturally.
If he is ever perfect and complete, how could the will to create have arisen in him? If, on the other hand, he is not perfect, he could no more create the universe than a potter could.
If he is form-less, action-less and all-embracing, how could he have created the world? Such a soul, devoid of all modality, would have no desire to create anything.
If he is perfect, he does not strive for the three aims of man, so what advantage would he gain by creating the universe?
If you say that he created to no purpose because it was his nature to
do so, then
If he created because of the karma of embodied beings (acquired in a previous creation), then he is not the Almighty Lord, but subordinate to something else.
If out of love for living beings and need of them he made the world, why did he not make creation wholly blissful free from misfortune?
If he were transcendent he would not create, for he would be free:
Nor if involved in transmigration, for then he would not be almighty.
Thus the doctrine that the world was created by
Good men should combat the believer in divine creation, maddened by an evil doctrine. Know that the world is uncreated, as time itself is, without beginning or end, and is based on the principles, life and rest. Uncreated and indestructible, it endures under the compulsion of its own nature.
* ^ _The Perfect Law_ Jainworld.org * ^ Jain, Champat Rai (1917), _The Ratna Karanda Sravakachara_, The Central Jaina Publishing House, p. 3, archived from the original on 2015 * ^ Sangave 2001 , p. 164. * ^ Zimmer 1953 , p. 182. * ^ Sangave 2001 , p. 15. * ^ Sangave 2001 , p. 16. * ^ Rankin 2013 , p. 40. * ^ Jain, Champat Rai (1930), _Jainism, Christianity and Science_, The Indian Press, Allahabad, archived from the original on 2015 * ^ _A_ _B_ Sangave 2001 , p. 16-17. * ^ Thrower (1980), p.93 * ^ Jain 1917 , p. 48. * ^ Jacobi (1884) Retrieved on : 25 May 2007 * ^ Nayanar (2005b), p.35 Gāthā 1.29 * ^ Vallely, Anne (1980). In: _Guardians of the Transcendent: An Ethnology of a Jain Ascetic Community_. University of Toronto Press: Toronto .p.182 * ^ Gopani (1989), emended * ^ http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/002500819 * ^ _Afterword on Jinasena_, D. Lakey, _ The Philosophical Forum_, Volume 33 Issue 3 Page 343-344 - Fall 2002 * ^ _Primal Myths: Creating the World_, Barbara Sproul, http://www.abebooks.com/book-search/isbn/0060675004/ * ^ PDF of the text - http://www.jaina.org/?page=jainbooks * ^ http://www.angelfire.com/blog2/endovelico/CarlSagan-Cosmos.pdf on page 140
* Sangave, Vilas Adinath (2001), _Aspects of Jaina religion_ (3rd
ed.), Bharatiya Jnanpith, ISBN 81-263-0626-2
* Rankin, Aidan (2013), "Chapter 1. Jains
* Jaina Atheism, Surendranath Dasgupta, 1940
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