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"GOD SAVE THE QUEEN" (alternatively "GOD SAVE THE KING", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms , their territories, and the British Crown Dependencies . The author of the tune is unknown and it may originate in plainchant , but a 1619 attribution to John Bull is sometimes made.

It is the national anthem of the United Kingdom and one of two national anthems used by New Zealand since 1977, as well as for several of the UK's territories that have their own additional local anthem. It is also the royal anthem – played specifically in the presence of the monarch – of all the aforementioned countries, as well as Australia (since 1984), Canada (since 1980), Barbados and Tuvalu . In countries not previously part of the British Empire , the tune of "God Save the Queen" has provided the basis for various patriotic songs, though still generally connected with royal ceremony. In the United States , the melody is used for the patriotic song "My Country, \'Tis of Thee ". The melody is also used for the national anthem of Liechtenstein , " Oben am jungen Rhein ".

Beyond its first verse, which is consistent, "God Save the Queen/King" has many historic and extant versions. Since its first publication, different verses have been added and taken away and, even today, different publications include various selections of verses in various orders. In general, only one verse is sung. Sometimes two verses are sung, and on rare occasions, three.

The sovereign and her or his spouse are saluted with the entire anthem , while other members of the Royal Family who are entitled to royal salute (such as the Prince of Wales ) receive just the first six bars. The first six bars also form all or part of the Vice Regal Salute in some Commonwealth realms outside the UK (e.g., in Canada, governors general and lieutenant governors at official events are saluted with the first six bars of "God Save the Queen" followed by the first four and last four bars of "O Canada "), as well as the salute given to governors of British overseas territories.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Use in the United Kingdom

* 2.1 Lyrics in the UK

* 2.1.1 Standard version in the United Kingdom * 2.1.2 Standard version of the music

* 2.1.3 Alternative British versions

* 2.1.3.1 William Hickson\'s alternative version * 2.1.3.2 Official peace version

* 2.1.4 Historic alternative verses

* 2.2 Performance in the UK * 2.3 Other British anthems

* 3 Use in other Commonwealth countries

* 3.1 Australia

* 3.2 Canada

* 3.2.1 Lyrics in Canada

* 3.3 New Zealand * 3.4 Rhodesia

* 4 Use elsewhere

* 5 Musical adaptations

* 5.1 Classical composers * 5.2 Rock adaptations

* 6 Reception * 7 Notes * 8 External links

HISTORY

In _ The Oxford Companion to Music _, Percy Scholes points out the similarities to an early plainsong melody, although the rhythm is very distinctly that of a galliard , and he gives examples of several such dance tunes that bear a striking resemblance to "God Save the King/Queen". Scholes quotes a keyboard piece by John Bull (1619) which has some similarities to the modern tune, depending on the placing of accidentals which at that time were unwritten in certain cases and left to the discretion of the player (see _musica ficta _). He also points to several pieces by Henry Purcell , one of which includes the opening notes of the modern tune, set to the words "God Save the King". Nineteenth-century scholars and commentators mention the widespread belief that an old Scots carol, "Remember O Thou Man" was the source of the tune.

The first published version of what is almost the present tune appeared in 1744 in _Thesaurus Musicus_. The 1744 version of the song was popularised in Scotland and England the following year, with the landing of Charles Edward Stuart and was published in _The Gentleman's Magazine_ (see illustration above). This manuscript has the tune depart from that which is used today at several points, one as early as the first bar, but is otherwise clearly a strong relative of the contemporary anthem. It was recorded as being sung in London theatres in 1745, with, for example, Thomas Arne writing a setting of the tune for the Drury Lane Theatre .

Scholes' analysis includes mention of "untenable" and "doubtful" claims, as well as "an American misattribution". Some of these are:

* The French Marquise de Créquy wrote in her book "Souvenirs", that the tune _Grand Dieu Sauve Le Roi_, was written by Jean-Baptiste Lully in gratitude for the survival by Louis XIV of an anal fistula operation. The surgical knife that was purpose-built for the occasion is on display in the Musée d\'histoire de la médecine . Lully set words by Marie de Brinon to music, and Créquy claims the tune was later plagiarised by Handel . Translated in Latin under the name _Domine, Salvum Fac Regem_, it became the French anthem until 1792. After the Battle of Culloden , the Hanover dynasty supposedly then adopted this melody as the British anthem. * James Oswald : He is a possible author of the _Thesaurus Musicus_, so may have played a part in the history of the song, but is not a strong enough candidate to be cited as the composer of the tune. * Dr Henry Carey : Scholes refutes this attribution, first on the grounds that Carey himself never made such a claim. Second, when the claim was made by Carey's son (as late as 1795), it was accompanied by a request for a pension from the British Government on that score. Third, the younger Carey claimed that his father had written parts of it in 1745, even though the older Carey had died in 1743. It has also been claimed that the work was first publicly performed by Carey during a dinner in 1740 in honour of Admiral Edward "Grog" Vernon , who had captured the Spanish harbour of Porto Bello (then in Gran Colombia , now in Panamá ) during the War of Jenkins\' Ear .

Scholes recommends the attribution "traditional" or "traditional; earliest known version by John Bull (1562–1628)". The _English Hymnal _ (musical editor Ralph Vaughan Williams ) gives no attribution, stating merely "17th or 18th cent."

USE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

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