HOME
The Info List - God In Hinduism


--- Advertisement ---



(i)

The concept of GOD IN HINDUISM varies in its diverse traditions. Hinduism
Hinduism
spans a wide range of beliefs such as henotheism , monotheism , polytheism , panentheism , pantheism , pandeism , monism , atheism and nontheism .

Forms of theism find mention in the Bhagavad Gita . Emotional or loving devotion (bhakti) to a primary god such as avatars of Vishnu ( Krishna
Krishna
for example), Shiva
Shiva
and Devi
Devi
emerged in the early medieval period, and is now known as Bhakti movement . Other Hindus consider atman within every living being to be same as Vishnu or Shiva
Shiva
or Devi, or alternatively identical to the eternal metaphysical Absolute called ( Brahman ) in Hinduism. Such a philosophical system of Advaita or non-dualism as it developed in the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy , especially as set out in the Upanishads and popularised by Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
in the 9th century has been influential on Hinduism.

The Dvaita tradition founded by 13th/14th-century Madhvacharya is based on a concept similar to God in major world religions. His writings led some early colonial-era Indologists such as George Abraham Grierson to suggest Madhvacharya was influenced by Christianity
Christianity
, but later scholarship has rejected this theory. Madhva's historical influence in Hinduism, state Kulandran and Kraemer, has been salutary, but not extensive.

CONTENTS

* 1 Henotheism, kathenotheism, equitheism and non-theism

* 2 Brahman

* 2.1 Nirguna and Saguna

* 3 Ishvara * 4 Madhvacharya\'s monotheistic God * 5 Svayam Bhagavan * 6 See also * 7 Notes

* 8 References

* 8.1 Bibliography

* 9 External links

HENOTHEISM, KATHENOTHEISM, EQUITHEISM AND NON-THEISM

Further information: Hindu views on monotheism and History of Hinduism
Hinduism
TO WHAT IS ONE

They call him Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Agni, and he is heavenly-winged Garutman. To what is One, sages give many a title. — Rigveda 1.164.46 Transl: Klaus Klostermaier

Henotheism was the term used by scholars such as Max Müller to describe the theology of Vedic religion . Müller noted that the hymns of the Rigveda , the oldest scripture of Hinduism, mention many deities, but praises them successively as the "one ultimate, supreme God", alternatively as "one supreme Goddess", thereby asserting that the essence of the deities was unitary (ekam ), and the deities were nothing but pluralistic manifestations of the same concept of the divine (God).

The idea that there can be and are plural perspectives for the same divine or spiritual principle repeats in the Vedic texts. For example, other than hymn 1.164 with this teaching, the more ancient hymn 5.3 of the Rigveda states:

You at your birth are Varuna , O Agni
Agni
. When you are kindled, you are Mitra . In you, O son of strength, all gods are centered. You are Indra
Indra
to the mortal who brings oblation. You are Aryaman , when you are regarded as having the mysterious names of maidens, O Self-sustainer. —  Rigveda 5.3.1-2, Translator: Hermann Oldenberg

Alternate and related terms to henotheism are monolatrism and kathenotheism . The latter term is an extension of "henotheism", from καθ' ἕνα θεόν (kath' hena theon) — "one god at a time". Henotheism refers to a pluralistic theology wherein different deities are viewed to be of a unitary, equivalent divine essence. Some scholars prefer the term monolatry to henotheism, to discuss religions where a single god is central, but the existence or the position of other gods is not denied. Another term related to henotheism is "equitheism", referring to the belief that all gods are equal.

The Vedic era conceptualization of the divine or the One, states Jeaneane Fowler, is more abstract than a monotheistic God, it is the Reality
Reality
behind and of the phenomenal universe. The Vedic hymns treat it as "limitless, indescribable, absolute principle", thus the Vedic divine is something of a panentheism rather than simple henotheism. In late Vedic era, around the start of Upanishadic age (~800 BCE), theosophical speculations emerge that develop concepts which scholars variously call nondualism or monism , as well as forms of non-theism and pantheism . An example of the questioning of the concept of God, in addition to henotheistic hymns found therein, are in later portions of the Rigveda, such as the Nasadiya Sukta . Hinduism
Hinduism
calls the metaphysical absolute concept as Brahman , incorporating within it the transcendent and immanent reality. Different schools of thought interpret Brahman as either personal , impersonal or transpersonal. Ishwar Chandra Sharma describes it as "Absolute Reality, beyond all dualities of existence and non-existence, light and darkness, and of time, space and cause."

Influential ancient and medieval Hindu philosophers, states Roy Perrett – a professor of Philosophy, teach their spiritual ideas with a world created ex-nihilo and "effectively manage without God altogether".

BRAHMAN

Main article: Brahman Not to be confused with Brahma – the Hindu god, Brahmin – the caste or varna, or Brahmana – a layer of text in the Vedas.

In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality
Reality
in the universe . In major schools of Hindu philosophy , it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists. It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind the diversity in all that exists in the universe.

Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen , as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas , and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads . The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality.

Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal , impersonal or Para Brahman , or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta , Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being, and therein it shares conceptual framework of God in major world religions. In non-dual schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
such as the monist Advaita Vedanta , Brahman is identical to the Atman, Brahman is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.

The Upanishads contain several mahā-vākyas or "Great Sayings" on the concept of Brahman:

TEXT UPANISHAD TRANSLATION REFERENCE

अहं ब्रह्म अस्मि aham brahmāsmi Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
1.4.10 "I am Brahman"

अयम् आत्मा ब्रह्म ayam ātmā brahma Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
4.4.5 "The Self is Brahman"

सर्वं खल्विदं ब्रह्म sarvam khalvidam brahma Chandogya Upanishad 3.14.1 "All this is Brahman"

एकमेवाद्वितीयम् ekam evadvitiyam Chandogya Upanishad 6.2.1 "That is one, without a second"

तत्त्वमसि tat tvam asi Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.7 et seq. "Thou art that" ("You are Brahman")

प्रज्ञानं ब्रह्म prajnānam brahma Aitareya Upanishad 3.3.7 "Knowledge is Brahman"

NIRGUNA AND SAGUNA

Main articles: Nirguna Brahman and Saguna Brahman

While Hinduism
Hinduism
sub-schools such as Advaita Vedanta emphasize the complete equivalence of Brahman and Atman, they also expound on Brahman as saguna Brahman —the Brahman with attributes, and nirguna Brahman —the Brahman without attributes. The nirguna Brahman is the Brahman as it really is, however, the saguna Brahman is posited as a means to realizing nirguna Brahman, but the Hinduism
Hinduism
schools declare saguna Brahman to be ultimately illusory. The concept of the saguna Brahman, such as in the form of avatars , is considered in these schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
to be a useful symbolism, path and tool for those who are still on their spiritual journey, but the concept is finally cast aside by the fully enlightened.

The Bhakti movement of Hinduism
Hinduism
built its theosophy around two concepts of Brahman—Nirguna and Saguna. Nirguna Brahman was the concept of the Ultimate Reality
Reality
as formless, without attributes or quality. Saguna Brahman, in contrast, was envisioned and developed as with form, attributes and quality. The two had parallels in the ancient panthestic unmanifest and theistic manifest traditions, respectively, and traceable to Arjuna- Krishna
Krishna
dialogue in the Bhagavad Gita . It is the same Brahman, but viewed from two perspectives, one from Nirguni knowledge-focus and other from Saguni love-focus, united as Krishna
Krishna
in the Gita. Nirguna bhakta's poetry were Jnana-shrayi, or had roots in knowledge. Saguna bhakta's poetry were Prema-shrayi, or with roots in love. In Bhakti, the emphasis is reciprocal love and devotion, where the devotee loves God, and God loves the devotee.

Nirguna and Saguna Brahman concepts of the Bhakti movement has been a baffling one to scholars, particularly the Nirguni tradition because it offers, states David Lorenzen, "heart-felt devotion to a God without attributes, without even any definable personality". Yet given the "mountains of Nirguni bhakti literature", adds Lorenzen, bhakti for Nirguna Brahman has been a part of the reality of the Hindu tradition along with the bhakti for Saguna Brahman. These were two alternate ways of imagining God during the bhakti movement.

ISHVARA

Main article: Ishvara

The Yogasutras of Patanjali use the term Ishvara in 11 verses: I.23 through I.29, II.1, II.2, II.32 and II.45. Ever since the Sutra's release, Hindu scholars have debated and commented on who or what is Isvara? These commentaries range from defining Isvara from a "personal god" to "special self" to "anything that has spiritual significance to the individual". Whicher explains that while Patanjali's terse verses can be interpreted both as theistic or non-theistic, Patanjali's concept of Isvara in Yoga philosophy functions as a "transformative catalyst or guide for aiding the yogin on the path to spiritual emancipation".

Patanjali defines Isvara (Sanskrit: ईश्वर) in verse 24 of Book 1, as "a special Self (पुरुषविशेष, puruṣa-viśeṣa)",

Sanskrit: क्लेश कर्म विपाकाशयैःपरामृष्टः पुरुषविशेष ईश्वरः ॥२४॥ – Yoga Sutras I.24

This sutra of Yoga philosophy of Hinduism
Hinduism
adds the characteristics of Isvara as that special Self which is unaffected (अपरामृष्ट, aparamrsta) by one's obstacles/hardships (क्लेश, klesha), one's circumstances created by past or one's current actions (कर्म, karma), one's life fruits (विपाक, vipâka), and one's psychological dispositions/intentions (आशय, ashaya).

Among various Bhakti path practicing sects of Hinduism, which built upon the Yoga school of Hinduism, Isvara can also mean a specific deity such as Krishna
Krishna
, Rama
Rama
, Shiva
Shiva
, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
, Parvati and others.

MADHVACHARYA\'S MONOTHEISTIC GOD

Madhvacharya developed the Dvaita theology wherein Vishnu was presented as a monotheistic God, similar to major world religions. His writings led some such as George Abraham Grierson to suggest he was influenced by Christianity
Christianity
.

Madhvacharya was misperceived and misrepresented by both Christian missionaries and Hindu writers during the colonial era scholarship. The similarities in the primacy of one God, dualism and distinction between man and God, devotion to God, the son of God as the intermediary, predestination, the role of grace in salvation, as well as the similarities in the legends of miracles in Christianity
Christianity
and Madhvacharya's Dvaita tradition fed these stories. Among Christian writers, GA Grierson creatively asserted that Madhva's ideas evidently were "borrowed from Christianity, quite possibly promulgated as a rival to the central doctrine of that faith". Among Hindu writers, according to Sarma, SC Vasu creatively translated Madhvacharya's works to identify Madhvacharya with Christ, rather than compare their ideas.

Modern scholarship rules out the influence of Christianity
Christianity
on Madhvacharya, as there is no evidence that there ever was a Christian settlement where Madhvacharya grew up and lived, or that there was a sharing or discussion of ideas between someone with knowledge of the Bible and Christian legends, and him.

SVAYAM BHAGAVAN

Bhagavan Krishna
Krishna
with Radharani Main article: Svayam Bhagavan

Svayam bhagavan, a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
theological term, is the concept of absolute representation of the monotheistic God as Bhagavan himself within Hinduism
Hinduism
.

It is most often used in Gaudiya Vaishnava Krishna-centered theology as referring to Krishna
Krishna
. The title Svayam Bhagavan is used exclusively to designate Krishna. Certain other traditions of Hinduism
Hinduism
consider him to be the source of all avatars , and the source of Vishnu himself, or to be the same as Narayana . As such, he is therefore regarded as Svayam Bhagavan.

The term is seldom used to refer to other forms of Krishna
Krishna
and Vishnu within the context of certain religious texts such as the Bhagavata Purana , and also within other sects of Vaishnavism.

When Krishna
Krishna
is recognized to be Svayam Bhagavan, it can be understood that this is the belief of Gaudiya Vaishnavism
Gaudiya Vaishnavism
, the Vallabha Sampradaya , and the Nimbarka Sampradaya , where Krishna
Krishna
is accepted to be the source of all other avatars, and the source of Vishnu himself. This belief is drawn primarily "from the famous statement of the Bhagavatam"(1.3.28).

A different viewpoint, opposing this theological concept is the concept of Krishna
Krishna
as an avatar of Narayana or Vishnu . It should be however noted that although it is usual to speak of Vishnu as the source of the avataras, this is only one of the names of god of Vaishnavism , who is also known as Narayana , Vasudeva and Krishna
Krishna
and behind each of those names there is a divine figure with attributed supremacy in Vaishnavism .

The theological interpretation of svayam bhagavān differs with each tradition and the literal translation of the term has been understood in several distinct ways. Translated from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language , the term literary means " Bhagavan Himself" or "directly Bhagavan ". Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition often translates it within its perspective as primeval Lord or original Personality of Godhead, but also considers the terms such as Supreme Personality of Godhead and Supreme God as an equivalent to the term Svayam bhagavan, and may also choose to apply these terms to Vishnu, Narayana and many of their associated Avatars .

Earlier commentators such as Madhvacharya translated the term Svayam Bhagavan as "he who has bhagavatta"; meaning "he who has the quality of possessing all good qualities". Others have translated it simply as "the Lord Himself". Followers of Vishnu-centered sampradayas of Vaishnavism rarely address this term, but believe that it refers to their belief that Krishna
Krishna
is among the highest and fullest of all Avatars and is considered to be the "paripurna Avatara", complete in all respects and the same as the original. According to them Krishna is described in the Bhagavata Purana as the Purnavatara (or complete manifestation) of the Bhagavan, while other incarnations are called partial.

SEE ALSO

* Religion
Religion
portal

* Adi parashakti * Brahma * Hindu views on monotheism * Soham (Sanskrit) * Svayam Bhagavan * Iṣṭa-devatā * Names of God * Conceptions of God

NOTES

* ^ "not sublatable" , the final element in a dialectical process which cannot be eliminated or annihilated (German: "aufheben").

* ^ It is also defined as:

* The unchanging, infinite , immanent , and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter , energy , time, space , being , and everything beyond in this Universe
Universe
; that is the one supreme, universal spirit. * The one supreme, all pervading Spirit that is the origin and support of the phenomenal universe.

* ^ Saguna Brahman , with qualities * ^ Nirguna Brahman , without qualities * ^ Supreme

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Julius J. Lipner (2009), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7 , page 8; Quote: "(...) one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu." * ^ Lester Kurtz (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict, ISBN 978-0123695031 , Academic Press, 2008 * ^ MK Gandhi, The Essence of Hinduism, Editor: VB Kher, Navajivan Publishing, see page 3; According to Gandhi, "a man may not believe in God and still call himself a Hindu." * ^ Chakravarti, Sitansu (1991), Hinduism, a way of life, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., p. 71, ISBN 978-81-208-0899-7 * ^ "Polytheism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-05. * ^ June McDaniel Hinduism, in John Corrigan, The Oxford Handbook of Religion
Religion
and Emotion, (2007) Oxford University Press, 544 pages, pp. 52-53 ISBN 0-19-517021-0 * ^ Karen Pechelis (2014), The Embodiment of Bhakti, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195351903 , pages 3-4, 15-28 * ^ Mariasusai Dhavamony (1999), Hindu Spirituality, GB Press, ISBN 978-8876528187 , page 129 * ^ Olivelle 1992 , pp. 80-81, 210 with footnotes. * ^ Ganesh Tagare (2002), The Pratyabhijñā Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120818927 , pages 16–19 * ^ William Wainwright (2012), Concepts of God, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University * ^ U Murthy (1979), Samskara, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195610796 , page 150

* ^ Wiman Dissanayake (1993), Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice (Editors: Thomas P. Kasulis et al), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791410806 , page 39; QUOTE: "The Upanishads form the FOUNDATIONS OF HINDU PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT and the central theme of the Upanishads is the identity of Atman and Brahman, or the inner self and the cosmic self."; Michael McDowell and Nathan Brown (2009), World Religions, Penguin, ISBN 978-1592578467 , pages 208-210 * ^ Indich 2000 , p. vii. * ^ Fowler 2002 , pp. 240-243. * ^ Brannigan 2009 , p. 19, Quote: " Advaita Vedanta is the most influential philosophical system in Hindu thought.". * ^ Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700712571 , pages 124-127 * ^ A B Sharma 1962 , p. 7. * ^ A B C D Sabapathy Kulandran and Hendrik Kraemer (2004), Grace in Christianity
Christianity
and Hinduism, James Clarke, ISBN 978-0227172360 , pages 177-179 * ^ A B Jones & Ryan 2006 , p. 266. * ^ Sarma 2000 , pp. 19-21. * ^ A B Klaus K. Klostermaier (2010). A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition. State University of New York Press. pp. 103 with footnote 10 on page 529. ISBN 978-0-7914-8011-3 . * ^ See also, Griffith's Rigveda translation: Wikisource * ^ Sugirtharajah, Sharada, Imagining Hinduism: A Postcolonial Perspective, Routledge, 2004, p.44; * ^ A B C Charles Taliaferro; Victoria S. Harrison; Stewart Goetz (2012). The Routledge Companion to Theism. Routledge. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-1-136-33823-6 . * ^ William A. Graham (1993). Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion. Cambridge University Press. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-0-521-44820-8 . * ^ Ilai Alon; Ithamar Gruenwald; Itamar Singer (1994). Concepts of the Other in Near Eastern Religions. BRILL Academic. pp. 370–371. ISBN 978-9004102200 . * ^ A B Christoph Elsas (1999). Erwin Fahlbusch, ed. The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans. p. 524. ISBN 978-90-04-11695-5 . * ^ Hermann Oldenberg (1988). The Religion
Religion
of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 51. ISBN 978-81-208-0392-3 . * ^ See also, Griffith's translation of this hymn: Wikisource * ^ A B Monotheism and Polytheism, Encyclopædia Britannica (2014) * ^ Online Etymology Dictionary: kathenotheism * ^ Carl Olson (2007). The Many Colors of Hinduism: A Thematic-historical Introduction. Rutgers University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-8135-4068-9 . * ^ A B C Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1-898723-93-6 . * ^ James L. Ford (2016). The Divine Quest, East and West: A Comparative Study of Ultimate Realities. State University of New York Press. pp. 308–309. ISBN 978-1-4384-6055-0 . * ^ Ninian Smart (2013). The Yogi and the Devotee (Routledge Revivals): The Interplay Between the Upanishads and Catholic Theology. Routledge. pp. 46–47, 117. ISBN 978-1-136-62933-4 . * ^ Jessica Frazier (2013). Russell Re Manning, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford University Press. pp. 172–173. ISBN 978-0-19-161171-1 . * ^ PT Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge, ISBN 978-1406732627 , page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII * ^ Jeffrey Brodd (2003). World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery. Saint Mary's Press. pp. 43–45. ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5 . * ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , page 91 * ^ Ishwar Chandra Sharma, Ethical Philosophies of India, Harper & Row, 1970, p.75. * ^ Roy W. Perrett (2013). Philosophy of Religion: Indian Philosophy. Routledge. pp. xiii–xiv. ISBN 978-1-135-70322-6 . * ^ A B C Lochtefeld, James G. (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism. 1. The Rosen Publishing Group . p. 122. ISBN 978-0823931798 . * ^ A B P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge, ISBN 978-1406732627 , page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII * ^ Fowler 2002 , pp. 49–55 (in Upanishads), 318–319 (in Vishistadvaita), 246–248 and 252–255 (in Advaita), 342–343 (in Dvaita), 175–176 (in Samkhya-Yoga). * ^ Mariasusai Dhavamony (2002), Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Theological Soundings and Perspectives, Rodopi Press, ISBN 978-9042015104 , pages 43–44

* ^ A B For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199738724 , pages 51–58, 111–115; For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 * ^ A B Fowler 2002 , pp. 53–55. * ^ A B Brodd, Jeffrey (2009). World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery (3rd ed.). Saint Mary's Press. pp. 43–47. ISBN 978-0884899976 . * ^ Fowler 2002 , pp. 50–53. * ^ Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , page 91 * ^ A B Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415187077 , pages 1–4 * ^ Goodman, Hananya (1994). Between Jerusalem and Benares: Comparative Studies in Judaism and Hinduism. State University of New York Press . p. 121. ISBN 978-0791417164 . * ^ Raju 1992 , p. 228. * ^ Eliot Deutsch (1980), Advaita Vedanta : A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824802714 , Chapter 1 * ^ A B Potter 2008 , pp. 6–7. * ^ Brodd, Jefferey (2003). World Religions. Winona, Minnesota: Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5 . * ^ John Bowker (ed.)(2012), The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press. * ^ Fowler 2002 , pp. 49–53. * ^ Klaus K. Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism, Third Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791470824 , Chapter 12: Atman and Brahman – Self and All * ^ Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700712571 , pages 124–127 * ^ Thomas Padiyath (2014), The Metaphysics of Becoming, De Gruyter, ISBN 978-3110342550 , pages 155–157 * ^ Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272 , pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86 * ^ John E. Welshons (2009), One Soul, One Love, One Heart, New World Library, ISBN 978-1577315889 , pages 17–18 * ^ Jones, Constance (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 270. ISBN 0816073368 . * ^ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and English Translation: S. Madhavananda, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
1.4.10, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
– Shankara Bhashya, page 145 * ^ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and English Translation: S. Madhavananda, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
4.4.5, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
– Shankara Bhashya, pages 711–712

* ^ Sanskrit: छान्दोग्योपनिषद् १.१ ॥तृतीयॊऽध्यायः॥ Wikisource English Translation:Max Muller, Chandogya Upanishad 3.14.1 Oxford University Press, page 48; Max Muller, The Upanisads at Google Books , Routledge, pages xviii–xix * ^ Sanskrit: छान्दोग्योपनिषद् १.२ ॥षष्ठोऽध्यायः॥ Wikisource English Translation:Max Muller, Chandogya Upanishad 6.2.1 Oxford University Press, page 93; Max Muller, The Upanisads at Google Books , Routledge, pages xviii–xix * ^ Sanskrit: छान्दोग्योपनिषद् १.२ ॥षष्ठोऽध्यायः॥ Wikisource English Translation:Robert Hume, Chandogya Upanishad 6.8, The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pages 246–250 * ^ A. S. Gupta, The Meanings of "That Thou Art", Philosophy East and West, Vol. 12, No. 2, pages 125–134

* ^ Sanskrit: ऐतरेयोपनिषद् Wikisource English Translation:Max Muller, Aitareya Upanishad 3.3.7, also known as Aitareya Aranyaka 2.6.1.7 Oxford University Press, page 246 * ^ Anantanand Rambachan (2001), Heirarchies in the Nature of God? Questioning The "Saguna-Nirguna" Distinction in Advaita Vedanta, Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies, Vol. 14, No. 7, pages 1–6 * ^ A B William Wainwright (2012), Concepts of God, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, (Accessed on: June 13, 2015) * ^ A B C D E Karen Pechilis Prentiss (2014), The Embodiment of Bhakti, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195351903 , page 21 * ^ A B Jeaneane D. Fowler (2012), The Bhagavad Gita, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1845193461 , pages xxvii–xxxiv * ^ A B C Jeaneane D. Fowler (2012), The Bhagavad Gita, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1845193461 , pages 207–211 * ^ A B David Lorenzen (1996), Praises to a Formless God: Nirguni Texts from North India, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791428054 , page 2 * ^ Lloyd Pflueger, Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra, in Theory and Practice of Yoga (Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329 , pages 38-39 * ^ Hariharānanda Āraṇya (2007), Parabhaktisutra, Aphorisms on Sublime Devotion, (Translator: A Chatterjee), in Divine Hymns with Supreme Devotional Aphorisms, Kapil Math Press, Kolkata, pages 55-93; Hariharānanda Āraṇya (2007), Eternally Liberated Isvara and Purusa Principle, in Divine Hymns with Supreme Devotional Aphorisms, Kapil Math Press, Kolkata, pages 126-129 * ^ Ian Whicher (1999), The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-3815-2 , page 86 * ^ Āgāśe, K. S. (1904). Pātañjalayogasūtrāṇi. Puṇe: Ānandāśrama. p. 102. * ^ aparAmRSTa, kleza, karma, vipaka and ashaya; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany * ^ Lloyd Pflueger (2008), Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra, in Theory and Practice of Yoga (Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329 , pages 31-45 * ^ Bryant, Edwin H. (2003). Krishna: the beautiful legend of God; Śrīmad Bhāgavata Purāṇa, book X, XI. Harmondsworth : Penguin. ISBN 0-14-044799-7 * ^ Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700712571 , pages 124-127 * ^ A B Sarma 2000 , pp. 19-25. * ^ A B C Sharma 2000 , pp. 609-611. * ^ Sarma 2000 , p. 20. * ^ Sarma 2000 , pp. 22-24. * ^ (Gupta 2007, p.36 note 9) * ^ Delmonico, N. (2004). "The History Of Indic Monotheism And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism". The Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement: the Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. ISBN 978-0-231-12256-6 . Retrieved 2008-04-12. * ^ Elkman, S.M.; Gosvami, J. (1986). Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaishnava Movement. Motilal Banarsidass Pub. * ^ A B Dimock Jr, E.C.; Dimock, E.C. (1989). The Place of the Hidden Moon: Erotic Mysticism in the Vaisnava-Sahajiya Cult of Bengal. University Of Chicago Press. page 132 * ^ Kennedy, M.T. (1925). The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism of Bengal. H. Milford, Oxford university press. * ^ Flood, Gavin D. (1996). An introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 341. ISBN 0-521-43878-0 . Retrieved 2008-04-21. "Early Vaishnava worship focuses on three deities who become fused together, namely Vasudeva-Krishna, Krishna-Gopala and Narayana, who in turn all become identified with Vishnu. Put simply, Vasudeva- Krishna
Krishna
and Krishna-Gopala were worshiped by groups generally referred to as Bhagavatas, while Narayana was worshipped by the Pancaratra sect." * ^ Essential Hinduism
Hinduism
S. Rosen, 2006, Greenwood Publishing Group p.124 ISBN 0-275-99006-0 * ^ Matchett 2000 , p. 4 * ^ Gupta, Ravi M. (2007). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40548-3 . * ^ Knapp, S. (2005). The Heart of Hinduism: The Eastern Path to Freedom, Empowerment and Illumination -. iUniverse. " Krishna
Krishna
is the primeval Lord, the original Personality of Godhead, so He can expand Himself into unlimited forms with all potencies." page 161 * ^ Dr. Kim Knott, (1993). "Contemporary Theological Trends In The Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement: A Theology of Religions". Retrieved 2008-04-12. ..."Bhakti, the highest path, was that of surrender to Lord Krishna, the way of pure devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead". * ^ K. Klostermaier (1997). The Charles Strong Trust Lectures, 1972–1984. Crotty, Robert B. Brill Academic Pub. p. 206. ISBN 90-04-07863-0 . For his worshippers he is not an avatara in the usual sense, but svayam bhagavan, the Lord himself. p.109 Klaus Klostermaier translates it simply as "the Lord Himself" * ^ "Sapthagiri". www.tirumala.org. Retrieved 2008-05-03. Parashara Maharishi, Vyasa
Vyasa
's father had devoted the largest Amsa (part) in Vishnu Purana to the description of Sri Krishna
Krishna
Avatara the Paripoorna Avatara. And according to Lord Krishna's own (instructions) upadesha, "he who knows (the secrets of) His (Krishna's) Janma (birth) and Karma (actions) will not remain in samsara (punar janma naiti- maam eti) and attain Him after leaving the mortal coil." (BG 4.9). Parasara Maharishi ends up Amsa 5 with a phalashruti in an identical vein ( Vishnu Purana .5.38.94)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Brannigan, Michael (2009), Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0739138465 * Elkman, S.M.; Gosvami, J. (1986). Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaisnava Movement. Motilal Banarsidass Pub. * Flood, G.D. (2006). The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu Religion. IB Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-012-9 . * Fowler, Jeaneane D (2002), Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723936 * Indich, William (2000), Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812512 * Matchett, Freda (2000), Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana, Surrey: Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-1281-X * Olivelle, Patrick (1992). The Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195070453 . * Potter, Karl H. (2008), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta Up to Śaṃkara and His Pupils, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited * Raju, P. T. (1992), The Philosophical Traditions of India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited * Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase * Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (1962). Philosophy of Śrī Madhvācārya. Motilal Banarsidass (2014 Reprint). ISBN 978-8120800687 . * Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (2000). A History of the Dvaita School of Vedānta and Its Literature, 3rd Edition. Motilal Banarsidass (2008 Reprint). ISBN 978-8120815759 . * Sarma, Deepak (2000). "Is Jesus a Hindu? S.C. Vasu and Multiple Madhva Misrepresentations". Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies. 13. doi :10.7825/2164-6279.1228 . * Delmonico, N. (2004). "The History Of Indic Monotheism And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism". The Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement: the Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. ISBN 978-0-231-12256-6 . Retrieved 2008-04-12. * Gupta, Ravi M. (2007). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami's Catursutri tika. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40548-3 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* The Idea of God in Hinduism, A. S. Woodburne (1925), The Journal of Religion * GRETIL etext: The transliterated Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text for the entire work – Bhagavata Purana (uni-goettingen.de) * Srimad Bhagavatam – glories, subjects, dating, concordance to Vedanta-sutra

* v * t * e

Theology : Outline

* Conceptions of God

THEISM

FORMS

* * Deism * Dystheism * Henotheism * Hermeticism * Kathenotheism * Nontheism * Monolatrism * Monotheism * Mysticism * Panentheism * Pandeism * Pantheism * Polydeism * Polytheism * Spiritualism * Theopanism

CONCEPTS

* * Deity
Deity
* Divinity

* Gender of God and gods

* Male deity * Goddess

* Numen

.