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(i) (i) (i) (i)

In Hinduism
Hinduism
, there are diverse approaches to conceptualizing GOD AND GENDER . Many Hindus focus upon impersonal Absolute ( Brahman ) which is genderless. Other Hindu
Hindu
traditions conceive God
God
as androgynous (both female and male), alternatively as either male or female, while cherishing gender henotheism , that is without denying the existence of other Gods in either gender.

The Shakti tradition conceives of God
God
as a female. Other Bhakti traditions of Hinduism
Hinduism
have both male and female gods. In ancient and medieval Indian mythology, each masculine deva of the Hindu
Hindu
pantheon is partnered with a feminine devi .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Brahman

* 2 Mythology

* 3 Examples

* 3.1 Smarta and Advaita
Advaita
* 3.2 Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu
Vishnu
* 3.3 Shakti * 3.4 Radha
Radha
Krishna
Krishna

* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References

HISTORY

Part of a series on

HINDUISM

* Hindu
Hindu
* History

Concepts GOD / HIGHEST REALITY

* Brahman * Ishvara
Ishvara
* God
God
in Hinduism
Hinduism
* God
God
and gender

LIFE

* Atman * Maya * Karma
Karma
* Samsara
Samsara

* Purusharthas
Purusharthas

* Dharma
Dharma
* Artha
Artha
* Kama
Kama
* Moksha
Moksha

ETHICS

* Niti shastra * Yamas
Yamas
* Niyama * Ahimsa
Ahimsa
* Asteya
Asteya
* Aparigraha
Aparigraha
* Brahmacharya * Satya * Damah * Dayā * Akrodha
Akrodha
* Ārjava * Santosha * Tapas * Svādhyāya
Svādhyāya
* Shaucha * Mitahara
Mitahara
* Dāna
Dāna

LIBERATION

* Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga * Jnana yoga * Karma
Karma
yoga

Schools SIX ASTIKA SCHOOLS

* Samkhya
Samkhya
* Yoga
Yoga
* Nyaya
Nyaya
* Vaisheshika * Mimamsa
Mimamsa

* Vedanta
Vedanta

* Advaita
Advaita
* Dvaita
Dvaita
* Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita

OTHER SCHOOLS

* Pasupata
Pasupata
* Saiva * Pratyabhijña * Raseśvara * Pāṇini Darśana * Charvaka

Deities TRIMURTI

* Brahma
Brahma
* Vishnu
Vishnu
* Shiva
Shiva

------------------------- OTHER MAJOR DEVIS / DEVAS

* Vedic * Indra
Indra
* Agni
Agni
* Prajapati * Rudra
Rudra
* Devi
Devi
* Saraswati
Saraswati
* Ushas
Ushas
* Varuna
Varuna
* Vayu
Vayu

* Post-Vedic * Durga
Durga
* Ganesha
Ganesha
* Hanuman
Hanuman
* Kali * Kartikeya
Kartikeya
* Krishna
Krishna
* Lakshmi
Lakshmi
* Parvati
Parvati
* Radha
Radha
* Rama
Rama
* Shakti * Sita
Sita

Texts SCRIPTURES VEDAS

* Rigveda
Rigveda
* Yajurveda * Samaveda * Atharvaveda

DIVISIONS

* Samhita * Brahmana
Brahmana
* Aranyaka * Upanishad

UPANISHADS

* Rigveda: * Aitareya * Kaushitaki

* Yajurveda: * Brihadaranyaka * Isha * Taittiriya * Katha * Shvetashvatara * Maitri

* Samaveda: * Chandogya * Kena

* Atharvaveda: * Mundaka * Mandukya * Prashna

OTHER SCRIPTURES

* Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
* Agama (Hinduism)

OTHER TEXTS VEDANGAS

* Shiksha * Chandas * Vyakarana * Nirukta * Kalpa * Jyotisha

PURANAS

* Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana * BHAGAVATA PURANA * Nāradeya Purana * Vāmana Purana * Matsya Purana * Garuda Purana
Garuda Purana
* Brahma
Brahma
Purana * Brahmānda Purana * Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana * Bhavishya Purana * Padma Purana * Agni
Agni
Purana * Shiva
Shiva
Purana * Linga Purana * Kūrma Purana * Skanda Purana * Varaha Purana
Varaha Purana
* Mārkandeya Purana

ITIHASAS

* Ramayana
Ramayana
* Mahabharata

UPAVEDAS

* Ayurveda
Ayurveda
* Dhanurveda * Gandharvaveda * Sthapatyaveda

SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS

* Dharma
Dharma
Shastra * Artha
Artha
Śastra * Kamasutra * Brahma
Brahma
Sutras * Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras * Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras * Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
* Vaiśeṣika Sūtra * Yoga
Yoga
Sutras * Pramana Sutras * Charaka Samhita * Sushruta Samhita * Natya Shastra * Panchatantra * Divya Prabandha
Divya Prabandha
* Tirumurai
Tirumurai
* Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
* Yoga Vasistha
Yoga Vasistha
* Swara yoga * Shiva
Shiva
Samhita * Gheranda Samhita * Panchadasi * Stotra
Stotra
* Sutras

TEXT CLASSIFICATION

* Śruti Smriti

* TIMELINE OF HINDU TEXTS

Practices WORSHIP

* Puja * Temple * Murti * Bhakti
Bhakti
* Japa * Bhajana * Yajna * Homa * Vrata * Prāyaścitta * Tirtha * Tirthadana * Matha * Nritta-Nritya

MEDITATION AND CHARITY

* Tapa * Dhyana * Dāna
Dāna

YOGA

* Asana * Hatha yoga * Jnana yoga * Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga * Karma
Karma
yoga * Raja yoga

RITES OF PASSAGE

* Garbhadhana * Pumsavana * Simantonayana * Jatakarma * Namakarana * Nishkramana * Annaprashana * Chudakarana * Karnavedha * Vidyarambha * Upanayana * Keshanta * Ritushuddhi * Samavartana * Vivaha * Antyeshti

ASHRAMA DHARMA

* Ashrama : Brahmacharya * Grihastha * Vanaprastha * Sannyasa
Sannyasa

FESTIVALS

* Diwali
Diwali
* Holi
Holi
* Shivaratri

* Navaratri

* Durga
Durga
Puja * Ramlila
Ramlila
* Vijayadashami-Dussehra

* Raksha Bandhan * Ganesh Chaturthi * Vasant Panchami
Vasant Panchami
* Rama
Rama
Navami * Janmashtami * Onam
Onam
* Makar Sankranti * Kumbha Mela * Pongal
Pongal
* Ugadi
Ugadi

* Vaisakhi

* Bihu * Puthandu
Puthandu
* Vishu
Vishu

* Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers ANCIENT

* Agastya
Agastya
* Angiras * Aruni * Ashtavakra
Ashtavakra
* Atri
Atri
* Bharadwaja
Bharadwaja
* Gotama * Jamadagni * Jaimini * Kanada * Kapila
Kapila
* Kashyapa * Pāṇini * Patanjali
Patanjali
* Raikva * Satyakama Jabala * Valmiki
Valmiki
* Vashistha * Vishvamitra
Vishvamitra
* Vyasa
Vyasa
* Yajnavalkya

MEDIEVAL

* Nayanars
Nayanars
* Alvars
Alvars
* Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
* Basava * Akka Mahadevi * Allama Prabhu * Siddheshwar * Jñāneśvar * Chaitanya * Gangesha Upadhyaya * Gaudapada
Gaudapada
* Gorakshanath
Gorakshanath
* Jayanta Bhatta * Kabir
Kabir
* Kumarila Bhatta * Matsyendranath * Mahavatar Babaji * Madhusudana * Madhva * Haridasa Thakur * Namdeva * Nimbarka * Prabhakara * Raghunatha Siromani * Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Sankardev * Purandara Dasa * Kanaka Dasa * Ramprasad Sen * Jagannatha Dasa * Vyasaraya * Sripadaraya * Raghavendra Swami * Gopala Dasa * Śyāma Śastri * Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika * Tyagaraja * Tukaram * Tulsidas * Vachaspati Mishra * Vallabha * Vidyaranya

MODERN

* Aurobindo * Coomaraswamy * Bhaktivinoda Thakur * Chinmayananda * Dayananda Saraswati
Saraswati
* Mahesh Yogi * Krishnananda Saraswati
Saraswati
* Narayana Guru
Narayana Guru
* Prabhupada * Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* Ramana Maharshi * Radhakrishnan * Sarasvati * Sivananda * U. G. Krishnamurti * Sai Baba * Vivekananda * Nigamananda * Yogananda * Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade * Tibbetibaba * Trailanga

Other topics

* Balinese Hinduism
Hinduism
* Calendar * Criticism * Denominations * Iconography * Mythology * Nationalism ( Hindutva ) * Persecution * Pilgrimage sites

* Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism / and Judaism

* Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

* Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms * Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

* v * t * e

Male and female deities are extensively mentioned in the Vedas. The earliest mandalas ("Books"; the authorship of each mandala is traditionally ascribed to a particular rishi or that rishi's family) of the Rigveda
Rigveda
, estimated to have been composed sometime in the 2nd millennium BCE, invoke and praise both gods and goddesses. Ushas (" Goddess of Dawns") is praised in twenty Hymns of Chapters VI.64, VI.65, VII.78 and X.172, with Hymn VI.64.5 declaring goddess Ushas
Ushas
as the one who must be worshipped first.

HYMN TO USHAS (Abridged): The shining tints of the Dawn have spread like the waves of the waters, Beautifying the world, she renders all good roads easy to traverse, She who is replete with delight, excellence and health, Divine Ushas, though art seen auspicious, thou shinest afar, thy bright rays spread over the sky, lovely and radiant with great splendour; Do thou Ushas
Ushas
bring me opulence, daughter of heaven; thou who art divine, who art lovely, who art to be worshipped at the first daily rite; At thy dawning, divine Ushas, birds fly from their resting places, men arise to work; Thou, divine Ushas, bring ample wealth to the mortal, the offerer of these prayers. — Rigveda, VI.64

Goddesses, other than Ushas, mentioned in early Vedic literature include Prthivi (earth), Aditi (mother of gods, abundance), Sarasvati (river, nourishment), Vac (sound and speech), and Nirrti (death, destruction). Similarly male gods feature prominently in the Vedas, with Indra
Indra
(rain, lightning), Agni
Agni
(fire), Varuna
Varuna
(rta, law), Dyaus (sky, virility), Savitr (Surya, sun), and Soma (drink) some of the most mentioned. The two deities most mentioned in Rigveda
Rigveda
are Indra and Agni
Agni
, both male. Surya is the third most revered god, again a male. Each is mentioned, anywhere rain and fire is evoked. They are profusely praised, with ceremonies and prayers to all gods and goddesses symbolically organized around fire ( Agni
Agni
yajna ). The hymns seek strengthening of fire, and it is god Indra
Indra
who increases the energy of the fire, while god Surya increases his brightness. Max Muller states that, while there are difference in frequency of mentions, gods and goddesses in Rig veda are "neither superior nor inferior; almost every one is represented as supreme and absolute".

Gross states that ancient and medieval Hindu
Hindu
literature is richly endowed with gods, goddesses and androgynous representations of God. This, states Gross, is in contrast with several monotheistic religions, where God
God
is often synonymous with "He" and theism is replete with male anthropomorphisms. In Hinduism, goddess-imagery does not mean loss of male-god, rather the ancient literature presents the two genders as balancing each other and complementary. The Goddesses in Hinduism, states Gross, are strong, beautiful and confident, symbolizing their vitality in cycle of life. While masculine Gods are symbolically represented as those who act, the feminine Goddesses are symbolically portrayed as those who inspire action. Goddesses in Hinduism
Hinduism
are envisioned as the patrons of arts, culture, nurture, learning, arts, joys, spirituality and liberation.

God
God
is not either male or female concept in ancient Indian literature. Androgynous concepts of god are common place as well.

BRAHMAN

Major schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy focus their philosophical discourse on an Universal Absolute called Brahman , which is a grammatically genderless noun. This Universal Absolute, states Zimmer, is "beyond the differentiating qualifications of sex, beyond any and all limitations, individualizing characteristics whatsoever". The Brahman is the Great Cosmic Spirit, the Ultimate True Reality, the Supreme Self. It is a transcendental concept that includes all virtues, forms, genders, characteristics, capacities, knowledge and being-ness. The history of the genderless concept of Brahman, as the omnipresent Absolute Spirit and Supreme Self, can be traced back to Vedas, and extensively in the earliest Upanishads, such as hymns 1.4.10 and 4.4.5 of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, and hymn 6.2.1 of Chandogya Upanishad 6.2.1.

Zimmer clarifies the notion of gender in Sanskrit language and its relation to the concepts of Brahman and God
God
in Hinduism, as follows:

It must be understood that in Sanskrit, grammatical gender is not always a sign of physical sex. Gender infers function, sex infers form; so that an individual may be masculine from one point of view and feminine from another. (...) Brahman can be regarded as the "womb" of life, and as in Christianity "this man" and "this woman" are equally "feminine to God" . Absolutely, Brahman, although grammatically neuter, is the principle of all such differentiation. Essence and nature are respectively masculine and feminine, logically distinct, but "one in God," who is neither this nor that , and therefore "It" rather than "He" or "She" specifically. — Heinrich Zimmer , Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization

MYTHOLOGY

Hindu
Hindu
mythology incorporates numerous devas (gods) and devis (goddesses). These are symbolic stories that synthesize God
God
and gender, with ideas and values. The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana , for example, recites one such myth describes male gods and female goddesses with names that is loaded with symbolism. An excerpt of the story is as follows,

The progeny of Dharma
Dharma
by the daughters of Daksha were as follows: by Sraddhá (devotion) he had Kama
Kama
(desire); by Lakshmí (wealth, prosperity), was born Darpa (pride); by Dhriti (courage), the progeny was Niyama (precept); by Tusht́i (inner comfort), Santosha (contentment); by Pusht́i (opulence), the progeny was Lobha (cupidity, greed); by Medhá (wisdom, experience), Sruta (sacred tradition); by Kriyá (hard work, labour), the progeny were Dańd́a, Naya, and Vinaya (justice, politics, and education); by Buddhi (intellect), Bodha (understanding); by Lajjá (shame, humility), Vinaya (good behaviour); by Vapu (body, strength), Vyavasaya (perseverance). Shanti (peace) gave birth to Kshama (forgiveness); Siddhi (excellence) to Sukha (enjoyment); and Kírtti (glorious speech) gave birth to Yasha (reputation). These were the sons of Dharma; one of whom, Kama
Kama
(love, emotional fulfillment) had baby Hersha (joy) by his wife Nandi (delight). The wife of Adharma (vice, wrong, evil) was Hinsá (violence), on whom he begot a son Anrita (falsehood), and a daughter Nikriti (immorality): they intermarried, and had two sons, Bhaya (fear) and Naraka (hell); and twins to them, two daughters, Máyá (deceit) and Vedaná (torture), who became their wives. The son of Bhaya (fear) and Máyá (deceit) was the destroyer of living creatures, or Mrityu (death); and Dukha (pain) was the offspring of Naraka (hell) and Vedaná (torture). The children of Mrityu were Vyádhi (disease), Jará (decay), Soka (sorrow), Trishńa (greediness), and Krodha (wrath). These are all called the inflictors of misery, and are characterised as the progeny of Vice (Adharma). They are all without wives, without posterity, without the faculty to procreate; they perpetually operate as causes of the destruction of this world. On the contrary, Daksha and the other Rishis, the elders of mankind, tend perpetually to influence its renovation: whilst the Manus and their sons, the heroes endowed with mighty power, and treading in the path of truth, as constantly contribute to its preservation. —  Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, Chapter 7, Translated by Horace Hayman Wilson

EXAMPLES

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SMARTA AND ADVAITA

The Smarta tradition, which by and large, follows Advaita
Advaita
philosophy believes all forms, male and female, to be different forms of the impersonal Absolute, Brahman which is of neuter gender and can never be defined. Brahman is viewed as without personal attributes (Nirguna Brahman ) or with attributes (Saguna Brahman , equated with Ishvara
Ishvara
) as God
God
. In Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
, Ishvara
Ishvara
is Brahman. Thus according to Smarta views, the divine can be with attributes, Saguna Brahman , and also be viewed with whatever attributes, (e.g., a goddess) a devotee conceives.

SHIVA AND VISHNU

In Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and Shaivism
Shaivism
, God, Vishnu
Vishnu
or Shiva
Shiva
respectively, is personified as male. God, however, transcends gender in these sub-schools, and the male form is used as an icon to help focus the Puja (worship). The use of icons is not restricted to male forms. It takes various forms and shapes. The Shaivites and Vaishnavites worship God
God
in non-anthropomorphic, symbolic male-female images as well, such as the linga -yoni and Saligram respectively. In their literature, the principle of God's true nature as sexless is emphasized as in the Vishnu
Vishnu
sahasranama .

Thus, the first few names, of Vishnu
Vishnu
sahasranama, in particular, do not describe features of Vishnu
Vishnu
in detail and hence are not anthropomorphic .

SHAKTI

Shaktism , on the other hand, is a denomination of Hinduism
Hinduism
that worships Shakti , or Devi
Devi
Mata —the Hindu
Hindu
name for the Great Divine Mother —in all of her forms whilst not rejecting the importance of masculine and neuter divinity (which are however deemed to be inactive in the absence of the Shakti). In pure Shaktism, the Great Goddess, or Devi
Devi
, is worshiped. N. N. Bhattacharyya explained that " who worship the Supreme Deity exclusively as a Female Principle are called Shakta .

Alternative interpretations of Shaktism, however—primarily those of Shaivite
Shaivite
scholars, such as Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami
Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami
—argue that the feminine manifest is ultimately only the vehicle through which the masculine Un-manifest Parasiva is ultimately reached.

RADHA KRISHNA

Main article: Radha
Radha
Krishna
Krishna

The common separation of Sakti and Saktiman, i.e. Female and Male principle in god arrives at the conclusion Sakti and Saktiman are the same. Each and every god has its partner, 'better-half' or Sakti and without this Sakti he is sometimes viewed being without essential power. In some Bhakti
Bhakti
schools, devotees of Hinduism
Hinduism
worship both genders as a God-pair, rather than a specific gender.

From the Vaishnava point of view the divine feminine energy (Shakti) implies a divine source of energy, i.e. God
God
as shaktiman. "Sita relates to Rama
Rama
; Lakshmi
Lakshmi
belongs to Narayana ; Radha
Radha
has Her Krishna ." The female, in these pairs, is viewed as the source of energy and essence of the male.

One of the prominent features of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
in Manipur, for example, is the worship of the two genders together. Devotees do not worship Krishna
Krishna
alone, or Radha
Radha
alone, but Radha-Krishna. Rasa and other dances are a feature of the regional folk and religious tradition and often, for example, a female dancer will portray both 'male' Krishna and his consort, Radha, in the same piece.

SEE ALSO

* God
God
and gender * Radha
Radha
Krishna
Krishna
* Ardhanarishvara * Ardhanari
Ardhanari
* Sky father * Feminism * God
God
* God
God
(male deity) * Goddess

NOTES

* ^ John Renard (1999), Responses to 101 Questions on Hinduism, Paulist, ISBN 978-0809138456 , pages 74-76 * ^ What is Hinduism?, p. PR17, at Google Books
Google Books
, Hinduism
Hinduism
Today, Hawaii * ^ The Concept of Shakti: Hinduism
Hinduism
as a Liberating Force for Women * ^ A B C David R. Kinsley (1986), Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Visions of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious Tradition, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520053939 * ^ Rigveda
Rigveda
Hymn VI.64.5, HH Wilson (Translator), Trubner & Co London, page 7

* ^

* Original Sanskrit: एषा स्या नो दुहिता दिवोजाः क्षितीरुच्छन्ती मानुषीरजीगः । या भानुना रुशता राम्यास्वज्ञायि तिरस्तमसश्चिदक्तून् ॥१॥ वि तद्ययुररुणयुग्भिरश्वैश्चित्रं भान्त्युषसश्चन्द्ररथाः । अग्रं यज्ञस्य बृहतो नयन्तीर्वि ता बाधन्ते तम ऊर्म्यायाः ॥२॥ (...) इदा हि त उषो अद्रिसानो गोत्रा गवामङ्गिरसो गृणन्ति । व्यर्केण बिभिदुर्ब्रह्मणा च सत्या नृणामभवद्देवहूतिः ॥५॥ उच्छा दिवो दुहितः प्रत्नवन्नो भरद्वाजवद्विधते मघोनि । सुवीरं रयिं गृणते रिरीह्युरुगायमधि धेहि श्रवो नः ॥६॥ (Source: ऋग्वेद: सूक्तं ६.६५ Wikisource) * English Translation: Rigveda
Rigveda
Hymn VI.64.5, HH Wilson (Translator), Trubner English Translation Hymn 1.4.10: Brihadaranyaka Upanishad - 1.4.10 pages 145-146; English Translation Hymn 4.4.5: Brihadaranyaka Upanishad - 4.4.5 pages 712-713; * ^ Original Sanskrit: सर्वं खल्विदं ब्रह्म तज्जलानिति शान्त उपासीत । अथ खलु क्रतुमयः पुरुषो यथाक्रतुरस्मिँल्लोके पुरुषो भवति तथेतः प्रेत्य भवति स क्रतुं कुर्वीत ॥ १ ॥ (छान्दोग्योपनिषद् Wikisource); English Translation 1: All this indeed is BRAHMAN. From It the universe comes forth, in It the universe merges, and in It the universe breathes. Therefore a man should meditate on Brahman with a calm mind. Now, a man consists of free will. As he wills in this world, so does he become. Let him, with this knowledge in mind, form his free will. (Chandogya Upanishad The Sandilya Doctrine - 3.14.1); English Translation 2: Chandogya Upanishad III.xiv.1 GN Jha (Translator), page 151 * ^ man or woman * ^ A B Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana Chapter 7 * ^ Dvaita
Dvaita
Documentation: Vaishnava FAQ * ^ Shaivam - An Introduction * ^ Surendranath Dasgupta,A History of Indian Philosophy (1991) p. 31 * ^ Santilata Dei, Del Santilata, Vaisnavism in Orissa (1988) p. 167 * ^ Beck, Guy L. (2005). Alternative Krishnas: regional and vernacular variations on a Hindu
Hindu
deity. Albany, N.Y: State University of New York Press. pp. p. 68. ISBN 0-7914-6415-6 . * ^ Kakoli Basak, (1991) Rabindranath Tagore, a Humanist - p. 11 * ^ Rosen 2002 , p. 54 * ^ Dave Symmons (1998), This is Hinduism, Nelson Thornes, ISBN 978-0748730933 , page 20 * ^ Stella Kramrisch (1975), The Indian Great Goddess, History of Religions, Vol. 14, No. 4, pages 260-263 * ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature - p. 4290, Amaresh Datta, Mohan Lal,1994 * ^ Schwartz 2004 , p. 35

REFERENCES

* Schwartz, Susan (2004). Rasa: performing the divine in India. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13145-3 . * Rosen, Steven (2002). The hidden glory of India. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust . ISBN 0-89213-351-1 . * Valpey, Kenneth Russell (2006). Attending Kṛṣṇa's image: Caitanya Vaiṣṇava mūrti-sevā as devotional truth. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-38394-3 . * Schweig, G.M. (2005). Dance of divine love: The Rasa Lila of Krishna
Krishna
from the Bhagavata Purana, India's classic sacred love story. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ; Oxford. ISBN 0-691-11446-3 .

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* Ahimsa
Ahimsa
* Asteya
Asteya
* Aparigraha
Aparigraha
* Brahmacharya * Satya * Dāna
Dāna
* Damah * Dayā * Akrodha
Akrodha

SCHOOLS

* Astika
Astika
: Samkhya
Samkhya
* Yoga
Yoga
* Nyaya
Nyaya
* Vaisheshika * Mimamsa
Mimamsa

* Vedanta
Vedanta

* Dvaita
Dvaita
* Advaita
Advaita
* Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita

* Nastika : Charvaka

TEXTS

CLASSIFICATION

* Śruti * Smriti

VEDAS

* Rigveda
Rigveda
* Yajurveda * Samaveda * Atharvaveda

DIVISIONS

* Samhita * Brahmana
Brahmana
* Aranyaka * Upanishad

UPANISHADS

* Aitareya * Kaushitaki * Brihadaranyaka * Isha * Taittiriya * Katha * Maitri * Shvetashvatara * Chandogya * Kena * Mundaka * Mandukya * Prashna

UPAVEDAS

* Ayurveda
Ayurveda
* Dhanurveda * Gandharvaveda * Sthapatyaveda

VEDANGA

* Shiksha * Chandas * Vyakarana * Nirukta * Kalpa * Jyotisha

OTHER

* Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
* Agamas

* Itihasas

* Ramayana
Ramayana
* Mahabharata

* Puranas
Puranas
* Minor Upanishads * Artha
Artha
Shastra

* Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

* Manusmriti * Nāradasmṛti * Yājñavalkya Smṛti

* Sutras * Stotras * Subhashita * Tantras * Yoga Vasistha
Yoga Vasistha
* Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

DEITIES

* Trimurti
Trimurti

* Brahma
Brahma
* Vishnu
Vishnu
* Shiva
Shiva

* Ishvara
Ishvara
* Devi
Devi
* Deva * Saraswati
Saraswati
* Lakshmi
Lakshmi
* Parvati
Parvati
* Shakti * Durga
Durga
* Kali * Ganesha
Ganesha
* Kartikeya
Kartikeya
* Rama
Rama
* Krishna
Krishna
* Hanuman
Hanuman
* Prajapati * Rudra
Rudra
* Indra
Indra
* Agni
Agni
* Dyaus * Bhumi * Varuna
Varuna
* Vayu
Vayu

PRACTICES

WORSHIP

* Temple * Murti * Puja * Bhakti
Bhakti
* Japa * Bhajana * Naivedhya * Yajna * Homa * Tapa * Dhyana * Tirthadana

SANSKARAS

* Garbhadhana * Pumsavana * Simantonayana * Jatakarma * Namakarana * Nishkramana * Annaprashana * Chudakarana * Karnavedha * Vidyarambha * Upanayana * Keshanta * Ritushuddhi * Samavartana * Vivaha * Antyeshti

VARNASHRAMA

* Varna

* Brahmin
Brahmin
* Kshatriya * Vaishya * Shudra
Shudra

* Ashrama

* Brahmacharya * Grihastha * Vanaprastha * Sanyassa

FESTIVALS

* Diwali
Diwali
* Holi
Holi
* Shivaratri * Raksha Bandhan

* Navaratri

* Durga
Durga
Puja * Ramlila
Ramlila
* Vijayadashami (Dasara)

* Ganesh Chaturthi * Rama
Rama
Navami * Janmashtami * Onam
Onam
* Pongal
Pongal
* Makar Sankranti

* New Year

* Bihu * Gudi Padwa * Pahela Baishakh * Puthandu
Puthandu
* Vaisakhi * Vishu
Vishu
* Ugadi
Ugadi

* Kumbha Mela * Ratha Yatra * Teej
Teej
* Vasant Panchami
Vasant Panchami
* Others

OTHER

* Svādhyāya
Svādhyāya
* Namaste

RELATED

* Hindu
Hindu
* Denominations * Law * Calendar * Criticism * Gurus, saints, philosophers * Hindu
Hindu
studies * Iconography * Mythology

* Nationalism

* Hindutva

* Persecution * Pilgrimage sites * Glossary * Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

* Category
Category

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