In monotheistic thought, GOD is believed to be the
Supreme Being and
the principal object of faith . The concept of
God , as described by
theologians , commonly includes the attributes of omniscience
(all-knowing), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present
everywhere), and as having an eternal and necessary existence.
Depending on one’s kind of theism, these attributes are used either
in way of analogy, or in a literal sense as distinct properties of the
God is most often held to be incorporeal (immaterial), and to be
without gender, although many religions describe
God using masculine
terminology, using such terms as "Him" or "Father" and some religions
Judaism ) attribute only a purely grammatical "gender" to God
. Incorporeity and corporeity of
God are related to conceptions of
transcendence (being outside nature) and immanence (being in nature,
in the world) of God, with positions of synthesis such as the
"immanent transcendence ".
God has been conceived as either personal or impersonal. In theism ,
God is the creator and sustainer of the universe , while in deism ,
God is the creator, but not the sustainer, of the universe. In
God is the universe itself. In atheism ,
God is not
believed to exist, while
God is deemed unknown or unknowable within
the context of agnosticism .
God has also been conceived as the source
of all moral obligation , and the "greatest conceivable existent".
Many notable philosophers have developed arguments for and against the
The many different conceptions of God, and competing claims as to
God's characteristics, aims, and actions, have led to the development
of ideas of omnitheism , pandeism , or a perennial philosophy ,
which postulates that there is one underlying theological truth, of
which all religions express a partial understanding, and as to which
"the devout in the various great world religions are in fact
worshipping that one God, but through different, overlapping concepts
or mental images of Him."
There are many names for
God , and different names are attached to
different cultural ideas about God's identity and attributes. In the
ancient Egyptian era of
Atenism , possibly the earliest recorded
monotheistic religion, this deity was called
Aten , premised on being
the one "true"
Supreme Being and creator of the universe. In the
Hebrew Bible and
Judaism , "He Who Is", "
I Am that I Am ", and the
tetragrammaton YHWH (Hebrew : יהוה, traditionally interpreted
as "I am who I am"; "He Who Exists") are used as names of God, while
Jehovah are sometimes used in
Christianity as vocalizations
of YHWH. In the
Christian doctrine of the
Trinity , God,
consubstantial in three persons, is called the Father , the Son , and
Holy Spirit . In Judaism, it is common to refer to
God by the
Adonai . In
Islam , the name
Allah is used,
Muslims also have a multitude of titular names for God. In
Brahman is often considered a monistic concept of God. In
Chinese religion ,
Shangdi ) is conceived as the progenitor
(first ancestor) of the universe, intrinsic to it and constantly
ordaining it. Other religions have names for God, for instance, Baha
in the Bahá\'í
Sikhism , and
Ahura Mazda in
* 1 Etymology and usage
* 2 General conceptions
* 2.1 Oneness
* 2.2 Theism, deism, and pantheism
* 2.3 Other concepts
Agnosticism and atheism
* 5 Specific attributes
* 5.1 Names
* 5.3 Relationship with creation
* 6 Depiction
* 7 Theological approaches
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Further reading
* 11 External links
ETYMOLOGY AND USAGE
Mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference (840 BCE) to
God Yahweh. Main article:
The earliest written form of the Germanic word
God (always, in this
usage, capitalized ) comes from the 6th-century
Argenteus . The English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic
* ǥuđan. The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form * ǵhu-tó-m was
likely based on the root * ǵhau(ə)-, which meant either "to call" or
"to invoke". The Germanic words for
God were originally neuter
—applying to both genders—but during the process of the
Christianization of the Germanic peoples from their indigenous
Germanic paganism , the words became a masculine syntactic form .
The word 'Allah' in
English language , capitalization is used for names by which a
god is known, including 'God'. Consequently, the capitalized form of
god is not used for multiple gods (polytheism ) or when used to refer
to the generic idea of a deity . The English word
God and its
counterparts in other languages are normally used for any and all
conceptions and, in spite of significant differences between
religions, the term remains an English translation common to all. The
same holds for Hebrew El , but in
God is also given a proper
name, the tetragrammaton YHWH, in origin possibly the name of an
Yahweh . In many translations of the Bible
, when the word LORD is in all capitals, it signifies that the word
represents the tetragrammaton.
Arabic : الله) is the
Arabic term with no plural used
Jews meaning "The God"
(with a capital G), while "
ʾilāh " (
Arabic : إله) is the term
used for a deity or a god in general.
God may also be given a
proper name in monotheistic currents of
Hinduism which emphasize the
personal nature of
God , with early references to his name as Krishna
Bhagavata or later
Ahura Mazda is the name for
God used in Zoroastrianism. "Mazda", or
rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå, reflects
Proto-Iranian *Mazdāh (female). It is generally taken to be the
proper name of the spirit, and like its
Sanskrit cognate medhā, means
"intelligence " or "wisdom ". Both the Avestan and
reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European
mn̩sdʰeh1, literally meaning "placing (dʰeh1) one's mind
(*mn̩-s)", hence "wise".
Waheguru (Punjabi : vāhigurū) is a term most often used in Sikhism
to refer to God. It means "Wonderful Teacher" in the Punjabi language.
Vāhi (a Middle Persian borrowing) means "wonderful" and guru
Sanskrit : guru) is a term denoting "teacher".
Waheguru is also
described by some as an experience of ecstasy which is beyond all
descriptions. The most common usage of the word "Waheguru" is in the
greeting Sikhs use with each other:
Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa,
Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh
Khalsa , Victory is to the Wonderful Lord.
Baha, the "greatest" name for
God in the Baha'i faith, is
Conceptions of God
There is no clear consensus on the nature or even the existence of
God . The
Abrahamic conceptions of God include the monotheistic
God in Judaism , the trinitarian view of
Islamic concept of God . The dharmic religions differ in their
view of the divine: views of
God in Hinduism
God in Hinduism vary by region, sect, and
caste, ranging from monotheistic to polytheistic. Many polytheistic
religions share the idea of a creator deity , though having a name
other than "God" and without all of the other roles attributed to a
God by monotheistic religions.
Jainism is polytheistic and
non-creationist . Depending on one's interpretation and tradition,
Buddhism can be conceived as being either atheistic , non-theistic ,
pantheistic , panentheistic , or polytheistic .
Trinity is the
God is composed of The Father , The Son (embodied
metaphysically in the physical realm by
Jesus ), and The
Holy Spirit .
Monotheists hold that there is only one god, and may claim that the
one true god is worshiped in different religions under different
names. The view that all theists actually worship the same god,
whether they know it or not, is especially emphasized in
Sikhism . In
Christianity , the doctrine of the
God as one
God in three persons. The
God the Father
God the Son
God the Son (embodied metaphysically by
Jesus ), and The Holy Spirit
Islam 's most fundamental concept is tawhid (meaning "oneness" or
God is described in the
Quran as: "Say: He is Allah,
the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor
is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him."
Christian doctrine of the
Trinity and the divinity of
comparing it to polytheism . In Islam,
God is beyond all comprehension
or equal and does not resemble any of his creations in any way. Thus,
Muslims are not iconodules , and are not expected to visualize God.
Henotheism is the belief and worship of a single god while accepting
the existence or possible existence of other deities .
THEISM, DEISM, AND PANTHEISM
Deism , and
Theism generally holds that
God exists realistically, objectively,
and independently of human thought; that
God created and sustains
God is omnipotent and eternal; and that
personal and interacting with the universe through, for example,
religious experience and the prayers of humans.
Theism holds that God
is both transcendent and immanent; thus,
God is simultaneously
infinite and, in some way, present in the affairs of the world. Not
all theists subscribe to all of these propositions, but each usually
subscribes to some of them (see, by way of comparison, family
resemblance ). Catholic theology holds that
God is infinitely simple
and is not involuntarily subject to time. Most theists hold that God
is omnipotent, omniscient, and benevolent, although this belief raises
questions about God's responsibility for evil and suffering in the
world. Some theists ascribe to
God a self-conscious or purposeful
limiting of omnipotence, omniscience, or benevolence. Open
Theism , by
contrast, contends that, due to the nature of time, God's omniscience
does not mean the deity can predict the future.
Theism is sometimes
used to refer in general to any belief in a god or gods, i.e.,
monotheism or polytheism .
God blessing the seventh day, a
watercolor painting depicting God, by
William Blake (1757–1827)
Deism holds that
God is wholly transcendent :
God exists, but does
not intervene in the world beyond what was necessary to create it. In
God is not anthropomorphic , and neither answers prayers
nor produces miracles. Common in
Deism is a belief that
God has no
interest in humanity and may not even be aware of humanity. Pandeism
Pandeism is proposed to
explain as to
God would create a universe and then abandon
it, and as to Pantheism, the origin and purpose of the universe.
Pantheism holds that
God is the universe and the universe is God,
Panentheism holds that
God contains, but is not identical to,
the Universe. It is also the view of the
Liberal Catholic Church ;
Theosophy ; some views of
Vaishnavism , which believes
in panentheism; Sikhism; some divisions of
along with many varying denominations and individuals within
Kabbalah , Jewish mysticism, paints a
pantheistic/panentheistic view of God—which has wide acceptance in
Judaism , particularly from their founder The Baal Shem Tov
—but only as an addition to the Jewish view of a personal god, not
in the original pantheistic sense that denies or limits persona to
Dystheism , which is related to theodicy , is a form of theism which
God is either not wholly good or is fully malevolent as a
consequence of the problem of evil . One such example comes from
The Brothers Karamazov , in which Ivan Karamazov rejects
God on the grounds that he allows children to suffer.
In modern times, some more abstract concepts have been developed,
such as process theology and open theism . The contemporaneous French
Michel Henry has however proposed a phenomenological
approach and definition of
God as phenomenological essence of Life .
God has also been conceived as being incorporeal (immaterial), a
personal being, the source of all moral obligation , and the "greatest
conceivable existent". These attributes were all supported to varying
degrees by the early Jewish ,
Augustine of Hippo , and
Al-Ghazali , respectively.
Evolutionary origin of religions and Evolutionary
psychology of religion
Non-theist views about
God also vary. Some non-theists avoid the
concept of God, whilst accepting that it is significant to many; other
God as a symbol of human values and
aspirations. The nineteenth-century English atheist Charles Bradlaugh
declared that he refused to say "There is no God", because "the word
'God' is to me a sound conveying no clear or distinct affirmation";
he said more specifically that he disbelieved in the
Stephen Jay Gould proposed an approach dividing the world of
philosophy into what he called "non-overlapping magisteria " (NOMA).
In this view, questions of the supernatural , such as those relating
to the existence and nature of God, are non -empirical and are the
proper domain of theology . The methods of science should then be used
to answer any empirical question about the natural world, and theology
should be used to answer questions about ultimate meaning and moral
value. In this view, the perceived lack of any empirical footprint
from the magisterium of the supernatural onto natural events makes
science the sole player in the natural world.
Another view, advanced by
Richard Dawkins , is that the existence of
God is an empirical question, on the grounds that "a universe with a
god would be a completely different kind of universe from one without,
and it would be a scientific difference."
Carl Sagan argued that the
doctrine of a Creator of the
Universe was difficult to prove or
disprove and that the only conceivable scientific discovery that could
disprove the existence of a Creator (not necessarily a God) would be
the discovery that the universe is infinitely old.
Stephen Hawking and co-author
Leonard Mlodinow state in their book,
The Grand Design , that it is reasonable to ask who or what created
the universe, but if the answer is God, then the question has merely
been deflected to that of who created God. Both authors claim however,
that it is possible to answer these questions purely within the realm
of science, and without invoking any divine beings.
AGNOSTICISM AND ATHEISM
Agnosticism is the view that the truth values of certain claims –
especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether
God , the
divine or the supernatural exist – are unknown and perhaps
Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the
existence of deities , or a God. In a narrower sense, atheism is
specifically the position that there are no deities.
Pascal Boyer argues that while there is a wide array of supernatural
concepts found around the world, in general, supernatural beings tend
to behave much like people. The construction of gods and spirits like
persons is one of the best known traits of religion. He cites examples
Greek mythology , which is, in his opinion, more like a modern
soap opera than other religious systems.
Bertrand du Castel and
Timothy Jurgensen demonstrate through formalization that Boyer's
explanatory model matches physics' epistemology in positing not
directly observable entities as intermediaries. Anthropologist
Stewart Guthrie contends that people project human features onto
non-human aspects of the world because it makes those aspects more
Sigmund Freud also suggested that god concepts are
projections of one's father.
Émile Durkheim was one of the earliest to suggest that
gods represent an extension of human social life to include
supernatural beings. In line with this reasoning, psychologist Matt
Rossano contends that when humans began living in larger groups, they
may have created gods as a means of enforcing morality. In small
groups, morality can be enforced by social forces such as gossip or
reputation. However, it is much harder to enforce morality using
social forces in much larger groups. Rossano indicates that by
including ever-watchful gods and spirits, humans discovered an
effective strategy for restraining selfishness and building more
Existence of God St.
Thomas Aquinas summed up
five main arguments as proofs for God's existence. Isaac Newton
saw the existence of a Creator necessary in the movement of
Arguments about the existence of
God typically include empirical,
deductive, and inductive types. Different views include that: "God
does not exist" (strong atheism ); "
God almost certainly does not
exist" (de facto atheism ); "no one knows whether
God exists, but this cannot be proven or disproven"
(de facto theism ); and that "
God exists and this can be proven"
(strong theism ).
Countless arguments have been proposed to prove the existence of God.
Some of the most notable arguments are the Five Ways of Aquinas , the
Argument from desire proposed by
C.S. Lewis , and the Ontological
Argument formulated both by
St. Anselm and René
St. Anselm's approach was to define
God as, "that than which nothing
greater can be conceived". Famed pantheist philosopher Baruch Spinoza
would later carry this idea to its extreme: "By
God I understand a
being absolutely infinite, i.e., a substance consisting of infinite
attributes, of which each one expresses an eternal and infinite
essence." For Spinoza, the whole of the natural universe is made of
one substance, God, or its equivalent, Nature. His proof for the
God was a variation of the Ontological argument.
Isaac Newton saw
God as the masterful creator whose
existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all
creation. Nevertheless, he rejected polymath Leibniz ' thesis that
God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no
intervention from the creator. In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton
simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of
For while comets move in very eccentric orbs in all manner of
positions, blind fate could never make all the planets move one and
the same way in orbs concentric, some inconsiderable irregularities
excepted which may have arisen from the mutual actions of comets and
planets on one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this
system wants a reformation.
St. Thomas believed that the existence of
God is self-evident in
itself, but not to us. "Therefore I say that this proposition, "God
exists", of itself is self-evident, for the predicate is the same as
the subject.... Now because we do not know the essence of God, the
proposition is not self-evident to us; but needs to be demonstrated by
things that are more known to us, though less known in their
nature—namely, by effects." St. Thomas believed that the existence
God can be demonstrated. Briefly in the Summa theologiae and more
extensively in the
Summa contra Gentiles , he considered in great
detail five arguments for the existence of God, widely known as the
quinque viae (Five Ways). For the original text of the five proofs,
see quinque viae
* Motion: Some things undoubtedly move, though cannot cause their
own motion. Since there can be no infinite chain of causes of motion,
there must be a First Mover not moved by anything else, and this is
what everyone understands by God.
* Causation: As in the case of motion, nothing can cause itself, and
an infinite chain of causation is impossible, so there must be a First
Cause , called God.
Existence of necessary and the unnecessary: Our experience
includes things certainly existing but apparently unnecessary. Not
everything can be unnecessary, for then once there was nothing and
there would still be nothing. Therefore, we are compelled to suppose
something that exists necessarily, having this necessity only from
itself; in fact itself the cause for other things to exist.
* Gradation: If we can notice a gradation in things in the sense
that some things are more hot, good, etc., there must be a superlative
that is the truest and noblest thing, and so most fully existing. This
then, we call
God (Note: Thomas does not ascribe actual qualities to
* Ordered tendencies of nature: A direction of actions to an end is
noticed in all bodies following natural laws. Anything without
awareness tends to a goal under the guidance of one who is aware. This
God (Note that even when we guide objects, in Thomas's view,
the source of all our knowledge comes from
God as well).
Alister McGrath , a formerly atheistic scientist and theologian
who has been highly critical of
Richard Dawkins ' version of atheism
Some theologians, such as the scientist and theologian A.E. McGrath ,
argue that the existence of
God is not a question that can be answered
using the scientific method .
Stephen Jay Gould argues that
science and religion are not in conflict and do not overlap .
Some findings in the fields of cosmology , evolutionary biology and
neuroscience are interpreted by some atheists (including Lawrence M.
Sam Harris ) as evidence that
God is an imaginary entity
only, with no basis in reality. These atheists claim that a single,
God who is imagined to have created the universe and is
particularly attentive to the lives of humans has been imagined,
embellished and promulgated in a trans-generational manner. Richard
Dawkins interprets such findings not only as a lack of evidence for
the material existence of such a God, but as extensive evidence to the
contrary. However, his views are opposed by some theologians and
Alister McGrath , who argues that existence of
God is compatible with science.
Different religious traditions assign differing (though often
similar) attributes and characteristics to God, including expansive
powers and abilities, psychological characteristics, gender
characteristics, and preferred nomenclature. The assignment of these
attributes often differs according to the conceptions of
God in the
culture from which they arise. For example, attributes of
Christianity , attributes of
God in Islam
God in Islam , and the Thirteen
Attributes of Mercy in
Judaism share certain similarities arising from
their common roots.
Names of God 99 names of
Allah , in Chinese Sini
God is "one of the most complex and difficult in the English
language." In the
Judeo-Christian tradition, "the
Bible has been the
principal source of the conceptions of God". That the
many different images, concepts, and ways of thinking about"
resulted in perpetual "disagreements about how
God is to be conceived
Throughout the Hebrew and
Christian Bibles there are many names for
God. One of them is Elohim. Another one is El Shaddai, translated "God
Almighty". A third notable name is El Elyon, which means "The High
God is described and referred in the
Quran and hadith by certain
names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahman , meaning "Most
Compassionate" and Al-Rahim, meaning "Most Merciful" (See Names of God
Islam ). Supreme soul
Brahma Kumaris use the term "Supreme Soul" to refer to God. They
God as incorporeal and eternal, and regard him as a point of
living light like human souls, but without a physical body, as he does
not enter the cycle of birth, death and rebirth.
God is seen as the
perfect and constant embodiment of all virtues, powers and values and
that he is the unconditionally loving Father of all souls,
irrespective of their religion, gender, or culture.
Vaishnavism , a tradition in Hinduism, has list of titles and names
Gender of God
The gender of
God may be viewed as either a literal or an allegorical
aspect of a deity who, in classical western philosophy, transcends
Polytheistic religions commonly attribute to each of
the gods a gender, allowing each to interact with any of the others,
and perhaps with humans, sexually. In most monotheistic religions, God
has no counterpart with which to relate sexually. Thus, in classical
western philosophy the gender of this one-and-only deity is most
likely to be an analogical statement of how humans and
and relate to, each other. Namely,
God is seen as begetter of the
world and revelation which corresponds to the active (as opposed to
the receptive) role in sexual intercourse.
Biblical sources usually refer to
God using male words, except
Genesis 1:26–27, Psalm 123:2–3, and Luke 15:8–10 (female);
Hosea 11:3–4, Deuteronomy 32:18, Isaiah 66:13, Isaiah 49:15, Isaiah
42:14, Psalm 131:2 (a mother); Deuteronomy 32:11–12 (a mother
eagle); and Matthew 23:37 and Luke 13:34 (a mother hen).
RELATIONSHIP WITH CREATION
Creator deity ,
Prayer , and
Worship And Elohim
Created Adam by
William Blake , c.1795
Prayer plays a significant role among many believers.
that the purpose of existence is to worship God. He is viewed as a
God and there are no intermediaries, such as clergy , to
Prayer often also includes supplication and asking
God is often believed to be forgiving. For example, a
God would replace a sinless people with one who sinned
but still asked repentance.
Christian theologian Alister McGrath
writes that there are good reasons to suggest that a "personal god" is
integral to the
Christian outlook, but that one has to understand it
is an analogy. "To say that
God is like a person is to affirm the
divine ability and willingness to relate to others. This does not
God is human, or located at a specific point in the
Adherents of different religions generally disagree as to how to best
God and what is God\'s plan for mankind, if there is one.
There are different approaches to reconciling the contradictory claims
of monotheistic religions. One view is taken by exclusivists, who
believe they are the chosen people or have exclusive access to
absolute truth , generally through revelation or encounter with the
Divine, which adherents of other religions do not. Another view is
religious pluralism . A pluralist typically believes that his religion
is the right one, but does not deny the partial truth of other
religions. An example of a pluralist view in
supersessionism , i.e., the belief that one's religion is the
fulfillment of previous religions. A third approach is relativistic
inclusivism , where everybody is seen as equally right; an example
being universalism : the doctrine that salvation is eventually
available for everyone. A fourth approach is syncretism , mixing
different elements from different religions. An example of syncretism
New Age movement.
Christians believe that humans are created in the likeness
of God, and are the center, crown and key to God's creation, stewards
for God, supreme over everything else
God had made (Gen 1:26); for
this reason, humans are in
Christianity called the "Children of God".
Ahura Mazda (depiction is on the right, with high crown)
Ardashir I (left) with the ring of kingship. (Relief at
Naqsh-e Rustam , 3rd century CE)
During the early Parthian Empire,
Ahura Mazda was visually
represented for worship. This practice ended during the beginning of
the Sassanid empire. Zoroastrian iconoclasm , which can be traced to
the end of the Parthian period and the beginning of the Sassanid,
eventually put an end to the use of all images of
Ahura Mazda in
Ahura Mazda continued to be symbolized by a
dignified male figure, standing or on horseback which is found in
At least some
Jews do not use any image for God, since
God is the
unimaginable Being who cannot be represented in material forms. In
some samples of Jewish Art, however, sometimes God, or at least his
intervention, is indicated by a Hand Of
God symbol, which represents
the bath Kol (literally "daughter of a voice") or Voice of God.
The burning bush that was not consumed by the flames is described in
Book of Exodus
Book of Exodus as a symbolic representation of
God when he appeared to
God the Father in
Christians believed that the words of the
Gospel of John 1:18:
"No man has seen
God at any time" and numerous other statements were
meant to apply not only to God, but to all attempts at the depiction
of God. Use of the symbolic Hand of
God in the Ascension from
Drogo Sacramentary , c. 850
However, later depictions of
God are found. Some, like the Hand of
God , are depiction borrowed from Jewish art.
The beginning of the 8th century witnessed the suppression and
destruction of religious icons as the period of Byzantine iconoclasm
(literally image-breaking) started. The
Second Council of Nicaea in
787 effectively ended the first period of
Byzantine iconoclasm and
restored the honouring of icons and holy images in general. However,
this did not immediately translate into large scale depictions of God
the Father. Even supporters of the use of icons in the 8th century,
John of Damascus , drew a distinction between images of
God the Father and those of Christ.
Prior to the 10th century no attempt was made to use a human to
God the Father in
Western art . Yet,
Western art eventually
required some way to illustrate the presence of the Father, so through
successive representations a set of artistic styles for symbolizing
the Father using a man gradually emerged around the 10th century AD. A
rationale for the use of a human is the belief that
God created the
soul of Man in the image of his own (thus allowing Human to transcend
the other animals).
It appears that when early artists designed to represent
Father, fear and awe restrained them from a usage of the whole human
figure. Typically only a small part would be used as the image,
usually the hand, or sometimes the face, but rarely a whole human. In
many images, the figure of the Son supplants the Father, so a smaller
portion of the person of the Father is depicted.
By the 12th century depictions of
God the Father had started to
appear in French illuminated manuscripts , which as a less public form
could often be more adventurous in their iconography, and in stained
glass church windows in England. Initially the head or bust was
usually shown in some form of frame of clouds in the top of the
picture space, where the Hand of
God had formerly appeared; the
Baptism of Christ on the famous baptismal font in Liège of Rainer of
Huy is an example from 1118 (a Hand of
God is used in another scene).
Gradually the amount of the human symbol shown can increase to a
half-length figure, then a full-length, usually enthroned, as in
Giotto 's fresco of c. 1305 in
Padua . In the 14th century the Naples
Bible carried a depiction of
God the Father in the
Burning bush . By
the early 15th century, the
Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry has a
considerable number of symbols, including an elderly but tall and
elegant full-length figure walking in the
Garden of Eden , which show
a considerable diversity of apparent ages and dress. The "Gates of
Paradise" of the Florence Baptistry by
Lorenzo Ghiberti , begun in
1425 use a similar tall full-length symbol for the Father. The Rohan
Book of Hours of about 1430 also included depictions of
God the Father
in half-length human form, which were now becoming standard, and the
God becoming rarer. At the same period other works, like the
large Genesis altarpiece by the Hamburg painter
Meister Bertram ,
continued to use the old depiction of Christ as
Logos in Genesis
scenes. In the 15th century there was a brief fashion for depicting
all three persons of the
Trinity as similar or identical figures with
the usual appearance of Christ .
In an early Venetian school
Coronation of the Virgin by Giovanni
Antonio Vivarini , (c. 1443) The Father is depicted
using the symbol consistently used by other artists later, namely a
patriarch, with benign, yet powerful countenance and with long white
hair and a beard, a depiction largely derived from, and justified by,
the near-physical, but still figurative, description of the Ancient of
Ancient of Days did sit, whose garment was white as snow,
and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the
fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. (Daniel 7:9) Usage
of two Hands of
God (relatively unusual) and the
Holy Spirit as a dove
in Baptism of Christ by Verrocchio, 1472.
In the Annunciation by
Benvenuto di Giovanni in 1470,
God the Father
is portrayed in the red robe and a hat that resembles that of a
Cardinal. However, even in the later part of the 15th century, the
symbolic representation of the Father and the
Holy Spirit as "hands
and dove" continued, e.g. in Verrocchio\'s Baptism of Christ in 1472.
God the Father with His Right Hand Raised in Blessing, with a
triangular halo representing the Trinity,
Girolamo dai Libri c. 1555
In Renaissance paintings of the adoration of the Trinity,
God may be
depicted in two ways, either with emphasis on The Father, or the three
elements of the Trinity. The most usual depiction of the
Renaissance art depicts
God the Father using an old man, usually with
a long beard and patriarchal in appearance, sometimes with a
triangular halo (as a reference to the Trinity), or with a papal
crown, specially in Northern Renaissance painting. In these depictions
The Father may hold a globe or book (to symbolize God's knowledge and
as a reference to how knowledge is deemed divine). He is behind and
above Christ on the Cross in the
Throne of Mercy iconography. A dove,
the symbol of the
Holy Spirit may hover above. Various people from
different classes of society, e.g. kings, popes or martyrs may be
present in the picture. In a Trinitarian
God the Father is
often symbolized using a man wearing a papal dress and a papal crown,
supporting the dead Christ in his arms. They are depicted as floating
in heaven with angels who carry the instruments of the Passion .
God the Father and the
Trinity were attacked both
Protestants and within Catholicism, by the
Jansenist and Baianist
movements as well as more orthodox theologians. As with other attacks
on Catholic imagery, this had the effect both of reducing Church
support for the less central depictions, and strengthening it for the
core ones. In the
Western Church , the pressure to restrain religious
imagery resulted in the highly influential decrees of the final
session of the
Council of Trent in 1563. The
Council of Trent decrees
confirmed the traditional Catholic doctrine that images only
represented the person depicted, and that veneration to them was paid
to the person, not the image.
Artistic depictions of
God the Father were uncontroversial in
Catholic art thereafter, but less common depictions of the Trinity
were condemned. In 1745
Pope Benedict XIV explicitly supported the
Throne of Mercy depiction, referring to the "Ancient of Days", but in
1786 it was still necessary for
Pope Pius VI to issue a papal bull
condemning the decision of an Italian church council to remove all
images of the
Trinity from churches. The famous The Creation of
Michelangelo , c.1512
God the Father is symbolized in several Genesis scenes in
Sistine Chapel ceiling , most famously The Creation of
Adam (whose image of near touching hands of
God and Adam is iconic of
humanity, being a reminder that Man is created in the Image and
God (Gen 1:26)).
God the Father is depicted as a powerful
figure, floating in the clouds in Titian\'s Assumption of the Virgin
Frari of Venice
Frari of Venice , long admired as a masterpiece of High
Renaissance art. The
Church of the Gesù in Rome includes a number of
16th century depictions of
God the Father . In some of these paintings
Trinity is still alluded to in terms of three angels, but Giovanni
Battista Fiammeri also depicted
God the Father as a man riding on a
cloud, above the scenes.
In both the Last Judgment and the
Coronation of the Virgin paintings
Rubens he depicted
God the Father using the image that by then had
become widely accepted, a bearded patriarchal figure above the fray.
In the 17th century, the two Spanish artists
Diego Velázquez (whose
Francisco Pacheco was in charge of the approval of new
images for the Inquisition) and
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo both
God the Father using a patriarchal figure with a white beard
in a purple robe. The
Ancient of Days (1794) Watercolor etching
While representations of
God the Father were growing in Italy, Spain,
Germany and the Low Countries, there was resistance elsewhere in
Europe, even during the 17th century. In 1632 most members of the Star
Chamber court in England (except the
Archbishop of York
Archbishop of York ) condemned
the use of the images of the
Trinity in church windows, and some
considered them illegal. Later in the 17th century Sir Thomas Browne
wrote that he considered the representation of
God the Father using an
old man "a dangerous act" that might lead to Egyptian symbolism. In
1847, Charles Winston was still critical of such images as a "Romish
trend " (a term used to refer to
Roman Catholics ) that he considered
best avoided in England.
In 1667 the 43rd chapter of the Great Moscow Council specifically
included a ban on a number of symbolic depictions of
God the Father
and the Holy Spirit, which then also resulted in a whole range of
other icons being placed on the forbidden list, mostly affecting
Western-style depictions which had been gaining ground in Orthodox
icons. The Council also declared that the person of the
was the "Ancient of Days" was Christ, as Logos, not
God the Father.
However some icons continued to be produced in Russia, as well as
Romania , and other Orthodox countries.
God in Islam
God in Islam
Muslims believe that
God (Allah) is beyond all comprehension or equal
and does not resemble any of his creations in any way. Thus, Muslims
are not iconodules , are not expected to visualize God.
Classical theism and
Classical theists (such as Ancient Greco-Medieval philosophers, Roman
Catholics , Eastern Orthodox
Christians , much of
Protestants ) speak of
God as a divinely simple “nothing
” that is completely transcendent (totally independent of all else),
and having such attributes as immutability , impassibility , and
timelessness. Theologians of theistic personalism (the view held by
Isaac Newton ,
Alvin Plantinga ,
Richard Swinburne ,
William Lane Craig
William Lane Craig , and most modern evangelicals ) argue that
most generally the ground of all being, immanent in and transcendent
over the whole world of reality, with immanence and transcendence
being the contrapletes of personality.
God is also commonly defined
as having a necessary existence, as necessity is deemed a good thing
to have, and just as
God has omnipotence and omniscience, he has
necessity to its maximized degree.
The attributes of the
God of classical theism were all claimed to
varying degrees by the early Jewish ,
Maimonides , St Augustine , and
Many philosophers developed arguments for the existence of God,
while attempting to comprehend the precise implications of God's
attributes. Reconciling some of those attributes-particularly the
attributes of the
God of theistic personalism- generated important
philosophical problems and debates. For example, God's omniscience may
seem to imply that
God knows how free agents will choose to act. If
God does know this, their ostensible free will might be illusory, or
foreknowledge does not imply predestination, and if
God does not know
God may not be omniscient.
The last centuries of philosophy have seen vigorous questions
regarding the arguments for God\'s existence raised by such
Immanuel Kant ,
David Hume and
Antony Flew , although
Kant held that the argument from morality was valid. The theist
response has been either to contend, as does
Alvin Plantinga , that
faith is "properly basic ", or to take, as does
Richard Swinburne ,
the evidentialist position. Some theists agree that only some of the
arguments for God's existence are compelling, but argue that faith is
not a product of reason , but requires risk. There would be no risk,
they say, if the arguments for God's existence were as solid as the
laws of logic, a position summed up by Pascal as "the heart has
reasons of which reason does not know."
Many religious believers allow for the existence of other, less
powerful spiritual beings such as angels , saints , jinn , demons ,
and devas .
* Mythology portal
* Philosophy portal
God (male deity)
Relationship between religion and science
Arthur Koestler , The Sleepwalkers : A History of Man's
Changing Vision of the
Proclus , The Six Books of Proclus, the Platonic Successor, on
Theology of Plato Tr. Thomas Taylor (1816) Vol. 2, Ch. 2, "Of
* ^ A B C D Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Honderich, Ted . (ed)The
Oxford Companion to Philosophy,
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press , 1995.
* ^ David Bordwell, 2002, Catechism of the Catholic
Church,Continuum International Publishing ISBN 978-0-86012-324-8 page
* ^ "Catechism of the
Catholic Church – IntraText". Archived from
the original on 3 March 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
* ^ "G-d has no body, no genitalia, therefore the very idea that
G-d is male or female is patently absurd. Although in the Talmudic
part of the Torah and especially in Kabalah G-d is referred to under
the name 'Sh\'chinah ' – which is feminine, this is only to
accentuate the fact that all the creation and nature are actually in
the receiving end in reference to the creator and as no part of the
creation can perceive the creator outside of nature, it is adequate to
refer to the divine presence in feminine form. We refer to G-d using
masculine terms simply for convenience's sake, because Hebrew has no
neutral gender; G-d is no more male than a table is."
"The fact that we always refer to
God as 'He' is also not meant to
imply that the concept of sex or gender applies to God." Rabbi Aryeh
Kaplan, The Aryeh Kaplan Reader, Mesorah Publications (1983), p. 144
* ^ A B C Platinga, Alvin . "God, Arguments for the
Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, 2000.
* ^ Raphael Lataster (2013). There was no Jesus, there is no God: A
Scholarly Examination of the Scientific, Historical, and Philosophical
Evidence & Arguments for Monotheism. p. 165. ISBN 1492234419 . This
one god could be of the deistic or pantheistic sort.
Deism might be
superior in explaining why
God has seemingly left us to our own
devices and pantheism could be the more logical option as it fits well
with the ontological argument's 'maximally-great entity' and doesn't
rely on unproven concepts about 'nothing' (as in 'creation out of
nothing'). A mixture of the two, pandeism, could be the most likely
God-concept of all.
* ^ A B Alan H. Dawe (2011). The
God Franchise: A Theory of
Everything. p. 48. ISBN 0473201143 . Pandeism: This is the belief that
God created the universe, is now one with it, and so, is no longer a
separate conscious entity. This is a combination of pantheism (
identical to the universe) and deism (
God created the universe and
then withdrew Himself).
Christianity and Other Religions, by John Hick and Brian
Hebblethwaite. 1980. Page 178.
* ^ Jan Assmann,
Religion and Cultural Memory: Ten Studies,
Stanford University Press 2005, p.59
* ^ M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol.2, 1980, p.96
* ^ Pantheism: A Non-Theistic Concept of
Deity – Page 136,
Michael P. Levine – 2002
* ^ A Feast for the Soul: Meditations on the Attributes of
... – Page x, Baháʾuʾlláh, Joyce Watanabe – 2006
* ^ Philosophy and
Sikhism – Page ix, Kartar Singh
Duggal – 1988
* ^ The Intellectual Devotional: Revive Your Mind, Complete Your
Education, and Roam confidently with the cultured class, David S.
Kidder, Noah D. Oppenheim, page 364
* ^ "\'God\' in Merriam-Webster (online)". Merriam-Webster, Inc.
* ^ The ulterior etymology is disputed. Apart from the unlikely
hypothesis of adoption from a foreign tongue, the OTeut. "ghuba"
implies as its preTeut-type either "*ghodho-m" or "*ghodto-m". The
former does not appear to admit of explanation; but the latter would
represent the neut. pple. of a root "gheu-". There are two Aryan roots
of the required form ("*g,heu-" with palatal aspirate) one with
meaning 'to invoke' (Skr. "hu") the other 'to pour, to offer
sacrifice' (Skr "hu", Gr. χεηi;ν, OE "geotàn" Yete v). OED
Compact Edition, G, p. 267
* ^ Barnhart, Robert K (1995). The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of
Etymology: the Origins of American English Words, page 323.
HarperCollins . ISBN 0-06-270084-7
* ^ Webster\'s New World Dictionary ; "
God n. ME < OE, akin to Ger
gott, Goth guth, prob. < IE base * ĝhau-, to call out to, invoke >
Sans havaté, (he) calls upon; 1. any of various beings conceived of
as supernatural, immortal, and having special powers over the lives
and affairs of people and the course of nature; deity, esp. a male
deity: typically considered objects of worship; 2. an image that is
worshiped; idol 3. a person or thing deified or excessively honored
and admired; 4. in monotheistic religions, the creator and ruler of
the universe, regarded as eternal, infinite, all-powerful, and
Supreme Being ; the Almighty"
* ^ Dictionary.com; "
God /gɒd/ noun: 1. the one Supreme Being, the
creator and ruler of the universe. 2. the
Supreme Being considered
with reference to a particular attribute. 3. (lowercase) one of
several deities, esp. a male deity, presiding over some portion of
worldly affairs. 4. (often lowercase) a supreme being according to
some particular conception: the
God of mercy. 5.
the Supreme Being, understood as Life, Truth, Love, Mind, Soul,
Spirit, Principle. 6. (lowercase) an image of a deity; an idol. 7.
(lowercase) any deified person or object. 8. (often lowercase) Gods,
Theater. 8a. the upper balcony in a theater. 8b. the spectators in
this part of the balcony."
* ^ Barton, G.A. (2006). A Sketch of Semitic Origins: Social and
Religious. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4286-1575-X .
* ^ "God". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Retrieved 2010-12-18.
* ^ "
Islam and Christianity", Encyclopedia of
Jews also refer to
God as Allāh.
* ^ L. Gardet. "Allah". Encyclopaedia of
* ^ Hastings 2003 , p. 540
* ^ Boyce 1983 , p. 685.
* ^ Froese, Paul; Christopher Bader (Fall–Winter 2004). "Does God
Matter? A Social-
Science Critique". Harvard
Divinity Bulletin. 4. 32.
* ^ See Swami Bhaskarananda, Essentials of
Hinduism (Viveka Press
2002) ISBN 1-884852-04-1
* ^ "Sri
Guru Granth Sahib". Sri Granth. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
* ^ "What Is the Trinity?". Archived from the original on
* ^ D. Gimaret. "Allah, Tawhid". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
* ^ A B Robyn Lebron (2012). Searching for Spiritual Unity...Can
There Be Common Ground?. p. 117. ISBN 1-4627-1262-2 .
* ^ Müller, Max. (1878) Lectures on the Origin and Growth of
Religion: As Illustrated by the Religions of India. London:Longmans,
Green and Co.
* ^ A B Smart, Jack ; John Haldane (2003).
Atheism and Theism.
Blackwell Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 0-631-23259-1 .
* ^ A B Lemos, Ramon M. (2001). A Neomedieval Essay in
Philosophical Theology. Lexington Books. p. 34. ISBN 0-7391-0250-8 .
* ^ "Philosophy of Religion.info – Glossary – Theism, Atheism,
and Agonisticism". Philosophy of Religion.info. Archived from the
original on 2008-04-24. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
* ^ "
Theism – definition of theism by the Free Online Dictionary,
Thesaurus and Encyclopedia".
TheFreeDictionary.com . Retrieved
* ^ Sean F. Johnston (2009). The History of Science: A Beginner's
Guide. p. 90. ISBN 1-85168-681-9 . In its most abstract form, deism
may not attempt to describe the characteristics of such a
non-interventionist creator, or even that the universe is identical
God (a variant known as pandeism).
* ^ Paul Bradley (2011). This Strange Eventful History: A
Philosophy of Meaning. p. 156. ISBN 0875868762 .
Pandeism combines the
Pantheism with a god who creates the universe
and then becomes it.
* ^ A B Allan R. Fuller (2010). Thought: The Only Reality. p. 79.
ISBN 1608445909 .
Pandeism is another belief that states that
identical to the universe, but
God no longer exists in a way where He
can be contacted; therefore, this theory can only be proven to exist
Pandeism views the entire universe as being from
now the universe is the entirety of God, but the universe at some
point in time will fold back into one single being which is God
Himself that created all.
Pandeism raises the question as to why would
God create a universe and then abandon it? As this relates to
pantheism, it raises the question of how did the universe come about
what is its aim and purpose?
* ^ Peter C. Rogers (2009). Ultimate Truth, Book 1. p. 121. ISBN
1438979681 . As with
Pantheism is derived from the
Greek: 'pan'= all and 'theos' = God, it literally means "
God is All"
and "All is God." Pantheist purports that everything is part of an
all-inclusive, indwelling, intangible God; or that the Universe, or
God are the same. Further review helps to accentuate the
idea that natural law, existence, and the
Universe which is the sum
total of all that is, was, and shall be, is represented in the
theological principle of an abstract 'god' rather than an individual,
creative Divine Being or Beings of any kind. This is the key element
which distinguishes them from Panentheists and Pandeists. As such,
although many religions may claim to hold
Pantheistic elements, they
are more commonly
Panentheistic or Pandeistic in nature.
* ^ John Culp (2013). "Panentheism," Stanford Encyclopedia of
* ^ The Project Gutenberg EBook of
The Brothers Karamazov by Fyodor
* ^ Henry, Michel (2003). I am the Truth. Toward a philosophy of
Christianity. Translated by Susan Emanuel. Stanford University Press.
ISBN 0-8047-3780-0 .
* ^ A B C D Edwards, Paul . "
God and the philosophers" in
Honderich, Ted . (ed)The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford
University Press , 1995. ISBN 978-1-61592-446-2 .
* ^ "A Plea for Atheism. By 'Iconoclast'", London, Austin & Co.,
1876, p. 2.
* ^ A B C Dawkins, Richard (2006). The
God Delusion. Great Britain:
Bantam Press. ISBN 0-618-68000-4 .
* ^ Dawkins, Richard (2006-10-23). "Why There Almost Certainly Is
No God". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
* ^ Sagan, Carl (1996). The
Demon Haunted World p.278. New York:
Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-40946-9 .
* ^ Stephen Hawking;
Leonard Mlodinow (2010). The Grand Design.
Bantam Books. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-553-80537-6 .
* ^ Hepburn, Ronald W. (2005) . "Agnosticism". In Donald M.
Encyclopedia of Philosophy . 1 (2nd ed.). MacMillan
Reference USA (Gale). p. 92. ISBN 0-02-865780-2 . In the most general
use of the term, agnosticism is the view that we do not know whether
there is a
God or not. (page 56 in 1967 edition)
* ^ Rowe, William L. (1998). "Agnosticism". In Edward Craig.
Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Taylor & Francis. ISBN
978-0-415-07310-3 . In the popular sense, an agnostic is someone who
neither believes nor disbelieves in God, whereas an atheist
disbelieves in God. In the strict sense, however, agnosticism is the
view that human reason is incapable of providing sufficient rational
grounds to justify either the belief that
God exists or the belief
God does not exist. In so far as one holds that our beliefs are
rational only if they are sufficiently supported by human reason, the
person who accepts the philosophical position of agnosticism will hold
that neither the belief that
God exists nor the belief that
not exist is rational.
* ^ "agnostic, agnosticism". OED Online, 3rd ed. Oxford University
Press. September 2012. AGNOSTIC. : A. n. :# A person who believes that
nothing is known or can be known of immaterial things, especially of
the existence or nature of God. :# In extended use: a person who is
not persuaded by or committed to a particular point of view; a
sceptic. Also: person of indeterminate ideology or conviction; an
equivocator. : B. adj. :# Of or relating to the belief that the
existence of anything beyond and behind material phenomena is unknown
and (as far as can be judged) unknowable. Also: holding this belief.
:# a. In extended use: not committed to or persuaded by a particular
point of view; sceptical. Also: politically or ideologically
unaligned; non-partisan, equivocal. AGNOSTICISM n. The doctrine or
tenets of agnostics with regard to the existence of anything beyond
and behind material phenomena or to knowledge of a First Cause or God.
* ^ Nielsen 2013: "Instead of saying that an atheist is someone who
believes that it is false or probably false that there is a God, a
more adequate characterization of atheism consists in the more complex
claim that to be an atheist is to be someone who rejects belief in God
for the following reasons ... : for an anthropomorphic God, the
atheist rejects belief in
God because it is false or probably false
that there is a God; for a nonanthropomorphic
God ... because the
concept of such a
God is either meaningless, unintelligible,
contradictory, incomprehensible, or incoherent; for the
by some modern or contemporary theologians or philosophers ... because
the concept of
God in question is such that it merely masks an
atheistic substance—e.g., "God" is just another name for love, or
... a symbolic term for moral ideals."
* ^ Edwards 2005: "On our definition, an 'atheist' is a person who
rejects belief in God, regardless of whether or not his reason for the
rejection is the claim that '
God exists' expresses a false
proposition. People frequently adopt an attitude of rejection toward a
position for reasons other than that it is a false proposition. It is
common among contemporary philosophers, and indeed it was not uncommon
in earlier centuries, to reject positions on the ground that they are
meaningless. Sometimes, too, a theory is rejected on such grounds as
that it is sterile or redundant or capricious, and there are many
other considerations which in certain contexts are generally agreed to
constitute good grounds for rejecting an assertion."
* ^ Rowe 1998: "As commonly understood, atheism is the position
that affirms the nonexistence of God. So an atheist is someone who
disbelieves in God, whereas a theist is someone who believes in God.
Another meaning of 'atheism' is simply nonbelief in the existence of
God, rather than positive belief in the nonexistence of God. ... an
atheist, in the broader sense of the term, is someone who disbelieves
in every form of deity, not just the
God of traditional Western
* ^ Boyer, Pascal (2001).
Religion Explained,. New York: Basic
Books. pp. 142–243. ISBN 0-465-00696-5 .
* ^ du Castel, Bertrand ; Jurgensen, Timothy M. (2008). Computer
Theology,. Austin, Texas: Midori Press. pp. 221–222. ISBN
* ^ Barrett, Justin (1996). "Conceptualizing a Nonnatural Entity:
God Concepts" (PDF).
* ^ Rossano, Matt (2007). "Supernaturalizing Social Life: Religion
and the Evolution of Human Cooperation" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-06-25.
Thomas Henry Huxley , an English biologist, was the first to
come up with the word agnostic in 1869 Dixon, Thomas (2008). Science
and Religion: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-19-929551-7 . However, earlier authors and
published works have promoted an agnostic points of view. They include
Protagoras , a 5th-century BCE Greek philosopher. "The Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy –
Protagoras (c. 490 – c. 420 BCE)".
Archived from the original on 2008-10-14. Retrieved 2008-10-06. While
the pious might wish to look to the gods to provide absolute moral
guidance in the relativistic universe of the Sophistic Enlightenment,
that certainty also was cast into doubt by philosophic and sophistic
thinkers, who pointed out the absurdity and immorality of the
conventional epic accounts of the gods. Protagoras' prose treatise
about the gods began 'Concerning the gods, I have no means of knowing
whether they exist or not or of what sort they may be. Many things
prevent knowledge including the obscurity of the subject and the
brevity of human life.'
* ^ Aquinas, Thomas (1990). Kreeft, Peter, ed. Summa of the Summa.
Ignatius Press. p. 63.
* ^ Aquinas, Thomas (1990). Kreeft, Peter, ed. Summa of the Summa.
Ignatius Press. pp. 65–69.
* ^ Curley, Edwin M. (1985). The Collected Works of Spinoza.
Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-07222-7 .
* ^ "Baruch Spinoza".
* ^ Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. "The emergence of Rational
Dissent." Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in
eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge:
* ^ Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander
1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester
* ^ "SUMMA THEOLOGIAE: The existence of
God (Prima Pars, Q. 2)".
Retrieved 30 December 2016.
* ^ Summa of
Theology I, q.2, The Five Ways Philosophers Have
Proven God's Existence
* ^ Alister E. McGrath (2005). Dawkins\' God: genes, memes, and the
meaning of life. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-2539-0 .
* ^ Floyd H. Barackman (2001). Practical
Examining the Great Doctrines of the Faith. Kregel Academic. ISBN
* ^ Gould, Stephen J. (1998). Leonardo's Mountain of Clams and the
Diet of Worms. Jonathan Cape. p. 274. ISBN 0-224-05043-5 .
* ^ Krauss L. A
Universe from Nothing. Free Press, New York. 2012.
* ^ Harris, S. The end of faith. W. W. Norton and Company, New
York. 2005. ISBN 0-393-03515-8
* ^ Mattson, MP (2014). "Superior pattern processing is the essence
of the evolved human brain" (PDF). Front Neurosci. 8: 265. doi
:10.3389/fnins.2014.00265 . PMC 4141622 . PMID 25202234 .
* ^ Culotta, E (2009). "The origins of religion". Science. 326:
784–787. doi :10.1126/science.326_784 .
* ^ "Audio Visual Resources".
Ravi Zacharias International
Ministries . Archived from the original on 2007-03-29. Retrieved
2007-04-07. , includes sound recording of the Dawkins-McGrath debate
* ^ Francis Schüssler Fiorenza and Gordon D. Kaufman, "God", Ch 6,
in Mark C. Taylor, ed, Critical Terms for Religious Studies
(University of Chicago, 1998/2008), 136–140.
* ^ Gen. 17:1; 28:3; 35:11; Ex. 6:31; Ps. 91:1, 2
* ^ Gen. 14:19; Ps. 9:2; Dan. 7:18, 22, 25
* ^ Bentley, David (September 1999). The 99 Beautiful Names for God
for All the People of the Book. William Carey Library. ISBN
* ^ Ramsay, Tamasin (September 2010). "Custodians of Purity An
Ethnography of the Brahma Kumaris". Monash University: 107–108.
* ^ Aquinas, Thomas (1274). Summa Theologica. Part 1, Question 3,
Augustine of Hippo (397). Confessions. Book 7.
* ^ Lang, David; Kreeft, Peter (2002). Why Matter Matters:
Philosophical and Scriptural Reflections on the Sacraments. Chapter
Five: Why Male Priests?: Our Sunday Visitor. ISBN 978-1931709347 .
* ^ Elaine H. Pagels "What Became of
God the Mother? Conflicting
God in Early Christianity" Signs, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Winter,
1976), pp. 293–303
* ^ Coogan, Michael (October 2010). "6. Fire in Divine Loins: God's
Wives in Myth and Metaphor".
God and Sex. What the
Bible Really Says
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aim at containing articles on every religious belief or custom, and on
every ethical movement, every philosophical idea, every moral
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