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Capra hircus

The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the family Bovidae
Bovidae
and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over 300 distinct breeds of goat.[1] Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species, and have been used for their milk, meat, hair, and skins over much of the world.[2] In 2011, there were more than 924 million live goats around the globe, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization.[3] Female goats are referred to as "does" or "nannies", intact males are called "bucks" or "billies" and juveniles of both sexes are called "kids". Castrated males are called "wethers". While both the words "hirsine" and "caprine" refer to anything having a goat-like quality, the former is used most often to emphasize the distinct smell attributed to domestic goats.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Anatomy and health

3.1 Horns 3.2 Digestion and lactation 3.3 Eyes 3.4 Beards

4 Reproduction

4.1 Diet 4.2 Behavior 4.3 Diseases 4.4 Life expectancy

5 Agriculture

5.1 Worldwide goat population statistics 5.2 Husbandry 5.3 Meat 5.4 Milk, butter and cheese

5.4.1 Nutrition

5.5 Fiber 5.6 Land clearing 5.7 Use for medical training

6 As pets 7 Breeds 8 Showing 9 Religion, mythology and folklore 10 Feral goats 11 References 12 External links

Etymology

Goat-herding is an ancient tradition that is still important in places like Egypt.

The Modern English word goat comes from Old English
Old English
gāt "she-goat, goat in general", which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz (cf. Dutch/Icelandic geit, German Geiß, and Gothic gaits), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰaidos meaning "young goat" (cf. Latin haedus "kid"),[4] itself perhaps from a root meaning "jump" (assuming that Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
zajęcǐ "hare", Sanskrit
Sanskrit
jihīte "he moves" are related).[citation needed] To refer to the male, Old English
Old English
used bucca (giving modern buck) until ousted by hegote, hegoote in the late 12th century. Nanny goat (females) originated in the 18th century and billy goat (for males) in the 19th. History

Horn cores from the Neolithic
Neolithic
village of Atlit Yam

Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans.[5] The most recent genetic analysis[6] confirms the archaeological evidence that the wild Bezoar ibex
Bezoar ibex
of the Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
is the likely original ancestor of probably all domestic goats today.[5] Neolithic
Neolithic
farmers began to herd wild goats primarily for easy access to milk and meat, as well as to their dung, which was used as fuel, and their bones, hair and sinew for clothing, building and tools.[1] The earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh
Ganj Dareh
in Iran. Goat
Goat
remains have been found at archaeological sites in Jericho, Choga Mami,[7] Djeitun, and Çayönü, dating the domestication of goats in Western Asia
Western Asia
at between 8000 and 9000 years ago.[5] Studies of DNA evidence suggests 10,000 years BP as the domestication date.[6] Historically, goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale. It has also been used to produce parchment. Anatomy and health

Skeleton (Capra hircus)

A white Irish goat with horns

Goat
Goat
heart. Specimen clarified for visualization of anatomical structures

Eye with horizontal pupil

Each recognized breed of goat has specific weight ranges, which vary from over 140 kg (300 lb) for bucks of larger breeds such as the Boer, to 20 to 27 kg (45 to 60 lb) for smaller goat does.[8] Within each breed, different strains or bloodlines may have different recognized sizes. At the bottom of the size range are miniature breeds such as the African Pygmy, which stand 41 to 58 cm (16 to 23 in) at the shoulder as adults.[9] Horns Most goats naturally have two horns, of various shapes and sizes depending on the breed.[10] There have been incidents of polycerate goats (having as many as eight horns), although this is a genetic rarity thought to be inherited. Unlike cattle, goats have not been successfully bred to be reliably polled, as the genes determining sex and those determining horns are closely linked. Breeding together two genetically polled goats results in a high number of intersex individuals among the offspring, which are typically sterile.[10] Their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other proteins, and are used for defense, dominance, and territoriality.[11] Digestion and lactation Goats are ruminants. They have a four-chambered stomach consisting of the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, and the abomasum. As with other mammal ruminants, they are even-toed ungulates. The females have an udder consisting of two teats, in contrast to cattle, which have four teats.[12] An exception to this is the Boer goat, which sometimes may have up to eight teats.[13][14][15] Eyes Goats have horizontal, slit-shaped pupils. Because goats' irises are usually pale, their contrasting pupils are much more noticeable than in animals such as cattle, deer, most horses and many sheep, whose similarly horizontal pupils blend into a dark iris and sclera. Beards Both male and female goats have beards, and many types of goat (most commonly dairy goats, dairy-cross Boers, and pygmy goats) may have wattles, one dangling from each side of the neck.[16] Reproduction

Goat
Goat
kid

A two-month-old goat kid in a field of capeweed

Goats reach puberty between three and 15 months of age, depending on breed and nutritional status. Many breeders prefer to postpone breeding until the doe has reached 70% of the adult weight. However, this separation is rarely possible in extensively managed, open-range herds.[17] In temperate climates and among the Swiss breeds, the breeding season commences as the day length shortens, and ends in early spring or before. In equatorial regions, goats are able to breed at any time of the year. Successful breeding in these regions depends more on available forage than on day length. Does of any breed or region come into estrus (heat) every 21 days for two to 48 hours. A doe in heat typically flags (vigorously wags) her tail often, stays near the buck if one is present, becomes more vocal, and may also show a decrease in appetite and milk production for the duration of the heat.

A female goat and two kids

Bucks (intact males) of Swiss and northern breeds come into rut in the fall as with the does' heat cycles. Bucks of equatorial breeds may show seasonal reduced fertility, but as with the does, are capable of breeding at all times. Rut is characterized by a decrease in appetite and obsessive interest in the does. A buck in rut will display flehmen lip curling and will urinate on his forelegs and face. Sebaceous scent glands at the base of the horns add to the male goat's odor, which is important to make him attractive to the female. Some does will not mate with a buck which has been descented.[18] In addition to natural, traditional mating, artificial insemination has gained popularity among goat breeders, as it allows easy access to a wide variety of bloodlines. Gestation length is approximately 150 days. Twins
Twins
are the usual result, with single and triplet births also common. Less frequent are litters of quadruplet, quintuplet, and even sextuplet kids. Birthing, known as kidding, generally occurs uneventfully. Just before kidding, the doe will have a sunken area around the tail and hip, as well as heavy breathing. She may have a worried look, become restless and display great affection for her keeper. The mother often eats the placenta, which gives her much-needed nutrients, helps stanch her bleeding, and parallels the behavior of wild herbivores, such as deer, to reduce the lure of the birth scent for predators.[19][20] Freshening (coming into milk production) occurs at kidding. Milk production varies with the breed, age, quality, and diet of the doe; dairy goats generally produce between 680 and 1,810 kg (1,500 and 4,000 lb) of milk per 305-day lactation. On average, a good quality dairy doe will give at least 3 kg (6 lb) of milk per day while she is in milk. A first-time milker may produce less, or as much as 7 kg (16 lb), or more of milk in exceptional cases. After the lactation, the doe will "dry off", typically after she has been bred. Occasionally, goats that have not been bred and are continuously milked will continue lactation beyond the typical 305 days.[21] Meat, fiber, and pet breeds are not usually milked and simply produce enough for the kids until weaning. Male lactation is also known to occur in goats.[22] Diet Goats are reputed to be willing to eat almost anything, including tin cans and cardboard boxes. While goats will not actually eat inedible material, they are browsing animals, not grazers like cattle and sheep, and (coupled with their highly curious nature) will chew on and taste just about anything remotely resembling plant matter to decide whether it is good to eat, including cardboard, clothing and paper (such as labels from tin cans).[23] The unusual smells of leftover food in discarded cans or boxes may further stimulate their curiosity.[citation needed]

A domestic goat feeding in a field of capeweed, a weed which is toxic to most stock animals

Aside from sampling many things, goats are quite particular in what they actually consume, preferring to browse on the tips of woody shrubs and trees, as well as the occasional broad-leaved plant. However, it can fairly be said that their plant diet is extremely varied, and includes some species which are otherwise toxic.[24] They will seldom consume soiled food or contaminated water unless facing starvation. This is one reason goat-rearing is most often free ranging, since stall-fed goat-rearing involves extensive upkeep and is seldom commercially viable. Goats prefer to browse on vines, such as kudzu, on shrubbery and on weeds, more like deer than sheep, preferring them to grasses. Nightshade
Nightshade
is poisonous; wilted fruit tree leaves can also kill goats. Silage
Silage
(fermented corn stalks) and haylage (fermented grass hay) can be used if consumed immediately after opening – goats are particularly sensitive to Listeria
Listeria
bacteria that can grow in fermented feeds. Alfalfa, a high-protein plant, is widely fed as hay; fescue is the least palatable and least nutritious hay. Mold
Mold
in a goat's feed can make it sick and possibly kill it. In various places in China, goats are used in the production of tea. Goats are released onto the tea terraces where they avoid consuming the green tea leaves (which contain bitter tasting substances) but instead eat the weeds. The goats' droppings fertilise the tea plants.[25] The digestive physiology of a very young kid (like the young of other ruminants) is essentially the same as that of a monogastric animal. Milk
Milk
digestion begins in the abomasum, the milk having bypassed the rumen via closure of the reticuloesophageal groove during suckling. At birth, the rumen is undeveloped, but as the kid begins to consume solid feed, the rumen soon increases in size and in its capacity to absorb nutrients. The adult size of a particular goat is a product of its breed (genetic potential) and its diet while growing (nutritional potential). As with all livestock, increased protein diets (10 to 14%) and sufficient calories during the prepuberty period yield higher growth rates and larger eventual size than lower protein rates and limited calories.[26] Large-framed goats, with a greater skeletal size, reach mature weight at a later age (36 to 42 months) than small-framed goats (18 to 24 months) if both are fed to their full potential. Large-framed goats need more calories than small-framed goats for maintenance of daily functions.[27] Behavior

Goats establish a dominance hierarchy in flocks, sometimes through head butting.

Play media

An example of the goats' social behavior within a flock.

Glycerinated goat tongue

Goats are naturally curious. They are also agile and well known for their ability to climb and balance in precarious places. This makes them the only ruminant to regularly climb trees. Due to their agility and inquisitiveness, they are notorious for escaping their pens by testing fences and enclosures, either intentionally or simply because they are used to climb on. If any of the fencing can be overcome, goats will almost inevitably escape. Due to their intelligence, once a goat has discovered a weakness in the fence, they will exploit it repeatedly, and other goats will observe and quickly learn the same method.[citation needed] Goats explore anything new or unfamiliar in their surroundings, primarily with their prehensile upper lip and tongue, by nibbling at them, occasionally even eating them. When handled as a group, goats tend to display less herding behavior than sheep. When grazing undisturbed, they tend to spread across the field or range, rather than feed side-by-side as do sheep. When nursing young, goats will leave their kids separated ("lying out") rather than clumped, as do sheep. They will generally turn and face an intruder and bucks are more likely to charge or butt at humans than are rams.[28] A study by Queen Mary University reports that goats try to communicate with people in the same manner as domesticated animals such as dogs and horses. Goats were first domesticated as livestock more than 10,000 years ago. Research conducted to test communication skills found that the goats will look to a human for assistance when faced with a challenge that had previously been mastered, but was then modified. Specifically, when presented with a box, the goat was able to remove the lid and retrieve a treat inside, but when the box was turned so the lid could not be removed, the goat would turn and gaze at the person and move toward them, before looking back toward the box. This is the same type of complex communication observed by animals bred as domestic pets, such as dogs. Researchers believe that better understanding of human-goat interaction could offer overall improvement in the animals' welfare.[29][30] The field of anthrozoology has established that domesticated animals have the capacity for complex communication with humans when in 2015 a Japanese scientist determined that levels of oxytocin did increase in human subjects when dogs were exposed to a dose of the "love hormone", proving that a human-animal bond does exist. This is the same affinity that was proven with the London study above; goats are intelligent, capable of complex communication, and able to form bonds.[31] Despite having the reputation of being slightly rebellious, more and more people today are choosing more exotic companion animals like goats. Goats are herd animals and typically prefer the company of other goats, but because of their herd mentality, they will follow their owners around just the same.

Goats are well known for being hard to contain with fencing

See also: Goats as pets Diseases Main article: List of infectious sheep and goat diseases While goats are generally considered hardy animals and in many situations receive little medical care, they are subject to a number of diseases. Among the conditions affecting goats are respiratory diseases including pneumonia, foot rot, internal parasites, pregnancy toxosis and feed toxicity. Feed toxicity can vary based on breed and location. Certain foreign fruits and vegetables can be toxic to different breeds of goats. Goats can become infected with various viral and bacterial diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease, caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, pinkeye, mastitis, and pseudorabies. They can transmit a number of zoonotic diseases to people, such as tuberculosis, brucellosis, Q-fever, and rabies.[32] Life expectancy Life expectancy for goats is between fifteen and eighteen years.[33] An instance of a goat reaching the age of 24 has been reported.[34] Several factors can reduce this average expectancy; problems during kidding can lower a doe's expected life span to ten or eleven, and stresses of going into rut can lower a buck's expected life span to eight to ten years.[34] Agriculture Main article: Goat
Goat
farming

Goat
Goat
husbandry is common through the Norte Chico region in Chile. Intensive goat husbandry in drylands may produce severe erosion and desertification. Image from upper Limarí River

A goat is useful to humans when it is living and when it is dead, first as a renewable provider of milk, manure, and fiber, and then as meat and hide.[35] Some charities provide goats to impoverished people in poor countries, because goats are easier and cheaper to manage than cattle, and have multiple uses. In addition, goats are used for driving and packing purposes. The intestine of goats is used to make "catgut", which is still in use as a material for internal human surgical sutures and strings for musical instruments. The horn of the goat, which signifies plenty and wellbeing (the cornucopia), is also used to make spoons.[36]

The Boer goat
Boer goat
– in this case a buck – is a widely kept meat breed.

Worldwide goat population statistics According to the Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO), the top producers of goat milk in 2008 were India
India
(4 million metric tons), Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(2.16 million metric tons) and the Sudan (1.47 million metric tons).[37] Husbandry

Reared goat(Husbandry)

Husbandry, or animal care and use, varies by region and culture. The particular housing used for goats depends not only on the intended use of the goat, but also on the region of the world where they are raised. Historically, domestic goats were generally kept in herds that wandered on hills or other grazing areas, often tended by goatherds who were frequently children or adolescents, similar to the more widely known shepherd. These methods of herding are still used today. In some parts of the world, especially Europe
Europe
and North America, distinct breeds of goats are kept for dairy (milk) and for meat production. Excess male kids of dairy breeds are typically slaughtered for meat. Both does and bucks of meat breeds may be slaughtered for meat, as well as older animals of any breed. The meat of older bucks (more than one year old) is generally considered not desirable for meat for human consumption. Castration
Castration
at a young age prevents the development of typical buck odor.

For smallholder farmers in many countries, such as this woman from Burkina Faso, goats are important livestock.

Dairy
Dairy
goats are generally pastured in summer and may be stabled during the winter. As dairy does are milked daily, they are generally kept close to the milking shed. Their grazing is typically supplemented with hay and concentrates. Stabled goats may be kept in stalls similar to horses, or in larger group pens. In the US system, does are generally rebred annually. In some European commercial dairy systems, the does are bred only twice, and are milked continuously for several years after the second kidding. Meat goats are more frequently pastured year-round, and may be kept many miles from barns. Angora and other fiber breeds are also kept on pasture or range. Range-kept and pastured goats may be supplemented with hay or concentrates, most frequently during the winter or dry seasons. In India, Nepal, and much of Asia, goats are kept largely for milk production, both in commercial and household settings. The goats in this area may be kept closely housed or may be allowed to range for fodder. The Salem Black goat is herded to pasture in fields and along roads during the day, but is kept penned at night for safe-keeping.[38] In Africa and the Mideast, goats are typically run in flocks with sheep. This maximizes the production per acre, as goats and sheep prefer different food plants. Multiple types of goat-raising are found in Ethiopia, where four main types have been identified: pastured in annual crop systems, in perennial crop systems, with cattle, and in arid areas, under pastoral (nomadic) herding systems. In all four systems, however, goats were typically kept in extensive systems, with few purchased inputs.[39] Household goats are traditionally kept in Nigeria. While many goats are allowed to wander the homestead or village, others are kept penned and fed in what is called a 'cut-and-carry' system. This type of husbandry is also used in parts of Latin
Latin
America. Cut-and-carry, which refers to the practice of cutting down grasses, corn or cane for feed rather than allowing the animal access to the field, is particularly suited for types of feed, such as corn or cane, that are easily destroyed by trampling.[40] Pet
Pet
goats may be found in many parts of the world when a family keeps one or more animals for emotional reasons rather than as production animals. It is becoming more common for goats to be kept exclusively as pets in North America and Europe. Meat Main article: Goat
Goat
meat See also: List of goat dishes The taste of goat kid meat is similar to that of spring lamb meat;[41] in fact, in the English-speaking islands of the Caribbean, and in some parts of Asia, particularly Bangladesh, Pakistan
Pakistan
and India, the word “mutton” is used to describe both goat and lamb meat. However, some compare the taste of goat meat to veal or venison, depending on the age and condition of the goat. Its flavor is said to be primarily linked to the presence of 4-methyloctanoic and 4-methylnonanoic acid.[42] It can be prepared in a variety of ways, including stewing, baking, grilling, barbecuing, canning, and frying; it can be minced, curried, or made into sausage. Due to its low fat content, the meat can toughen at high temperatures if cooked without additional moisture. One of the most popular goats grown for meat is the South African Boer, introduced into the United States
United States
in the early 1990s. The New Zealand
New Zealand
Kiko is also considered a meat breed, as is the myotonic or "fainting goat", a breed originating in Tennessee. Milk, butter and cheese See also: List of goat milk cheeses

A goat being machine milked on an organic farm

Goats produce about 2% of the world's total annual milk supply.[43] Some goats are bred specifically for milk. If the strong-smelling buck is not separated from the does, his scent will affect the milk. Goat
Goat
milk naturally has small, well-emulsified fat globules, which means the cream remains suspended in the milk, instead of rising to the top, as in raw cow milk; therefore, it does not need to be homogenized. Indeed, if the milk is to be used to make cheese, homogenization is not recommended, as this changes the structure of the milk, affecting the culture's ability to coagulate the milk and the final quality and yield of cheese.[44] Dairy
Dairy
goats in their prime (generally around the third or fourth lactation cycle) average—2.7 to 3.6 kg (6 to 8 lb)—of milk production daily—roughly 2.8 to 3.8 l (3 to 4 U.S. qt)—during a ten-month lactation, producing more just after freshening and gradually dropping in production toward the end of their lactation. The milk generally averages 3.5% butterfat.[45] Goat
Goat
milk is commonly processed into cheese, butter, ice cream, yogurt, cajeta and other products. Goat
Goat
cheese is known as fromage de chèvre ("goat cheese") in France. Some varieties include Rocamadour and Montrachet.[46] Goat
Goat
butter is white because goats produce milk with the yellow beta-carotene converted to a colorless form of vitamin A.

v t e

Milk

From animals

Buffalo Camel Cow Donkey Goat Horse Human

Colostrum Newborn

Moose Pig Sheep

From plants

Plant milk Almond Coconut Hemp Peanut Rice Soy-based infant formula Soy

Types

A2 Baked Condensed Evaporated Filled Flavored

Anise Chocolate Coffee Vanilla

Ice Malted Organic Pasteurized Powdered Raw Scalded Skimmed Soured Toned UHT Ultrafiltered

Products

Ayran Butter Buttermilk Cheese Cream Curd Ice cream Jewelry Kefir Milkshake Whey Yogurt

Topics

Allergy Containers

Bag Bottle Carton Crate Jug Milk
Milk
churn

Dairy Lactation

Breastfeeding

Milking

Pipeline

Professions

Milkmaid Milkman

Category

Nutrition The American Academy of Pediatrics
American Academy of Pediatrics
discourages feeding infants milk derived from goats. An April 2010 case report[47] summarizes their recommendation and presents "a comprehensive review of the consequences associated with this dangerous practice", also stating, "Many infants are exclusively fed unmodified goat's milk as a result of cultural beliefs as well as exposure to false online information. Anecdotal reports have described a host of morbidities associated with that practice, including severe electrolyte abnormalities, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, allergic reactions including life-threatening anaphylactic shock, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and infections." Untreated caprine brucellosis results in a 2% case fatality rate. According to the USDA, doe milk is not recommended for human infants because it contains "inadequate quantities of iron, folate, vitamins C and D, thiamine, niacin, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid to meet an infant’s nutritional needs" and may cause harm to an infant's kidneys and could cause metabolic damage.[48] The department of health in the United Kingdom has repeatedly released statements stating on various occasions that[49] "Goats' milk is not suitable for babies, and infant formulas and follow-on formulas based on goats' milk protein have not been approved for use in Europe", and "infant milks based on goats' milk protein are not suitable as a source of nutrition for infants."[50] Also according to the Canadian Federal Health Department – Health Canada, most of the dangers or counter-indication of feeding unmodified goat milk to infants, are similar to those occurring in the same practice with cow's milk, namely in the allergic reactions.[51] However, some farming groups promote the practice. For example, Small Farm Today, in 2005, claimed beneficial use in invalid and convalescent diets, proposing that glycerol ethers, possibly important in nutrition for nursing infants, are much higher in does' milk than in cows' milk.[52] A 1970 book on animal breeding claimed that does' milk differs from cows' or humans' milk by having higher digestibility, distinct alkalinity, higher buffering capacity, and certain therapeutic values in human medicine and nutrition.[53] George Mateljan suggested doe milk can replace ewe milk or cow milk in diets of those who are allergic to certain mammals' milk.[54] However, like cow milk, doe milk has lactose (sugar), and may cause gastrointestinal problems for individuals with lactose intolerance.[54] In fact, the level of lactose is similar to that of cow milk.[50]

Basic composition of various milks (mean values per 100 g)[55]

Constituent Doe (goat) Cow Human

Fat (g) 3.8 3.6 4.0

Protein (g) 3.5 3.3 1.2

Lactose
Lactose
(g) 4.1 4.6 6.9

Ash (g) 0.8 0.7 0.2

Total solids (g) 12.2 12.3 12.3

Calories 70 69 68

Milk
Milk
composition analysis, per 100 grams[56]

Constituents unit Cow Doe (goat) Ewe (sheep) Water buffalo

Water g 87.8 88.9 83.0 81.1

Protein g 3.2 3.1 5.4 4.5

Fat g 3.9 3.5 6.0 8.0

Carbohydrates g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9

Energy kcal 66 60 95 110

Energy kJ 275 253 396 463

Sugars (lactose) g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9

Cholesterol mg 14 10 11 8

Calcium IU 120 100 170 195

Saturated fatty acids g 2.4 2.3 3.8 4.2

Monounsaturated fatty acids g 1.1 0.8 1.5 1.7

Polyunsaturated fatty acids g 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2

These compositions vary by breed (especially in the Nigerian dwarf breed), animal, and point in the lactation period. Fiber

An Angora goat

The Angora breed of goats produces long, curling, lustrous locks of mohair. The entire body of the goat is covered with mohair and there are no guard hairs. The locks constantly grow to four inches or more in length. Angora crossbreeds, such as the pygora and the nigora, have been created to produce mohair and/or cashgora on a smaller, easier-to-manage animal. The wool is shorn twice a year, with an average yield of about 4.5 kg (10 lb). Most goats have softer insulating hairs nearer the skin, and longer guard hairs on the surface. The desirable fiber for the textile industry is the former, and it goes by several names (down, cashmere and pashmina). The coarse guard hairs are of little value as they are too coarse, difficult to spin and difficult to dye. The cashmere goat produces a commercial quantity of cashmere wool, which is one of the most expensive natural fibers commercially produced; cashmere is very fine and soft. The cashmere goat fiber is harvested once a year, yielding around 260 g (9 oz) of down. In South Asia, cashmere is called "pashmina" (from Persian pashmina, "fine wool"). In the 18th and early 19th centuries, Kashmir
Kashmir
(then called Cashmere by the British), had a thriving industry producing shawls from goat-hair imported from Tibet and Tartary through Ladakh. The shawls were introduced into Western Europe
Europe
when the General in Chief of the French campaign in Egypt (1799–1802) sent one to Paris. Since these shawls were produced in the upper Kashmir
Kashmir
and Ladakh region, the wool came to be known as "cashmere". Land clearing Goats have been used by humans to clear unwanted vegetation for centuries. They have been described as "eating machines" and "biological control agents".[57][58] There has been a resurgence of this in North America since 1990, when herds were used to clear dry brush from California hillsides thought to be endangered by potential wildfires. This form of using goats to clear land is sometimes known as conservation grazing. Since then, numerous public and private agencies have hired private herds to perform similar tasks.[57] This practice has become popular in the Pacific Northwest, where they are used to remove invasive species not easily removed by humans, including (thorned) blackberry vines and poison oak.[57][59][60] Use for medical training As a goat's anatomy and physiology is not too dissimilar from that of human, some countries' militaries use goats to train combat medics. In the United States, goats have become the main animal species used for this purpose after Pentagon phased out using dogs for medical training in the 1980s.[61] While modern mannequins used in medical training are quite efficient in simulating the behavior of a human body, trainees feel that "the goat exercise provide[s] a sense of urgency that only real life trauma can provide".[62] As pets Main article: Goats as pets Some people choose goats as a pet because of their ability to form close bonds with their human guardians. Because of goats' herd mentality, they will follow their owner around and form close bonds with them. Breeds Main article: List of goat breeds Goat
Goat
breeds fall into overlapping, general categories. They are generally distributed in those used for dairy, fiber, meat, skins, and as companion animals. Some breeds are also particularly noted as pack goats. Showing

A Nigerian Dwarf
Nigerian Dwarf
milker in show clip. This doe is angular and dairy with a capacious and well supported mammary system.

Goat
Goat
breeders' clubs frequently hold shows, where goats are judged on traits relating to conformation, udder quality, evidence of high production, longevity, build and muscling (meat goats and pet goats) and fiber production and the fiber itself (fiber goats). People who show their goats usually keep registered stock and the offspring of award-winning animals command a higher price. Registered goats, in general, are usually higher-priced if for no other reason than that records have been kept proving their ancestry and the production and other data of their sires, dams, and other ancestors. A registered doe is usually less of a gamble than buying a doe at random (as at an auction or sale barn) because of these records and the reputation of the breeder. Children's clubs such as 4-H
4-H
also allow goats to be shown. Children's shows often include a showmanship class, where the cleanliness and presentation of both the animal and the exhibitor as well as the handler's ability and skill in handling the goat are scored. In a showmanship class, conformation is irrelevant since this is not what is being judged. Various " Dairy
Dairy
Goat
Goat
Scorecards" (milking does) are systems used for judging shows in the US. The American Dairy
Dairy
Goat
Goat
Association (ADGA) scorecard for an adult doe includes a point system of a hundred total with major categories that include general appearance, the dairy character of a doe (physical traits that aid and increase milk production), body capacity, and specifically for the mammary system. Young stock and bucks are judged by different scorecards which place more emphasis on the other three categories; general appearance, body capacity, and dairy character. The American Goat
Goat
Society (AGS) has a similar, but not identical scorecard that is used in their shows. The miniature dairy goats may be judged by either of the two scorecards. The "Angora Goat
Goat
scorecard" used by the Colored Angora Goat
Goat
Breeder's Association (CAGBA), which covers the white and the colored goats, includes evaluation of an animal's fleece color, density, uniformity, fineness, and general body confirmation. Disqualifications include: a deformed mouth, broken down pasterns, deformed feet, crooked legs, abnormalities of testicles, missing testicles, more than 3 inch split in scrotum, and close-set or distorted horns. Religion, mythology and folklore

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An ancient Greek oenochoe depicting wild goats

Archaeologists excavating the ancient city of Ebla
Ebla
in Syria discovered, among others, the tomb of some king or great noble which included a throne decorated with bronze goat heads. That led to this tomb becoming known as "The Tomb of the Lord of the Goats".[63] [64] According to Norse mythology, the god of thunder, Thor, has a chariot that is pulled by the goats Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr.[65] At night when he sets up camp, Thor
Thor
eats the meat of the goats, but takes care that all bones remain whole. Then he wraps the remains up, and in the morning, the goats always come back to life to pull the chariot. When a farmer's son who is invited to share the meal breaks one of the goats' leg bones to suck the marrow, the animal's leg remains broken in the morning, and the boy is forced to serve Thor
Thor
as a servant to compensate for the damage. Possibly related, the Yule Goat
Yule Goat
is one of the oldest Scandinavian and Northern European Yule
Yule
and Christmas
Christmas
symbols and traditions. Yule
Yule
Goat originally denoted the goat that was slaughtered around Yule, but it may also indicate a goat figure made out of straw. It is also used about the custom of going door-to-door singing carols and getting food and drinks in return, often fruit, cakes and sweets. "Going Yule
Yule
Goat" is similar to the British custom wassailing, both with heathen roots. The Gävle Goat
Gävle Goat
is a giant version of the Yule
Yule
Goat, erected every year in the Swedish city of Gävle. The Greek god Pan is said to have the upper body of a man and the horns and lower body of a goat.[65] Pan was a very lustful god, nearly all of the myths involving him had to do with him chasing nymphs. He is also credited with creating the pan flute. The goat is one of the twelve-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac
Chinese zodiac
related to the Chinese calendar. Each animal is associated with certain personality traits; those born in a year of the goat are predicted to be shy, introverted, creative, and perfectionist.

Amalthée et la chèvre de Jupiter (Amalthea and Jupiter's goat); commissioned by the Queen of France in 1787 for the royal dairy at Rambouillet

Several mythological hybrid creatures are believed to consist of parts of the goat, including the Chimera. The Capricorn sign in the Western zodiac is usually depicted as a goat with a fish's tail. Fauns and satyrs are mythological creatures that are part goat and part human. The mineral bromine is named from the Greek word "brόmos", which means "stench of he-goats". Goats are mentioned many times in the Bible. A goat is considered a "clean" animal by Jewish dietary laws and was slaughtered for an honored guest. It was also acceptable for some kinds of sacrifices. Goat-hair curtains were used in the tent that contained the tabernacle (Exodus 25:4). Its horns can be used instead of sheep's horn to make a shofar.[66] On Yom Kippur, the festival of the Day of Atonement, two goats were chosen and lots were drawn for them. One was sacrificed and the other allowed to escape into the wilderness, symbolically carrying with it the sins of the community. From this comes the word "scapegoat". A leader or king was sometimes compared to a male goat leading the flock. In the New Testament, Jesus
Jesus
told a parable of the Sheep
Sheep
and the Goats ( Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Matthew
25). Popular Christian folk tradition in Europe
Europe
associated Satan
Satan
with imagery of goats.[65] A common superstition in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
was that goats whispered lewd sentences in the ears of the saints. The origin of this belief was probably the behavior of the buck in rut, the very epitome of lust. The common medieval depiction of the Devil was that of a goat-like face with horns and small beard (a goatee). The Black Mass, a probably mythological "Satanic mass", involved Satan manifesting as a black goat for worship. The goat has had a lingering connection with Satanism
Satanism
and pagan religions, even into modern times. The inverted pentagram, a symbol used in Satanism, is said to be shaped like a goat's head. The " Baphomet
Baphomet
of Mendes" refers to a satanic goat-like figure from 19th-century occultism. The common Russian surname Kozlov (Russian: Козло́в), means "goat". Goatee
Goatee
refers to a style of facial hair incorporating hair on a man’s chin, so named because of some similarity to a goat's facial feature. Feral goats Main article: Feral goat

Feral goat
Feral goat
in Aruba

Goats readily revert to the wild (become feral) if given the opportunity. The only domestic animal known to return to feral life as swiftly is the cat.[5] Feral goats have established themselves in many areas: they occur in Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, the Galapagos
Galapagos
and in many other places. When feral goats reach large populations in habitats which provide unlimited water supply and which do not contain sufficient large predators or which are otherwise vulnerable to goats' aggressive grazing habits, they may have serious effects, such as removing native scrub, trees and other vegetation which is required by a wide range of other creatures, not just other grazing or browsing animals. Feral goats are common in Australia.[67] However, in other circumstances where predator pressure is maintained, they may be accommodated into some balance in the local food web. References

^ a b Hirst, K. Kris. "The History of the Domestication of Goats". About.com. Accessed August 18, 2008. ^ Coffey, Linda, Margo Hale, and Ann Wells; "Goats: Sustainable Production Overview. ^ FAOSTAT, United Nations
United Nations
Food and Agricultural Organization  ^ Calvert Watkins et al., The American Heritage Dictionary (1975, edited by William Morris). ^ a b c d "Breeds of Livestock; Goats: (Capra hircus)". Oklahoma State University Board of Regents.  ^ a b Naderi, Saeid; Rezaei, Hamid-Reza; Pompanon, François; Blum, Michael G. B.; Negrini, Riccardo; Naghash, Hamid-Reza; Balkiz, Özge; Mashkour, Marjan; Gaggiotti, Oscar E.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Kence, Aykut; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Taberlet, Pierre (November 18, 2008). "The goat domestication process inferred from large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of wild and domestic individuals". PNAS. 105 (46): 17659–17664. doi:10.1073/pnas.0804782105. PMC 2584717 . PMID 19004765.  ^ Maisels, C.K. The Near East: Archaeology in the Cradle of Civilization Routledge, 1999; p.124 ^ Taylor, R.E. and Field, T.G., "Growth and Development" Scientific Farm Animal
Animal
Production: An Introduction to Animal
Animal
Science, 6th Ed. Prentice-Hall (1999) Upper Saddle River pg 321-324. ^ Belanger, J & Bredesen, S. T, "Basic Information about Goats" Storey's Guide to Raising Dairy
Dairy
Goats, 2nd ed. Storey Publishing (2010) North Adams, pg 14 ^ a b American Goat
Goat
Society:Polled Genetics, americangoatsociety.com. ^ Smith, Mary C; Sherman, David M. (1994). Goat
Goat
Medicine. ISBN 978-0-8121-1478-2.  ^ Taylor, R.E., Scientific Farm Animal
Animal
Production: An Introduction to Animal
Animal
Science, 6th ed, Upper Saddle River (Prentice Hall) 1998 ^ Kocourek, Christine (June 1, 2011). "Common Myths/Facts about Boer Goats". Floppy Ear Farm. Retrieved November 12, 2014.  ^ Bowman, Gail. "What is a Genetic Flaw in a Boer Goat?". Boer Goats Home. Retrieved November 12, 2014.  ^ "Choosing Your Boer Goat- How Do I Know What to Look For?". Rooster Ridge Boer Goats. Archived from the original on November 12, 2014. Retrieved November 12, 2014.  ^ Frequently Asked Questions – Triple I Goats, tripleigoats.com ^ Payne, William J.A., An Introduction to Animal
Animal
Husbandry
Husbandry
in the Tropics, 5th ed, Oxford (Blackwell Science) 1999 ^ Smith, M.C. Goat
Goat
Medicine, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1994 ^ Feichtenberger, Klaus, Jill Clarke, Elyse Eisenberg, and Otmar Penker (Writers and Directors) (2008). Prince of the Alps (Television Production). ORF/Nature. Event occurs at Shortly after birth. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 'The mother eats the placenta to prevent predators from getting the scent.'  ^ Roe III, Leonard Lee (2004). The Deer
Deer
of North America. Globe Pequot. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-59228-465-8. Almost all wild animals and most domestic ones eat the afterbirth as soon as they can. The primary reason, I think, is to get rid of it so that it will not attract predators. . .Canine scavengers throughout the world are attracted to herd animals when they give birth, for the placental sacs provide an easily scavenged feast.  ^ " Dairy
Dairy
Goat
Goat
Journal. - raising goats – goat business". dairygoatjournal.com.  ^ Kumar, Dr. Davendra; S. Saha; O.H. Chaturvedi; Sushil Kumar; J.S. Mann; J.P. Mittal; V.K. Singh. " Lactation
Lactation
in Males". ISSGPU – Indian Society for Sheep
Sheep
and Goat
Goat
Production and Utilization Newsletter. Avikanagar, Rajasthan: Central Sheep
Sheep
& Wool Research Institute (2). Retrieved 2009-12-31.  ^ "Learning About Goats" (PDF). Texas Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-12-22.  ^ "War on Weeds," Rails to Trails Magazine, Spring 2004, p. 3 ^ Wild China A BBC2 programme transmitted on October 31, 2016 ^ Pugh, D.G. and Rankins, D. L. Jr, "Feeding and Nutrition" Sheep
Sheep
and Goat
Goat
Medicine, 2nd Ed. Elsevier (2012) Maryland Heights, pg 40-42. ^ Taylor, R.E. and Field, T.G., "Growth and Development" Scientific Farm Animal
Animal
Production: An Introduction to Animal
Animal
Science, 6th Ed. Prentice-Hall (1999) Upper Saddle River pg 324-325. ^ Fowler, M.E. Restraint and Handling of Wild and Domestic Animals, 3rd Ed, Witley-Blackwell, 2008 pg 144 ^ Deamer, Kacey (July 15, 2016), Man's New Best Friend Is a Goat?, Live Science  ^ Nawroth, Christian; Brett, Jemma; McElligott, Alan (5 July 2016), Goats display audience-dependent human-directed gazing behaviour in a problem-solving task, doi:10.1098/rsbl.2016.0283, retrieved 28 August 2016  ^ Douglas, Catherine (July 8, 2016), Goats, sheep and cows could challenge dogs for title of ‘man’s best friend’, The Conversation, retrieved 29 August 2016  ^ Smith, M.C. Goat
Goat
Medicine, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1994 pg 7 ^ William S. Spector, ed. (1956). Handbook of Biological Data. Saunders.  ^ a b "Teeth, Life Expectancy & How to estimate a goat's age". fiascofarm.com. 16 March 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.  ^ Mahmoud Abdel Aziz, M. A., "Present status of the world goat populations and their productivity", Lohmann Information, Vol. 45 (2), Oct. 2010, Page 43, http://www.lohmann-information.com/content/l_i_45_artikel17.pdf ^ anonymous; Goat-Horn Spoon. ^ FAOSTAT 2008 http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx ^ Thiruvenkadan, A.K, Characterisation of Salem Black goats in their home tract, Animal
Animal
Genetic Resources Information, No. 38, 2006 ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/a0540t/a0540t06.pdf ^ Gizaw, S.; Tegegne, A.; Gebremedhin, B.; Hoekstra, D. 2010. Sheep and goat production and marketing systems in Ethiopia: characteristics and strategies for improvement. IPMS (Improving Productivity and Market Success) of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 23. 58p. Nairobi (Kenya): ILRI. http://hdl.handle.net/10568/2238 ^ Sumberg, J.E., "Small ruminant feed production in a farming systems context" Proceedings of the Workshop on Small Ruminant
Ruminant
Production Systems in the Humid Zone of West Africa, 1984; Sumber, J. E., ed, 1984 ^ Milk
Milk
Goats. Life. Jun 18, 1945. Retrieved 2010-07-06.  ^ Cramer, D.A. (1983) Chemical compounds implicated in lamb flavor. Food Technonogy. flavor.. 37:249-257 and Wong, E., Nixon, L.N. and Johnson, B.C. (1975) The contribution of 4-methyloctanoic (hircinoic) acid to mutton and goat meat flavor. New Zealand
New Zealand
j. Agr. Res. 18:261-266. Both cited in K. Intarapichet K., Sihaboot W. and Chungsiriwat P. (date?) Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Emulsion Goat
Goat
Meat Sausages Containing Pork Fat or Shortening available as a PDF from- [1] ^ FAO. 1997. 1996 Production Yearbook. Food Agr. Organ., UN. Rome, Italy. ^ Amrein-Boyes, D. (2009). 200 Easy Homemade Cheese
Cheese
Recipes. Robert Rose Inc.: Toronto ^ American Dairy
Dairy
Goat
Goat
Association, adga.org ^ Chèvre cheese, foodnetwork.com ^ "Fresh Goat's Milk
Milk
for Infants: Myths and Realities—A Review". American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved 14 July 2010.  ^ "Infant Formula Feeding" (PDF). USDA. Retrieved 17 June 2010.  ^ Edwardes, Charlotte (2005-06-19). "Fresh Goat's Milk
Milk
for Infants: Myths and Realities—A Review". London: Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 July 2010.  ^ a b Professor Martin Marshall – Deputy Chief Medical Officer – Department of Health (22 August 2006). "Withdrawal From Sale of Infants Milks Based on Goats' Milk
Milk
on 17 September 2006". non-urgent memo. Department of Health. Archived from the original on 29 August 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-12.  ^ [2] Archived August 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Small farm today". 22-24. Missouri Farm Pub. 2005. ISBN 978-1-58017-161-8.  ^ Devendra, C., and M. Burns. 1970. Goat
Goat
production in the tropics. Commonwealth Bur. Anim. Breeding and Genetics, Tech. Commun. No. 19. ^ a b The World's Healthiest Foods. "Milk, goat", whfoods.org ^ Park, W.Y., G.F.W. Haenlein.ed. 2006. Handbook of Milk
Milk
of Non-Bovine Mammals. Blackwell Publishing. ^ " Milk
Milk
analysis". North Wales Buffalo. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 3 August 2009.  (Citing McCane, Widdowson, Scherz, Kloos, International Laboratory Services.) ^ a b c "Rent-a-goats gain foothold". seattlepi.com.  ^ "NCSU: Animal
Animal
Science – Meat Goats in Land and Forage Management". ncsu.edu.  ^ "Options for Clearing Land: Pasture Establishment for Horses – Publications and Educational Resources - Virginia Tech". vt.edu. 1 May 2009.  ^ The goats fighting America's plant invasion (January 2015), BBC ^ Kelly, Jon (2013-03-07). "Who, What, Why: Does shooting goats save soldiers' lives?". BBC News Magazine  ^ Londoño, Ernesto (February 24, 2013). "Military is required to justify using animals in medic training after pressure from activists". The Washington Post  ^ "The Eighteenth Century BC Princes of Byblos and Ebla
Ebla
and the Chronology of the Middle Bronze Age", p. 161 (161) ^ Matthiae 2010, p. 217. ^ a b c Cooper, J.C. (1979). An illustrated encyclopaedia of traditional symbols. New York, N.Y.: Thames and Hudson. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-500-27125-4.  ^ Chusid, Michael T. Hearing Shofar: The Still Small Voice of the Ram's Horn, 2009. ^ It is believed that there are over 50,000 feral goats in the Australian Outback. "The feral goat (Capra hircus) – Invasive species fact sheet"., environment.gov.au

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Goats

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Goats.

Goat
Goat
breeds from the Department of Animal
Animal
Science, Oklahoma State University The American Dairy
Dairy
Goat
Goat
Association British Goat
Goat
Society International Goat
Goat
Association North American Packgoats Association

v t e

Extant Artiodactyla species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Ruminantia

Antilocapridae

Antilocapra

Pronghorn
Pronghorn
(A. americana)

Giraffidae

Okapia

Okapi
Okapi
(O. johnstoni)

Giraffa

Northern giraffe
Northern giraffe
(G. camelopardalis) Southern giraffe
Southern giraffe
(G. giraffa) Reticulated giraffe
Reticulated giraffe
(G. reticulata) Masai giraffe
Masai giraffe
(G. tippelskirchi)

Moschidae

Moschus

Anhui musk deer
Anhui musk deer
(M. anhuiensis) Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer
(M. berezovskii) Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer
(M. chrysogaster) Kashmir
Kashmir
musk deer (M. cupreus) Black musk deer
Black musk deer
(M. fuscus) Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster) Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer
(M. moschiferus)

Tragulidae

Hyemoschus

Water chevrotain
Water chevrotain
(H. aquaticus)

Moschiola

Indian spotted chevrotain
Indian spotted chevrotain
(M. indica) Yellow-striped chevrotain
Yellow-striped chevrotain
(M. kathygre) Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
(M. meminna)

Tragulus

Java mouse-deer
Java mouse-deer
(T. javanicus) Lesser mouse-deer
Lesser mouse-deer
(T. kanchil) Greater mouse-deer
Greater mouse-deer
(T. napu) Philippine mouse-deer
Philippine mouse-deer
(T. nigricans) Vietnam mouse-deer
Vietnam mouse-deer
(T. versicolor) Williamson's mouse-deer
Williamson's mouse-deer
(T. williamsoni)

Cervidae

Large family listed below

Bovidae

Large family listed below

Family Cervidae

Cervinae

Muntiacus

Indian muntjac
Indian muntjac
(M. muntjak) Reeves's muntjac
Reeves's muntjac
(M. reevesi) Hairy-fronted muntjac
Hairy-fronted muntjac
(M. crinifrons) Fea's muntjac
Fea's muntjac
(M. feae) Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac
(M. atherodes) Roosevelt's muntjac
Roosevelt's muntjac
(M. rooseveltorum) Gongshan muntjac
Gongshan muntjac
(M. gongshanensis) Giant muntjac
Giant muntjac
(M. vuquangensis) Truong Son muntjac
Truong Son muntjac
(M. truongsonensis) Leaf muntjac
Leaf muntjac
(M. putaoensis) Sumatran muntjac
Sumatran muntjac
(M. montanus) Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac
(M. puhoatensis)

Elaphodus

Tufted deer
Tufted deer
(E. cephalophus)

Dama

Fallow deer
Fallow deer
(D. dama) Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer
(D. mesopotamica)

Axis

Chital
Chital
(A. axis)

Rucervus

Barasingha
Barasingha
(R. duvaucelii)

Panolia

Eld's deer
Eld's deer
(P. eldii)

Elaphurus

Père David's deer
Père David's deer
(E. davidianus)

Hyelaphus

Hog deer (H. porcinus) Calamian deer
Calamian deer
(H. calamianensis) Bawean deer
Bawean deer
(H. kuhlii)

Rusa

Sambar deer
Sambar deer
(R. unicolor) Rusa deer (R. timorensis) Philippine sambar (R. mariannus) Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)

Cervus

Red deer
Red deer
(C. elaphus) Elk
Elk
(C. canadensis) Thorold's deer
Thorold's deer
(C. albirostris) Sika deer
Sika deer
(C. nippon)

Capreolinae

Alces

Moose
Moose
(A. alces)

Hydropotes

Water deer
Water deer
(H. inermis)

Capreolus

Roe deer
Roe deer
(C. capreolus) Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer
(C. pygargus)

Rangifer

Reindeer
Reindeer
(R. tarandus)

Hippocamelus

Taruca
Taruca
(H. antisensis) South Andean deer
South Andean deer
(H. bisulcus)

Mazama

Red brocket
Red brocket
(M. americana) Small red brocket
Small red brocket
(M. bororo) Merida brocket
Merida brocket
(M. bricenii) Dwarf brocket
Dwarf brocket
(M. chunyi) Gray brocket
Gray brocket
(M. gouazoubira) Pygmy brocket
Pygmy brocket
(M. nana) Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket
(M. nemorivaga) Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket
(M. pandora) Little red brocket
Little red brocket
(M. rufina) Central American red brocket
Central American red brocket
(M. temama)

Ozotoceros

Pampas deer
Pampas deer
(O. bezoarticus)

Blastocerus

Marsh deer
Marsh deer
(B. dichotomus)

Pudu

Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles) Southern pudú (P. pudu)

Odocoileus

White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
(O. virginianus) Mule deer
Mule deer
(O. hemionus)

Family Bovidae

Cephalophinae

Cephalophus

Abbott's duiker
Abbott's duiker
(C. spadix) Aders's duiker
Aders's duiker
(C. adersi) Bay duiker
Bay duiker
(C. dorsalis) Black duiker
Black duiker
(C. niger) Black-fronted duiker
Black-fronted duiker
(C. nigrifrons) Brooke's duiker (C. brookei) Harvey's duiker
Harvey's duiker
(C. harveyi) Jentink's duiker
Jentink's duiker
(C. jentinki) Ogilby's duiker
Ogilby's duiker
(C. ogilbyi) Peters's duiker (C. callipygus) Red-flanked duiker
Red-flanked duiker
(C. rufilatus) Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker
(C. natalensis) Ruwenzori duiker
Ruwenzori duiker
(C. rubidis) Weyns's duiker
Weyns's duiker
(C. weynsi) White-bellied duiker
White-bellied duiker
(C. leucogaster) White-legged duiker
White-legged duiker
(C. crusalbum) Yellow-backed duiker
Yellow-backed duiker
(C. Sylvicultor) Zebra duiker
Zebra duiker
(C. zebra)

Philantomba

Blue duiker
Blue duiker
(P. monticola) Maxwell's duiker
Maxwell's duiker
(P. maxwellii) Walter's duiker
Walter's duiker
(P. walteri)

Sylvicapra

Common duiker
Common duiker
(S. grimmia)

Hippotraginae

Hippotragus

Roan antelope
Roan antelope
(H. equinus) Sable antelope
Sable antelope
(H. niger)

Oryx

East African oryx
East African oryx
(O. beisa) Scimitar oryx
Scimitar oryx
(O. dammah) Gemsbok
Gemsbok
(O. gazella) Arabian oryx
Arabian oryx
(O. leucoryx)

Addax

Addax
Addax
(A. nasomaculatus)

Reduncinae

Kobus

Upemba lechwe
Upemba lechwe
(K. anselli) Waterbuck
Waterbuck
(K. ellipsiprymnus) Kob
Kob
(K. kob) Lechwe
Lechwe
(K. leche) Nile lechwe
Nile lechwe
(K. megaceros) Puku
Puku
(K. vardonii)

Redunca

Southern reedbuck
Southern reedbuck
(R. arundinum) Mountain reedbuck
Mountain reedbuck
(R. fulvorufula) Bohor reedbuck
Bohor reedbuck
(R. redunca)

Aepycerotinae

Aepyceros

Impala
Impala
(A. melampus)

Peleinae

Pelea

Grey rhebok
Grey rhebok
(P. capreolus)

Alcelaphinae

Beatragus

Hirola
Hirola
(B. hunteri)

Damaliscus

Topi
Topi
(D. korrigum) Common tsessebe
Common tsessebe
(D. lunatus) Bontebok
Bontebok
(D. pygargus) Bangweulu tsessebe
Bangweulu tsessebe
(D. superstes)

Alcelaphus

Hartebeest
Hartebeest
(A. buselaphus) Red hartebeest
Red hartebeest
(A. caama) Lichtenstein's hartebeest
Lichtenstein's hartebeest
(A. lichtensteinii)

Connochaetes

Black wildebeest
Black wildebeest
(C. gnou) Blue wildebeest
Blue wildebeest
(C. taurinus)

Pantholopinae

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Caprinae

Large subfamily listed below

Bovinae

Large subfamily listed below

Antilopinae

Large subfamily listed below

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Caprinae)

Ammotragus

Barbary sheep
Barbary sheep
(A. lervia)

Budorcas

Takin
Takin
(B. taxicolor)

Capra

Wild goat
Wild goat
(C. aegagrus) Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) West Caucasian tur
West Caucasian tur
(C. caucasia) East Caucasian tur
East Caucasian tur
(C. cylindricornis) Markhor
Markhor
(C. falconeri) Alpine ibex
Alpine ibex
(C. ibex) Nubian ibex
Nubian ibex
(C. nubiana) Spanish ibex
Spanish ibex
(C. pyrenaica) Siberian ibex
Siberian ibex
(C. sibirica) Walia ibex
Walia ibex
(C. walie)

Capricornis

Japanese serow
Japanese serow
(C. crispus) Taiwan serow
Taiwan serow
(C. swinhoei) Sumatran serow
Sumatran serow
(C. sumatraensis) Mainland serow
Mainland serow
(C. milneedwardsii) Red serow
Red serow
(C. rubidusi) Himalayan serow
Himalayan serow
(C. thar)

Hemitragus

Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
(H. hylocrius) Arabian tahr
Arabian tahr
(H. jayakari) Himalayan tahr
Himalayan tahr
(H. jemlahicus)

Naemorhedus

Red goral
Red goral
(N. baileyi) Long-tailed goral
Long-tailed goral
(N. caudatus) Himalayan goral
Himalayan goral
(N. goral) Chinese goral
Chinese goral
(N. griseus)

Oreamnos

Mountain goat
Mountain goat
(O. americanus)

Ovibos

Muskox
Muskox
(O. moschatus)

Ovis

Argali
Argali
(O. ammon) Domestic sheep (O. aries) Bighorn sheep
Bighorn sheep
(O. canadensis) Dall sheep
Dall sheep
(O. dalli) Mouflon
Mouflon
(O. musimon) Snow sheep
Snow sheep
(O. nivicola) Urial
Urial
(O. orientalis)

Pseudois

Bharal
Bharal
(P. nayaur) Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep
(P. schaeferi)

Rupicapra

Pyrenean chamois
Pyrenean chamois
(R. pyrenaica) Chamois
Chamois
(R. rupicapra)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Bovinae)

Boselaphini

Tetracerus

Four-horned antelope
Four-horned antelope
(T. quadricornis)

Boselaphus

Nilgai
Nilgai
(B. tragocamelus)

Bovini

Bubalus

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
(B. bubalis) Wild Water Buffalo
Water Buffalo
(B. arnee) Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) Tamaraw
Tamaraw
(B. mindorensis)

Bos

Banteng
Banteng
(B. javanicus) Gaur
Gaur
(B. gaurus) Gayal
Gayal
(B. frontalis) Domestic yak
Domestic yak
(B. grunniens) Wild yak
Wild yak
(B. mutus) Cattle
Cattle
(B. taurus) Kouprey
Kouprey
(B. sauveli)

Pseudonovibos

Kting voar (P. spiralis)

Pseudoryx

Saola
Saola
(P. nghetinhensis)

Syncerus

African buffalo
African buffalo
(S. caffer)

Bison

American bison
American bison
(B. bison) European bison
European bison
(B. bonasus)

Tragelaphini

Tragelaphus (including kudus)

Sitatunga
Sitatunga
(T. spekeii) Nyala
Nyala
(T. angasii) Kéwel
Kéwel
(T. scriptus) Cape bushbuck
Cape bushbuck
(T. sylvaticus) Mountain nyala
Mountain nyala
(T. buxtoni) Lesser kudu
Lesser kudu
(T. imberbis) Greater kudu
Greater kudu
(T. strepsiceros) Bongo (T. eurycerus)

Taurotragus

Common eland
Common eland
(T. oryx) Giant eland
Giant eland
(T. derbianus)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Antilopinae)

Antilopini

Ammodorcas

Dibatag
Dibatag
(A. clarkei)

Antidorcas

Springbok
Springbok
(A. marsupialis)

Antilope

Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(A. cervicapra)

Eudorcas

Mongalla gazelle
Mongalla gazelle
(E. albonotata) Red-fronted gazelle
Red-fronted gazelle
(E. rufifrons) Thomson's gazelle
Thomson's gazelle
(E. thomsonii) Heuglin's gazelle
Heuglin's gazelle
(E. tilonura)

Gazella

Mountain gazelle
Mountain gazelle
(G. gazella) Neumann's gazelle (G. erlangeri) Speke's gazelle
Speke's gazelle
(G. spekei) Dorcas gazelle
Dorcas gazelle
(G. dorcas) Chinkara
Chinkara
(G. bennettii) Cuvier's gazelle
Cuvier's gazelle
(G. cuvieri) Rhim gazelle
Rhim gazelle
(G. leptoceros) Goitered gazelle
Goitered gazelle
(G. subgutturosa)

Litocranius

Gerenuk
Gerenuk
(L. walleri)

Nanger

Dama gazelle
Dama gazelle
(N. dama) Grant's gazelle
Grant's gazelle
(N. granti) Soemmerring's gazelle
Soemmerring's gazelle
(N. soemmerringii)

Procapra

Mongolian gazelle
Mongolian gazelle
(P. gutturosa) Goa (P. picticaudata) Przewalski's gazelle
Przewalski's gazelle
(P. przewalskii)

Saigini

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Saiga

Saiga antelope
Saiga antelope
(S. tatarica)

Neotragini

Dorcatragus

Beira (D. megalotis)

Madoqua

Günther's dik-dik
Günther's dik-dik
(M. guentheri) Kirk's dik-dik
Kirk's dik-dik
(M. kirkii) Silver dik-dik
Silver dik-dik
(M. piacentinii) Salt's dik-dik
Salt's dik-dik
(M. saltiana)

Neotragus

Bates's pygmy antelope
Bates's pygmy antelope
(N. batesi) Suni
Suni
(N. moschatus) Royal antelope
Royal antelope
(N. pygmaeus)

Oreotragus

Klipspringer
Klipspringer
(O. oreotragus)

Ourebia

Oribi
Oribi
(O. ourebi)

Raphicerus

Steenbok
Steenbok
(R. campestris) Cape grysbok
Cape grysbok
(R. melanotis) Sharpe's grysbok
Sharpe's grysbok
(R. sharpei)

Suborder Suina

Suidae

Babyrousa

Buru babirusa
Buru babirusa
(B. babyrussa) North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa
(B. celebensis) Togian babirusa
Togian babirusa
(B. togeanensis)

Hylochoerus

Giant forest hog
Giant forest hog
(H. meinertzhageni)

Phacochoerus

Desert warthog
Desert warthog
(P. aethiopicus) Common warthog
Common warthog
(P. africanus)

Porcula

Pygmy hog
Pygmy hog
(P. salvania)

Potamochoerus

Bushpig
Bushpig
(P. larvatus) Red river hog
Red river hog
(P. porcus)

Sus (Pigs)

Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig
(S. ahoenobarbus) Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig
(S. barbatus) Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus) Visayan warty pig
Visayan warty pig
(S. cebifrons) Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig
(S. celebensis) Flores warty pig (S. heureni) Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig
(S. oliveri) Philippine warty pig
Philippine warty pig
(S. philippensis) Wild boar
Wild boar
(S. scrofa) Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis) Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig
(S. verrucosus)

Tayassuidae

Tayassu

White-lipped peccary
White-lipped peccary
(T. pecari)

Catagonus

Chacoan peccary
Chacoan peccary
(C. wagneri)

Pecari

Collared peccary
Collared peccary
(P. tajacu) Giant peccary (P. maximus)

Suborder Tylopoda

Camelidae

Lama

Llama
Llama
(L. glama) Guanaco
Guanaco
(L. guanicoe)

Vicugna

Vicuña
Vicuña
(V. vicugna) Alpaca
Alpaca
(V. pacos)

Camelus

Dromedary
Dromedary
(C. dromedarius) Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. ferus)

Whippomorpha
Whippomorpha
(unranked clade)

Hippopotamidae

Hippopotamus

Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus
(H. amphibius)

Choeropsis

Pygmy hippopotamu

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