The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat
domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The goat is a member of the family
Bovidae and is closely related to
the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There
are over 300 distinct breeds of goat. Goats are one of the oldest
domesticated species, and have been used for their milk, meat, hair,
and skins over much of the world. In 2011, there were more than 924
million live goats around the globe, according to the UN Food and
Female goats are referred to as "does" or "nannies", intact males are
called "bucks" or "billies" and juveniles of both sexes are called
"kids". Castrated males are called "wethers". While both the words
"hirsine" and "caprine" refer to anything having a goat-like quality,
the former is used most often to emphasize the distinct smell
attributed to domestic goats.
3 Anatomy and health
3.2 Digestion and lactation
4.4 Life expectancy
5.1 Worldwide goat population statistics
5.4 Milk, butter and cheese
5.6 Land clearing
5.7 Use for medical training
6 As pets
9 Religion, mythology and folklore
10 Feral goats
12 External links
Goat-herding is an ancient tradition that is still important in places
Modern English word goat comes from
Old English gāt "she-goat,
goat in general", which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz
(cf. Dutch/Icelandic geit, German Geiß, and Gothic gaits), ultimately
from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰaidos meaning "young goat" (cf. Latin
haedus "kid"), itself perhaps from a root meaning "jump" (assuming
Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic zajęcǐ "hare",
Sanskrit jihīte "he moves"
are related). To refer to the male,
Old English used
bucca (giving modern buck) until ousted by hegote, hegoote in the late
12th century. Nanny goat (females) originated in the 18th century and
billy goat (for males) in the 19th.
Horn cores from the
Neolithic village of Atlit Yam
Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans. The
most recent genetic analysis confirms the archaeological evidence
that the wild
Bezoar ibex of the
Zagros Mountains is the likely
original ancestor of probably all domestic goats today.
Neolithic farmers began to herd wild goats primarily for easy access
to milk and meat, as well as to their dung, which was used as fuel,
and their bones, hair and sinew for clothing, building and tools.
The earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 years before
present are found in
Ganj Dareh in Iran.
Goat remains have been found
at archaeological sites in Jericho, Choga Mami, Djeitun, and
Çayönü, dating the domestication of goats in
Western Asia at
between 8000 and 9000 years ago.
Studies of DNA evidence suggests 10,000 years BP as the domestication
Historically, goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in
both traveling and transporting wine for sale. It has also been used
to produce parchment.
Anatomy and health
Skeleton (Capra hircus)
A white Irish goat with horns
Goat heart. Specimen clarified for visualization of anatomical
Eye with horizontal pupil
Each recognized breed of goat has specific weight ranges, which vary
from over 140 kg (300 lb) for bucks of larger breeds such as
the Boer, to 20 to 27 kg (45 to 60 lb) for smaller goat
does. Within each breed, different strains or bloodlines may have
different recognized sizes. At the bottom of the size range are
miniature breeds such as the African Pygmy, which stand 41 to
58 cm (16 to 23 in) at the shoulder as adults.
Most goats naturally have two horns, of various shapes and sizes
depending on the breed. There have been incidents of polycerate
goats (having as many as eight horns), although this is a genetic
rarity thought to be inherited. Unlike cattle, goats have not been
successfully bred to be reliably polled, as the genes determining sex
and those determining horns are closely linked. Breeding together two
genetically polled goats results in a high number of intersex
individuals among the offspring, which are typically sterile.
Their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other
proteins, and are used for defense, dominance, and territoriality.
Digestion and lactation
Goats are ruminants. They have a four-chambered stomach consisting of
the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, and the abomasum. As with other
mammal ruminants, they are even-toed ungulates. The females have an
udder consisting of two teats, in contrast to cattle, which have four
teats. An exception to this is the Boer goat, which sometimes may
have up to eight teats.
Goats have horizontal, slit-shaped pupils. Because goats' irises are
usually pale, their contrasting pupils are much more noticeable than
in animals such as cattle, deer, most horses and many sheep, whose
similarly horizontal pupils blend into a dark iris and sclera.
Both male and female goats have beards, and many types of goat (most
commonly dairy goats, dairy-cross Boers, and pygmy goats) may have
wattles, one dangling from each side of the neck.
A two-month-old goat kid in a field of capeweed
Goats reach puberty between three and 15 months of age, depending on
breed and nutritional status. Many breeders prefer to postpone
breeding until the doe has reached 70% of the adult weight. However,
this separation is rarely possible in extensively managed, open-range
In temperate climates and among the Swiss breeds, the breeding season
commences as the day length shortens, and ends in early spring or
before. In equatorial regions, goats are able to breed at any time of
the year. Successful breeding in these regions depends more on
available forage than on day length. Does of any breed or region come
into estrus (heat) every 21 days for two to 48 hours. A doe in heat
typically flags (vigorously wags) her tail often, stays near the buck
if one is present, becomes more vocal, and may also show a decrease in
appetite and milk production for the duration of the heat.
A female goat and two kids
Bucks (intact males) of Swiss and northern breeds come into rut in the
fall as with the does' heat cycles. Bucks of equatorial breeds may
show seasonal reduced fertility, but as with the does, are capable of
breeding at all times. Rut is characterized by a decrease in appetite
and obsessive interest in the does. A buck in rut will display flehmen
lip curling and will urinate on his forelegs and face. Sebaceous scent
glands at the base of the horns add to the male goat's odor, which is
important to make him attractive to the female. Some does will not
mate with a buck which has been descented.
In addition to natural, traditional mating, artificial insemination
has gained popularity among goat breeders, as it allows easy access to
a wide variety of bloodlines.
Gestation length is approximately 150 days.
Twins are the usual
result, with single and triplet births also common. Less frequent are
litters of quadruplet, quintuplet, and even sextuplet kids. Birthing,
known as kidding, generally occurs uneventfully. Just before kidding,
the doe will have a sunken area around the tail and hip, as well as
heavy breathing. She may have a worried look, become restless and
display great affection for her keeper. The mother often eats the
placenta, which gives her much-needed nutrients, helps stanch her
bleeding, and parallels the behavior of wild herbivores, such as deer,
to reduce the lure of the birth scent for predators.
Freshening (coming into milk production) occurs at kidding. Milk
production varies with the breed, age, quality, and diet of the doe;
dairy goats generally produce between 680 and 1,810 kg (1,500 and
4,000 lb) of milk per 305-day lactation. On average, a good
quality dairy doe will give at least 3 kg (6 lb) of milk per
day while she is in milk. A first-time milker may produce less, or as
much as 7 kg (16 lb), or more of milk in exceptional cases.
After the lactation, the doe will "dry off", typically after she has
been bred. Occasionally, goats that have not been bred and are
continuously milked will continue lactation beyond the typical 305
days. Meat, fiber, and pet breeds are not usually milked and
simply produce enough for the kids until weaning.
Male lactation is also known to occur in goats.
Goats are reputed to be willing to eat almost anything, including tin
cans and cardboard boxes. While goats will not actually eat inedible
material, they are browsing animals, not grazers like cattle and
sheep, and (coupled with their highly curious nature) will chew on and
taste just about anything remotely resembling plant matter to decide
whether it is good to eat, including cardboard, clothing and paper
(such as labels from tin cans). The unusual smells of leftover
food in discarded cans or boxes may further stimulate their
A domestic goat feeding in a field of capeweed, a weed which is toxic
to most stock animals
Aside from sampling many things, goats are quite particular in what
they actually consume, preferring to browse on the tips of woody
shrubs and trees, as well as the occasional broad-leaved plant.
However, it can fairly be said that their plant diet is extremely
varied, and includes some species which are otherwise toxic. They
will seldom consume soiled food or contaminated water unless facing
starvation. This is one reason goat-rearing is most often free
ranging, since stall-fed goat-rearing involves extensive upkeep and is
seldom commercially viable.
Goats prefer to browse on vines, such as kudzu, on shrubbery and on
weeds, more like deer than sheep, preferring them to grasses.
Nightshade is poisonous; wilted fruit tree leaves can also kill goats.
Silage (fermented corn stalks) and haylage (fermented grass hay) can
be used if consumed immediately after opening – goats are
particularly sensitive to
Listeria bacteria that can grow in fermented
feeds. Alfalfa, a high-protein plant, is widely fed as hay; fescue is
the least palatable and least nutritious hay.
Mold in a goat's feed
can make it sick and possibly kill it.
In various places in China, goats are used in the production of tea.
Goats are released onto the tea terraces where they avoid consuming
the green tea leaves (which contain bitter tasting substances) but
instead eat the weeds. The goats' droppings fertilise the tea
The digestive physiology of a very young kid (like the young of other
ruminants) is essentially the same as that of a monogastric animal.
Milk digestion begins in the abomasum, the milk having bypassed the
rumen via closure of the reticuloesophageal groove during suckling. At
birth, the rumen is undeveloped, but as the kid begins to consume
solid feed, the rumen soon increases in size and in its capacity to
The adult size of a particular goat is a product of its breed (genetic
potential) and its diet while growing (nutritional potential). As with
all livestock, increased protein diets (10 to 14%) and sufficient
calories during the prepuberty period yield higher growth rates and
larger eventual size than lower protein rates and limited
calories. Large-framed goats, with a greater skeletal size, reach
mature weight at a later age (36 to 42 months) than small-framed goats
(18 to 24 months) if both are fed to their full potential.
Large-framed goats need more calories than small-framed goats for
maintenance of daily functions.
Goats establish a dominance hierarchy in flocks, sometimes through
An example of the goats' social behavior within a flock.
Glycerinated goat tongue
Goats are naturally curious. They are also agile and well known for
their ability to climb and balance in precarious places. This makes
them the only ruminant to regularly climb trees. Due to their agility
and inquisitiveness, they are notorious for escaping their pens by
testing fences and enclosures, either intentionally or simply because
they are used to climb on. If any of the fencing can be overcome,
goats will almost inevitably escape. Due to their intelligence, once a
goat has discovered a weakness in the fence, they will exploit it
repeatedly, and other goats will observe and quickly learn the same
Goats explore anything new or unfamiliar in their surroundings,
primarily with their prehensile upper lip and tongue, by nibbling at
them, occasionally even eating them.
When handled as a group, goats tend to display less herding behavior
than sheep. When grazing undisturbed, they tend to spread across the
field or range, rather than feed side-by-side as do sheep. When
nursing young, goats will leave their kids separated ("lying out")
rather than clumped, as do sheep. They will generally turn and face an
intruder and bucks are more likely to charge or butt at humans than
A study by Queen Mary University reports that goats try to communicate
with people in the same manner as domesticated animals such as dogs
and horses. Goats were first domesticated as livestock more than
10,000 years ago. Research conducted to test communication skills
found that the goats will look to a human for assistance when faced
with a challenge that had previously been mastered, but was then
modified. Specifically, when presented with a box, the goat was able
to remove the lid and retrieve a treat inside, but when the box was
turned so the lid could not be removed, the goat would turn and gaze
at the person and move toward them, before looking back toward the
box. This is the same type of complex communication observed by
animals bred as domestic pets, such as dogs. Researchers believe that
better understanding of human-goat interaction could offer overall
improvement in the animals' welfare. The field of
anthrozoology has established that domesticated animals have the
capacity for complex communication with humans when in 2015 a Japanese
scientist determined that levels of oxytocin did increase in human
subjects when dogs were exposed to a dose of the "love hormone",
proving that a human-animal bond does exist. This is the same affinity
that was proven with the London study above; goats are intelligent,
capable of complex communication, and able to form bonds. Despite
having the reputation of being slightly rebellious, more and more
people today are choosing more exotic companion animals like goats.
Goats are herd animals and typically prefer the company of other
goats, but because of their herd mentality, they will follow their
owners around just the same.
Goats are well known for being hard to contain with fencing
See also: Goats as pets
Main article: List of infectious sheep and goat diseases
While goats are generally considered hardy animals and in many
situations receive little medical care, they are subject to a number
of diseases. Among the conditions affecting goats are respiratory
diseases including pneumonia, foot rot, internal parasites, pregnancy
toxosis and feed toxicity. Feed toxicity can vary based on breed and
location. Certain foreign fruits and vegetables can be toxic to
different breeds of goats.
Goats can become infected with various viral and bacterial diseases,
such as foot-and-mouth disease, caprine arthritis encephalitis,
caseous lymphadenitis, pinkeye, mastitis, and pseudorabies. They can
transmit a number of zoonotic diseases to people, such as
tuberculosis, brucellosis, Q-fever, and rabies.
Life expectancy for goats is between fifteen and eighteen years.
An instance of a goat reaching the age of 24 has been reported.
Several factors can reduce this average expectancy; problems during
kidding can lower a doe's expected life span to ten or eleven, and
stresses of going into rut can lower a buck's expected life span to
eight to ten years.
Goat husbandry is common through the Norte Chico region in Chile.
Intensive goat husbandry in drylands may produce severe erosion and
desertification. Image from upper Limarí River
A goat is useful to humans when it is living and when it is dead,
first as a renewable provider of milk, manure, and fiber, and then as
meat and hide. Some charities provide goats to impoverished people
in poor countries, because goats are easier and cheaper to manage than
cattle, and have multiple uses. In addition, goats are used for
driving and packing purposes.
The intestine of goats is used to make "catgut", which is still in use
as a material for internal human surgical sutures and strings for
musical instruments. The horn of the goat, which signifies plenty and
wellbeing (the cornucopia), is also used to make spoons.
Boer goat – in this case a buck – is a widely kept meat breed.
Worldwide goat population statistics
According to the
Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the top
producers of goat milk in 2008 were
India (4 million metric tons),
Bangladesh (2.16 million metric tons) and the Sudan (1.47 million
Husbandry, or animal care and use, varies by region and culture. The
particular housing used for goats depends not only on the intended use
of the goat, but also on the region of the world where they are
raised. Historically, domestic goats were generally kept in herds that
wandered on hills or other grazing areas, often tended by goatherds
who were frequently children or adolescents, similar to the more
widely known shepherd. These methods of herding are still used today.
In some parts of the world, especially
Europe and North America,
distinct breeds of goats are kept for dairy (milk) and for meat
production. Excess male kids of dairy breeds are typically slaughtered
for meat. Both does and bucks of meat breeds may be slaughtered for
meat, as well as older animals of any breed. The meat of older bucks
(more than one year old) is generally considered not desirable for
meat for human consumption.
Castration at a young age prevents the
development of typical buck odor.
For smallholder farmers in many countries, such as this woman from
Burkina Faso, goats are important livestock.
Dairy goats are generally pastured in summer and may be stabled during
the winter. As dairy does are milked daily, they are generally kept
close to the milking shed. Their grazing is typically supplemented
with hay and concentrates. Stabled goats may be kept in stalls similar
to horses, or in larger group pens. In the US system, does are
generally rebred annually. In some European commercial dairy systems,
the does are bred only twice, and are milked continuously for several
years after the second kidding.
Meat goats are more frequently pastured year-round, and may be kept
many miles from barns. Angora and other fiber breeds are also kept on
pasture or range. Range-kept and pastured goats may be supplemented
with hay or concentrates, most frequently during the winter or dry
In India, Nepal, and much of Asia, goats are kept largely for milk
production, both in commercial and household settings. The goats in
this area may be kept closely housed or may be allowed to range for
fodder. The Salem Black goat is herded to pasture in fields and along
roads during the day, but is kept penned at night for
In Africa and the Mideast, goats are typically run in flocks with
sheep. This maximizes the production per acre, as goats and sheep
prefer different food plants. Multiple types of goat-raising are found
in Ethiopia, where four main types have been identified: pastured in
annual crop systems, in perennial crop systems, with cattle, and in
arid areas, under pastoral (nomadic) herding systems. In all four
systems, however, goats were typically kept in extensive systems, with
few purchased inputs. Household goats are traditionally kept in
Nigeria. While many goats are allowed to wander the homestead or
village, others are kept penned and fed in what is called a
'cut-and-carry' system. This type of husbandry is also used in parts
Latin America. Cut-and-carry, which refers to the practice of
cutting down grasses, corn or cane for feed rather than allowing the
animal access to the field, is particularly suited for types of feed,
such as corn or cane, that are easily destroyed by trampling.
Pet goats may be found in many parts of the world when a family keeps
one or more animals for emotional reasons rather than as production
animals. It is becoming more common for goats to be kept exclusively
as pets in North America and Europe.
See also: List of goat dishes
The taste of goat kid meat is similar to that of spring lamb meat;
in fact, in the English-speaking islands of the Caribbean, and in some
parts of Asia, particularly Bangladesh,
Pakistan and India, the word
“mutton” is used to describe both goat and lamb meat. However,
some compare the taste of goat meat to veal or venison, depending on
the age and condition of the goat. Its flavor is said to be primarily
linked to the presence of 4-methyloctanoic and 4-methylnonanoic
acid. It can be prepared in a variety of ways, including stewing,
baking, grilling, barbecuing, canning, and frying; it can be minced,
curried, or made into sausage. Due to its low fat content, the meat
can toughen at high temperatures if cooked without additional
moisture. One of the most popular goats grown for meat is the South
African Boer, introduced into the
United States in the early 1990s.
New Zealand Kiko is also considered a meat breed, as is the
myotonic or "fainting goat", a breed originating in Tennessee.
Milk, butter and cheese
See also: List of goat milk cheeses
A goat being machine milked on an organic farm
Goats produce about 2% of the world's total annual milk supply.
Some goats are bred specifically for milk. If the strong-smelling buck
is not separated from the does, his scent will affect the milk.
Goat milk naturally has small, well-emulsified fat globules, which
means the cream remains suspended in the milk, instead of rising to
the top, as in raw cow milk; therefore, it does not need to be
homogenized. Indeed, if the milk is to be used to make cheese,
homogenization is not recommended, as this changes the structure of
the milk, affecting the culture's ability to coagulate the milk and
the final quality and yield of cheese.
Dairy goats in their prime (generally around the third or fourth
lactation cycle) average—2.7 to 3.6 kg (6 to 8 lb)—of
milk production daily—roughly 2.8 to 3.8 l (3 to
4 U.S. qt)—during a ten-month lactation, producing more
just after freshening and gradually dropping in production toward the
end of their lactation. The milk generally averages 3.5%
Goat milk is commonly processed into cheese, butter, ice cream,
yogurt, cajeta and other products.
Goat cheese is known as fromage de
chèvre ("goat cheese") in France. Some varieties include Rocamadour
Goat butter is white because goats produce milk
with the yellow beta-carotene converted to a colorless form of vitamin
Soy-based infant formula
American Academy of Pediatrics
American Academy of Pediatrics discourages feeding infants milk
derived from goats. An April 2010 case report summarizes their
recommendation and presents "a comprehensive review of the
consequences associated with this dangerous practice", also stating,
"Many infants are exclusively fed unmodified goat's milk as a result
of cultural beliefs as well as exposure to false online information.
Anecdotal reports have described a host of morbidities associated with
that practice, including severe electrolyte abnormalities, metabolic
acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, allergic reactions including
life-threatening anaphylactic shock, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and
infections." Untreated caprine brucellosis results in a 2% case
fatality rate. According to the USDA, doe milk is not recommended for
human infants because it contains "inadequate quantities of iron,
folate, vitamins C and D, thiamine, niacin, vitamin B6, and
pantothenic acid to meet an infant’s nutritional needs" and may
cause harm to an infant's kidneys and could cause metabolic
The department of health in the United Kingdom has repeatedly released
statements stating on various occasions that "Goats' milk is not
suitable for babies, and infant formulas and follow-on formulas based
on goats' milk protein have not been approved for use in Europe", and
"infant milks based on goats' milk protein are not suitable as a
source of nutrition for infants."
Also according to the Canadian Federal Health Department – Health
Canada, most of the dangers or counter-indication of feeding
unmodified goat milk to infants, are similar to those occurring in the
same practice with cow's milk, namely in the allergic reactions.
However, some farming groups promote the practice. For example, Small
Farm Today, in 2005, claimed beneficial use in invalid and
convalescent diets, proposing that glycerol ethers, possibly important
in nutrition for nursing infants, are much higher in does' milk than
in cows' milk. A 1970 book on animal breeding claimed that does'
milk differs from cows' or humans' milk by having higher
digestibility, distinct alkalinity, higher buffering capacity, and
certain therapeutic values in human medicine and nutrition. George
Mateljan suggested doe milk can replace ewe milk or cow milk in diets
of those who are allergic to certain mammals' milk. However, like
cow milk, doe milk has lactose (sugar), and may cause gastrointestinal
problems for individuals with lactose intolerance. In fact, the
level of lactose is similar to that of cow milk.
Basic composition of various milks (mean values per 100 g)
Total solids (g)
Milk composition analysis, per 100 grams
Saturated fatty acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
These compositions vary by breed (especially in the Nigerian dwarf
breed), animal, and point in the lactation period.
An Angora goat
The Angora breed of goats produces long, curling, lustrous locks of
mohair. The entire body of the goat is covered with mohair and there
are no guard hairs. The locks constantly grow to four inches or more
in length. Angora crossbreeds, such as the pygora and the nigora, have
been created to produce mohair and/or cashgora on a smaller,
easier-to-manage animal. The wool is shorn twice a year, with an
average yield of about 4.5 kg (10 lb).
Most goats have softer insulating hairs nearer the skin, and longer
guard hairs on the surface. The desirable fiber for the textile
industry is the former, and it goes by several names (down, cashmere
and pashmina). The coarse guard hairs are of little value as they are
too coarse, difficult to spin and difficult to dye. The cashmere goat
produces a commercial quantity of cashmere wool, which is one of the
most expensive natural fibers commercially produced; cashmere is very
fine and soft. The cashmere goat fiber is harvested once a year,
yielding around 260 g (9 oz) of down.
In South Asia, cashmere is called "pashmina" (from Persian pashmina,
"fine wool"). In the 18th and early 19th centuries,
called Cashmere by the British), had a thriving industry producing
shawls from goat-hair imported from Tibet and Tartary through Ladakh.
The shawls were introduced into Western
Europe when the General in
Chief of the French campaign in Egypt (1799–1802) sent one to Paris.
Since these shawls were produced in the upper
Kashmir and Ladakh
region, the wool came to be known as "cashmere".
Goats have been used by humans to clear unwanted vegetation for
centuries. They have been described as "eating machines" and
"biological control agents". There has been a resurgence of
this in North America since 1990, when herds were used to clear dry
brush from California hillsides thought to be endangered by potential
wildfires. This form of using goats to clear land is sometimes known
as conservation grazing. Since then, numerous public and private
agencies have hired private herds to perform similar tasks. This
practice has become popular in the Pacific Northwest, where they are
used to remove invasive species not easily removed by humans,
including (thorned) blackberry vines and poison oak.
Use for medical training
As a goat's anatomy and physiology is not too dissimilar from that of
human, some countries' militaries use goats to train combat medics. In
the United States, goats have become the main animal species used for
this purpose after Pentagon phased out using dogs for medical training
in the 1980s. While modern mannequins used in medical training are
quite efficient in simulating the behavior of a human body, trainees
feel that "the goat exercise provide[s] a sense of urgency that only
real life trauma can provide".
Main article: Goats as pets
Some people choose goats as a pet because of their ability to form
close bonds with their human guardians. Because of goats' herd
mentality, they will follow their owner around and form close bonds
Main article: List of goat breeds
Goat breeds fall into overlapping, general categories. They are
generally distributed in those used for dairy, fiber, meat, skins, and
as companion animals. Some breeds are also particularly noted as pack
Nigerian Dwarf milker in show clip. This doe is angular and dairy
with a capacious and well supported mammary system.
Goat breeders' clubs frequently hold shows, where goats are judged on
traits relating to conformation, udder quality, evidence of high
production, longevity, build and muscling (meat goats and pet goats)
and fiber production and the fiber itself (fiber goats). People who
show their goats usually keep registered stock and the offspring of
award-winning animals command a higher price. Registered goats, in
general, are usually higher-priced if for no other reason than that
records have been kept proving their ancestry and the production and
other data of their sires, dams, and other ancestors. A registered doe
is usually less of a gamble than buying a doe at random (as at an
auction or sale barn) because of these records and the reputation of
the breeder. Children's clubs such as
4-H also allow goats to be
shown. Children's shows often include a showmanship class, where the
cleanliness and presentation of both the animal and the exhibitor as
well as the handler's ability and skill in handling the goat are
scored. In a showmanship class, conformation is irrelevant since this
is not what is being judged.
Goat Scorecards" (milking does) are systems used for
judging shows in the US. The American
Goat Association (ADGA)
scorecard for an adult doe includes a point system of a hundred total
with major categories that include general appearance, the dairy
character of a doe (physical traits that aid and increase milk
production), body capacity, and specifically for the mammary system.
Young stock and bucks are judged by different scorecards which place
more emphasis on the other three categories; general appearance, body
capacity, and dairy character.
Goat Society (AGS) has a similar, but not identical
scorecard that is used in their shows. The miniature dairy goats may
be judged by either of the two scorecards. The "Angora
used by the Colored Angora
Goat Breeder's Association (CAGBA), which
covers the white and the colored goats, includes evaluation of an
animal's fleece color, density, uniformity, fineness, and general body
confirmation. Disqualifications include: a deformed mouth, broken down
pasterns, deformed feet, crooked legs, abnormalities of testicles,
missing testicles, more than 3 inch split in scrotum, and
close-set or distorted horns.
Religion, mythology and folklore
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An ancient Greek oenochoe depicting wild goats
Archaeologists excavating the ancient city of
Ebla in Syria
discovered, among others, the tomb of some king or great noble which
included a throne decorated with bronze goat heads. That led to this
tomb becoming known as "The Tomb of the Lord of the Goats". 
According to Norse mythology, the god of thunder, Thor, has a chariot
that is pulled by the goats Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr. At night
when he sets up camp,
Thor eats the meat of the goats, but takes care
that all bones remain whole. Then he wraps the remains up, and in the
morning, the goats always come back to life to pull the chariot. When
a farmer's son who is invited to share the meal breaks one of the
goats' leg bones to suck the marrow, the animal's leg remains broken
in the morning, and the boy is forced to serve
Thor as a servant to
compensate for the damage.
Possibly related, the
Yule Goat is one of the oldest Scandinavian and
Christmas symbols and traditions.
originally denoted the goat that was slaughtered around Yule, but it
may also indicate a goat figure made out of straw. It is also used
about the custom of going door-to-door singing carols and getting food
and drinks in return, often fruit, cakes and sweets. "Going
is similar to the British custom wassailing, both with heathen roots.
Gävle Goat is a giant version of the
Yule Goat, erected every
year in the Swedish city of Gävle.
The Greek god Pan is said to have the upper body of a man and the
horns and lower body of a goat. Pan was a very lustful god, nearly
all of the myths involving him had to do with him chasing nymphs. He
is also credited with creating the pan flute.
The goat is one of the twelve-year cycle of animals which appear in
Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. Each animal is
associated with certain personality traits; those born in a year of
the goat are predicted to be shy, introverted, creative, and
Amalthée et la chèvre de Jupiter (Amalthea and Jupiter's goat);
commissioned by the Queen of France in 1787 for the royal dairy at
Several mythological hybrid creatures are believed to consist of parts
of the goat, including the Chimera. The Capricorn sign in the Western
zodiac is usually depicted as a goat with a fish's tail. Fauns and
satyrs are mythological creatures that are part goat and part human.
The mineral bromine is named from the Greek word "brόmos", which
means "stench of he-goats".
Goats are mentioned many times in the Bible. A goat is considered a
"clean" animal by Jewish dietary laws and was slaughtered for an
honored guest. It was also acceptable for some kinds of sacrifices.
Goat-hair curtains were used in the tent that contained the tabernacle
(Exodus 25:4). Its horns can be used instead of sheep's horn to make a
shofar. On Yom Kippur, the festival of the Day of Atonement, two
goats were chosen and lots were drawn for them. One was sacrificed and
the other allowed to escape into the wilderness, symbolically carrying
with it the sins of the community. From this comes the word
"scapegoat". A leader or king was sometimes compared to a male goat
leading the flock. In the New Testament,
Jesus told a parable of the
Sheep and the Goats (
Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Matthew 25).
Popular Christian folk tradition in
imagery of goats. A common superstition in the
Middle Ages was
that goats whispered lewd sentences in the ears of the saints. The
origin of this belief was probably the behavior of the buck in rut,
the very epitome of lust. The common medieval depiction of the Devil
was that of a goat-like face with horns and small beard (a goatee).
The Black Mass, a probably mythological "Satanic mass", involved Satan
manifesting as a black goat for worship.
The goat has had a lingering connection with
Satanism and pagan
religions, even into modern times. The inverted pentagram, a symbol
used in Satanism, is said to be shaped like a goat's head. The
Baphomet of Mendes" refers to a satanic goat-like figure from
The common Russian surname
Kozlov (Russian: Козло́в), means
Goatee refers to a style of facial hair incorporating hair on
a man’s chin, so named because of some similarity to a goat's facial
Main article: Feral goat
Feral goat in Aruba
Goats readily revert to the wild (become feral) if given the
opportunity. The only domestic animal known to return to feral life as
swiftly is the cat. Feral goats have established themselves in many
areas: they occur in Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, the
Galapagos and in many other places. When feral goats reach large
populations in habitats which provide unlimited water supply and which
do not contain sufficient large predators or which are otherwise
vulnerable to goats' aggressive grazing habits, they may have serious
effects, such as removing native scrub, trees and other vegetation
which is required by a wide range of other creatures, not just other
grazing or browsing animals. Feral goats are common in Australia.
However, in other circumstances where predator pressure is maintained,
they may be accommodated into some balance in the local food web.
^ a b Hirst, K. Kris. "The History of the Domestication of Goats".
About.com. Accessed August 18, 2008.
^ Coffey, Linda, Margo Hale, and Ann Wells; "Goats: Sustainable
United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization
^ Calvert Watkins et al., The American Heritage Dictionary (1975,
edited by William Morris).
^ a b c d "Breeds of Livestock; Goats: (Capra hircus)". Oklahoma State
University Board of Regents.
^ a b Naderi, Saeid; Rezaei, Hamid-Reza; Pompanon, François; Blum,
Michael G. B.; Negrini, Riccardo; Naghash, Hamid-Reza; Balkiz, Özge;
Mashkour, Marjan; Gaggiotti, Oscar E.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Kence,
Aykut; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Taberlet, Pierre (November 18, 2008). "The
goat domestication process inferred from large-scale mitochondrial DNA
analysis of wild and domestic individuals". PNAS. 105 (46):
17659–17664. doi:10.1073/pnas.0804782105. PMC 2584717 .
^ Maisels, C.K. The Near East: Archaeology in the Cradle of
Civilization Routledge, 1999; p.124
^ Taylor, R.E. and Field, T.G., "Growth and Development" Scientific
Animal Production: An Introduction to
Animal Science, 6th Ed.
Prentice-Hall (1999) Upper Saddle River pg 321-324.
^ Belanger, J & Bredesen, S. T, "Basic Information about Goats"
Storey's Guide to Raising
Dairy Goats, 2nd ed. Storey Publishing
(2010) North Adams, pg 14
^ a b American
Goat Society:Polled Genetics, americangoatsociety.com.
^ Smith, Mary C; Sherman, David M. (1994).
^ Taylor, R.E., Scientific Farm
Animal Production: An Introduction to
Animal Science, 6th ed, Upper Saddle River (Prentice Hall) 1998
^ Kocourek, Christine (June 1, 2011). "Common Myths/Facts about Boer
Goats". Floppy Ear Farm. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
^ Bowman, Gail. "What is a Genetic Flaw in a Boer Goat?". Boer Goats
Home. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
^ "Choosing Your Boer Goat- How Do I Know What to Look For?". Rooster
Ridge Boer Goats. Archived from the original on November 12, 2014.
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^ Frequently Asked Questions – Triple I Goats, tripleigoats.com
^ Payne, William J.A., An Introduction to
Husbandry in the
Tropics, 5th ed, Oxford (Blackwell Science) 1999
^ Smith, M.C.
Goat Medicine, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1994
^ Feichtenberger, Klaus, Jill Clarke, Elyse Eisenberg, and Otmar
Penker (Writers and Directors) (2008). Prince of the Alps (Television
Production). ORF/Nature. Event occurs at Shortly after birth.
Retrieved 2009-05-05. 'The mother eats the placenta to prevent
predators from getting the scent.'
^ Roe III, Leonard Lee (2004). The
Deer of North America. Globe
Pequot. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-59228-465-8. Almost all wild
animals and most domestic ones eat the afterbirth as soon as they can.
The primary reason, I think, is to get rid of it so that it will not
attract predators. . .Canine scavengers throughout the world are
attracted to herd animals when they give birth, for the placental sacs
provide an easily scavenged feast.
Goat Journal. - raising goats – goat business".
^ Kumar, Dr. Davendra; S. Saha; O.H. Chaturvedi; Sushil Kumar; J.S.
Mann; J.P. Mittal; V.K. Singh. "
Lactation in Males". ISSGPU – Indian
Goat Production and Utilization Newsletter.
Avikanagar, Rajasthan: Central
Sheep & Wool Research Institute
(2). Retrieved 2009-12-31.
^ "Learning About Goats" (PDF). Texas Department of Agriculture.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-12-22.
^ "War on Weeds," Rails to Trails Magazine, Spring 2004, p. 3
^ Wild China A BBC2 programme transmitted on October 31, 2016
^ Pugh, D.G. and Rankins, D. L. Jr, "Feeding and Nutrition"
Goat Medicine, 2nd Ed. Elsevier (2012) Maryland Heights, pg 40-42.
^ Taylor, R.E. and Field, T.G., "Growth and Development" Scientific
Animal Production: An Introduction to
Animal Science, 6th Ed.
Prentice-Hall (1999) Upper Saddle River pg 324-325.
^ Fowler, M.E. Restraint and Handling of Wild and Domestic Animals,
3rd Ed, Witley-Blackwell, 2008 pg 144
^ Deamer, Kacey (July 15, 2016), Man's New Best Friend Is a Goat?,
^ Nawroth, Christian; Brett, Jemma; McElligott, Alan (5 July 2016),
Goats display audience-dependent human-directed gazing behaviour in a
problem-solving task, doi:10.1098/rsbl.2016.0283, retrieved 28 August
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challenge dogs for title of ‘man’s best friend’, The
Conversation, retrieved 29 August 2016
^ Smith, M.C.
Goat Medicine, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1994
^ William S. Spector, ed. (1956). Handbook of Biological Data.
^ a b "Teeth, Life Expectancy & How to estimate a goat's age".
fiascofarm.com. 16 March 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
^ Mahmoud Abdel Aziz, M. A., "Present status of the world goat
populations and their productivity", Lohmann Information, Vol. 45 (2),
Oct. 2010, Page 43,
^ anonymous; Goat-Horn Spoon.
^ FAOSTAT 2008 http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx
^ Thiruvenkadan, A.K, Characterisation of Salem Black goats in their
Animal Genetic Resources Information, No. 38, 2006
^ Gizaw, S.; Tegegne, A.; Gebremedhin, B.; Hoekstra, D. 2010. Sheep
and goat production and marketing systems in Ethiopia: characteristics
and strategies for improvement. IPMS (Improving Productivity and
Market Success) of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 23. 58p.
Nairobi (Kenya): ILRI. http://hdl.handle.net/10568/2238
^ Sumberg, J.E., "Small ruminant feed production in a farming systems
context" Proceedings of the Workshop on Small
Systems in the Humid Zone of West Africa, 1984; Sumber, J. E., ed,
Milk Goats. Life. Jun 18, 1945. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
^ Cramer, D.A. (1983) Chemical compounds implicated in lamb flavor.
Food Technonogy. flavor.. 37:249-257 and Wong, E., Nixon, L.N. and
Johnson, B.C. (1975) The contribution of 4-methyloctanoic (hircinoic)
acid to mutton and goat meat flavor.
New Zealand j. Agr. Res.
18:261-266. Both cited in K. Intarapichet K., Sihaboot W. and
Chungsiriwat P. (date?) Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of
Goat Meat Sausages Containing Pork Fat or Shortening
available as a PDF from- 
^ FAO. 1997. 1996 Production Yearbook. Food Agr. Organ., UN. Rome,
^ Amrein-Boyes, D. (2009). 200 Easy Homemade
Cheese Recipes. Robert
Rose Inc.: Toronto
Goat Association, adga.org
^ Chèvre cheese, foodnetwork.com
^ "Fresh Goat's
Milk for Infants: Myths and Realities—A Review".
American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
^ "Infant Formula Feeding" (PDF). USDA. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
^ Edwardes, Charlotte (2005-06-19). "Fresh Goat's
Milk for Infants:
Myths and Realities—A Review". London: Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14
^ a b Professor Martin Marshall – Deputy Chief Medical Officer –
Department of Health (22 August 2006). "Withdrawal From Sale of
Infants Milks Based on Goats'
Milk on 17 September 2006". non-urgent
memo. Department of Health. Archived from the original on 29 August
2006. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
^  Archived August 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Small farm today". 22-24. Missouri Farm Pub. 2005.
^ Devendra, C., and M. Burns. 1970.
Goat production in the tropics.
Commonwealth Bur. Anim. Breeding and Genetics, Tech. Commun. No. 19.
^ a b The World's Healthiest Foods. "Milk, goat", whfoods.org
^ Park, W.Y., G.F.W. Haenlein.ed. 2006. Handbook of
Milk of Non-Bovine
Mammals. Blackwell Publishing.
Milk analysis". North Wales Buffalo. Archived from the original on
2007-09-29. Retrieved 3 August 2009. (Citing McCane, Widdowson,
Scherz, Kloos, International Laboratory Services.)
^ a b c "Rent-a-goats gain foothold". seattlepi.com.
Animal Science – Meat Goats in Land and Forage Management".
^ "Options for Clearing Land: Pasture Establishment for Horses –
Publications and Educational Resources - Virginia Tech". vt.edu. 1 May
^ The goats fighting America's plant invasion (January 2015), BBC
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soldiers' lives?". BBC News Magazine
^ Londoño, Ernesto (February 24, 2013). "Military is required to
justify using animals in medic training after pressure from
activists". The Washington Post
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Ebla and the
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^ a b c Cooper, J.C. (1979). An illustrated encyclopaedia of
traditional symbols. New York, N.Y.: Thames and Hudson. p. 74.
^ Chusid, Michael T. Hearing Shofar: The Still Small Voice of the
Ram's Horn, 2009.
^ It is believed that there are over 50,000 feral goats in the
Australian Outback. "The feral goat (Capra hircus) – Invasive
species fact sheet"., environment.gov.au
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Goats
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Goats.
Goat breeds from the Department of
Animal Science, Oklahoma State
North American Packgoats Association
Extant Artiodactyla species
Pronghorn (A. americana)
Okapi (O. johnstoni)
Northern giraffe (G. camelopardalis)
Southern giraffe (G. giraffa)
Reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata)
Masai giraffe (G. tippelskirchi)
Anhui musk deer
Anhui musk deer (M. anhuiensis)
Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer (M. berezovskii)
Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer (M. chrysogaster)
Kashmir musk deer (M. cupreus)
Black musk deer
Black musk deer (M. fuscus)
Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster)
Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer (M. moschiferus)
Water chevrotain (H. aquaticus)
Indian spotted chevrotain
Indian spotted chevrotain (M. indica)
Yellow-striped chevrotain (M. kathygre)
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain (M. meminna)
Java mouse-deer (T. javanicus)
Lesser mouse-deer (T. kanchil)
Greater mouse-deer (T. napu)
Philippine mouse-deer (T. nigricans)
Vietnam mouse-deer (T. versicolor)
Williamson's mouse-deer (T. williamsoni)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Indian muntjac (M. muntjak)
Reeves's muntjac (M. reevesi)
Hairy-fronted muntjac (M. crinifrons)
Fea's muntjac (M. feae)
Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac (M. atherodes)
Roosevelt's muntjac (M. rooseveltorum)
Gongshan muntjac (M. gongshanensis)
Giant muntjac (M. vuquangensis)
Truong Son muntjac
Truong Son muntjac (M. truongsonensis)
Leaf muntjac (M. putaoensis)
Sumatran muntjac (M. montanus)
Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac (M. puhoatensis)
Tufted deer (E. cephalophus)
Fallow deer (D. dama)
Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer (D. mesopotamica)
Chital (A. axis)
Barasingha (R. duvaucelii)
Eld's deer (P. eldii)
Père David's deer
Père David's deer (E. davidianus)
Hog deer (H. porcinus)
Calamian deer (H. calamianensis)
Bawean deer (H. kuhlii)
Sambar deer (R. unicolor)
Rusa deer (R. timorensis)
Philippine sambar (R. mariannus)
Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)
Red deer (C. elaphus)
Elk (C. canadensis)
Thorold's deer (C. albirostris)
Sika deer (C. nippon)
Moose (A. alces)
Water deer (H. inermis)
Roe deer (C. capreolus)
Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus)
Reindeer (R. tarandus)
Taruca (H. antisensis)
South Andean deer
South Andean deer (H. bisulcus)
Red brocket (M. americana)
Small red brocket
Small red brocket (M. bororo)
Merida brocket (M. bricenii)
Dwarf brocket (M. chunyi)
Gray brocket (M. gouazoubira)
Pygmy brocket (M. nana)
Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket (M. nemorivaga)
Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket (M. pandora)
Little red brocket
Little red brocket (M. rufina)
Central American red brocket
Central American red brocket (M. temama)
Pampas deer (O. bezoarticus)
Marsh deer (B. dichotomus)
Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles)
Southern pudú (P. pudu)
White-tailed deer (O. virginianus)
Mule deer (O. hemionus)
Abbott's duiker (C. spadix)
Aders's duiker (C. adersi)
Bay duiker (C. dorsalis)
Black duiker (C. niger)
Black-fronted duiker (C. nigrifrons)
Brooke's duiker (C. brookei)
Harvey's duiker (C. harveyi)
Jentink's duiker (C. jentinki)
Ogilby's duiker (C. ogilbyi)
Peters's duiker (C. callipygus)
Red-flanked duiker (C. rufilatus)
Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker (C. natalensis)
Ruwenzori duiker (C. rubidis)
Weyns's duiker (C. weynsi)
White-bellied duiker (C. leucogaster)
White-legged duiker (C. crusalbum)
Yellow-backed duiker (C. Sylvicultor)
Zebra duiker (C. zebra)
Blue duiker (P. monticola)
Maxwell's duiker (P. maxwellii)
Walter's duiker (P. walteri)
Common duiker (S. grimmia)
Roan antelope (H. equinus)
Sable antelope (H. niger)
East African oryx
East African oryx (O. beisa)
Scimitar oryx (O. dammah)
Gemsbok (O. gazella)
Arabian oryx (O. leucoryx)
Addax (A. nasomaculatus)
Upemba lechwe (K. anselli)
Waterbuck (K. ellipsiprymnus)
Kob (K. kob)
Lechwe (K. leche)
Nile lechwe (K. megaceros)
Puku (K. vardonii)
Southern reedbuck (R. arundinum)
Mountain reedbuck (R. fulvorufula)
Bohor reedbuck (R. redunca)
Impala (A. melampus)
Grey rhebok (P. capreolus)
Hirola (B. hunteri)
Topi (D. korrigum)
Common tsessebe (D. lunatus)
Bontebok (D. pygargus)
Bangweulu tsessebe (D. superstes)
Hartebeest (A. buselaphus)
Red hartebeest (A. caama)
Lichtenstein's hartebeest (A. lichtensteinii)
Black wildebeest (C. gnou)
Blue wildebeest (C. taurinus)
Tibetan antelope (P. hodgsonii)
Large subfamily listed below
Large subfamily listed below
Large subfamily listed below
Bovidae (subfamily Caprinae)
Barbary sheep (A. lervia)
Takin (B. taxicolor)
Wild goat (C. aegagrus)
Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus)
West Caucasian tur
West Caucasian tur (C. caucasia)
East Caucasian tur
East Caucasian tur (C. cylindricornis)
Markhor (C. falconeri)
Alpine ibex (C. ibex)
Nubian ibex (C. nubiana)
Spanish ibex (C. pyrenaica)
Siberian ibex (C. sibirica)
Walia ibex (C. walie)
Japanese serow (C. crispus)
Taiwan serow (C. swinhoei)
Sumatran serow (C. sumatraensis)
Mainland serow (C. milneedwardsii)
Red serow (C. rubidusi)
Himalayan serow (C. thar)
Nilgiri tahr (H. hylocrius)
Arabian tahr (H. jayakari)
Himalayan tahr (H. jemlahicus)
Red goral (N. baileyi)
Long-tailed goral (N. caudatus)
Himalayan goral (N. goral)
Chinese goral (N. griseus)
Mountain goat (O. americanus)
Muskox (O. moschatus)
Argali (O. ammon)
Domestic sheep (O. aries)
Bighorn sheep (O. canadensis)
Dall sheep (O. dalli)
Mouflon (O. musimon)
Snow sheep (O. nivicola)
Urial (O. orientalis)
Bharal (P. nayaur)
Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep (P. schaeferi)
Pyrenean chamois (R. pyrenaica)
Chamois (R. rupicapra)
Bovidae (subfamily Bovinae)
Four-horned antelope (T. quadricornis)
Nilgai (B. tragocamelus)
Water buffalo (B. bubalis)
Water Buffalo (B. arnee)
Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis)
Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi)
Tamaraw (B. mindorensis)
Banteng (B. javanicus)
Gaur (B. gaurus)
Gayal (B. frontalis)
Domestic yak (B. grunniens)
Wild yak (B. mutus)
Cattle (B. taurus)
Kouprey (B. sauveli)
Kting voar (P. spiralis)
Saola (P. nghetinhensis)
African buffalo (S. caffer)
American bison (B. bison)
European bison (B. bonasus)
Sitatunga (T. spekeii)
Nyala (T. angasii)
Kéwel (T. scriptus)
Cape bushbuck (T. sylvaticus)
Mountain nyala (T. buxtoni)
Lesser kudu (T. imberbis)
Greater kudu (T. strepsiceros)
Bongo (T. eurycerus)
Common eland (T. oryx)
Giant eland (T. derbianus)
Bovidae (subfamily Antilopinae)
Dibatag (A. clarkei)
Springbok (A. marsupialis)
Blackbuck (A. cervicapra)
Mongalla gazelle (E. albonotata)
Red-fronted gazelle (E. rufifrons)
Thomson's gazelle (E. thomsonii)
Heuglin's gazelle (E. tilonura)
Mountain gazelle (G. gazella)
Neumann's gazelle (G. erlangeri)
Speke's gazelle (G. spekei)
Dorcas gazelle (G. dorcas)
Chinkara (G. bennettii)
Cuvier's gazelle (G. cuvieri)
Rhim gazelle (G. leptoceros)
Goitered gazelle (G. subgutturosa)
Gerenuk (L. walleri)
Dama gazelle (N. dama)
Grant's gazelle (N. granti)
Soemmerring's gazelle (N. soemmerringii)
Mongolian gazelle (P. gutturosa)
Goa (P. picticaudata)
Przewalski's gazelle (P. przewalskii)
Tibetan antelope (P. hodgsonii)
Saiga antelope (S. tatarica)
Beira (D. megalotis)
Günther's dik-dik (M. guentheri)
Kirk's dik-dik (M. kirkii)
Silver dik-dik (M. piacentinii)
Salt's dik-dik (M. saltiana)
Bates's pygmy antelope
Bates's pygmy antelope (N. batesi)
Suni (N. moschatus)
Royal antelope (N. pygmaeus)
Klipspringer (O. oreotragus)
Oribi (O. ourebi)
Steenbok (R. campestris)
Cape grysbok (R. melanotis)
Sharpe's grysbok (R. sharpei)
Buru babirusa (B. babyrussa)
North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa (B. celebensis)
Togian babirusa (B. togeanensis)
Giant forest hog
Giant forest hog (H. meinertzhageni)
Desert warthog (P. aethiopicus)
Common warthog (P. africanus)
Pygmy hog (P. salvania)
Bushpig (P. larvatus)
Red river hog
Red river hog (P. porcus)
Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig (S. ahoenobarbus)
Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig (S. barbatus)
Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus)
Visayan warty pig
Visayan warty pig (S. cebifrons)
Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig (S. celebensis)
Flores warty pig (S. heureni)
Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig (S. oliveri)
Philippine warty pig
Philippine warty pig (S. philippensis)
Wild boar (S. scrofa)
Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis)
Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig (S. verrucosus)
White-lipped peccary (T. pecari)
Chacoan peccary (C. wagneri)
Collared peccary (P. tajacu)
Giant peccary (P. maximus)
Llama (L. glama)
Guanaco (L. guanicoe)
Vicuña (V. vicugna)
Alpaca (V. pacos)
Dromedary (C. dromedarius)
Bactrian camel (C. bactrianus)
Bactrian camel (C. ferus)
Whippomorpha (unranked clade)
Hippopotamus (H. amphibius)