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Gjilan
Gjilan
(Albanian: Gjilani IPA: [ɟilani] ( listen))) or Gnjilane (Serbian Cyrillic: Гњилане), is a city and municipality located in the Gjilan
Gjilan
District in eastern Kosovo.[a] According to the 2011 census, the city of Gjilan
Gjilan
has 54,239 inhabitants, while the municipality has 90,178 inhabitants.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Name 3 History

3.1 Modern history

4 Population

4.1 Ethnic groups 4.2 Languages 4.3 Education

5 Economy 6 Culture

6.1 Flaka e Janarit

7 Features 8 Sports 9 Gallery 10 Notable people 11 International relations

11.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

12 Annotations 13 See also 14 References

14.1 Sources

15 External links

Geography[edit] Gjilan
Gjilan
is located in the southeastern part of Kosovo, the region of Anamorava. It is one of the largest municipalities in the country. The geographic position it has makes it possible to make good connections with other centers of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the region. Around the town of Gjilan lies the Hill of Martyrs (Popovica), Gllama, Dheu i Bardhe, the area of Malisheva, Zabeli of Sahit Agas and the Bregu i Thate. There are three small rivers, Mirusha, Banja and Stanishori, which join and flow to Morava, west of the Uglar village. Gjilan
Gjilan
is 46km far from Pristina, from Kamenica - 27 km, from Vitia - 22 km, from Artana - about 25 kilometers. The municipalities of the region are bordered in the southeast with Presevo
Presevo
(33 km) and Kumanovo (53), while in the east - with Bujanovac
Bujanovac
(40 km).[2] The Gjilan
Gjilan
area is defined by the Morava River, which collects all the small rivers, with an average monthly flow rate of 6.7 cubic meters/second. In the southeast is surrounded by the mountains of Karadak.[3] Coordinates of the city of Gjilan
Gjilan
are 42 degrees north and 21.20 degrees east and 501 and 590 m above sea level, while 475 m in Budrike, up to 1000 m altitude in the border zone with Macedonia. In seismic maps, Gjilan
Gjilan
is known as a region of marked vulnerability to danger. In 2002, it was hit by an earthquake that left a dead, injured tens and over 8,000 damaged public and private facilities. Name[edit] Ottoman chronicler Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
mentions Morava as a settlement of the Sanjak of Vučitrn. Çelebi writes that: "The seventeen day journey from Constantinople
Constantinople
(Istanbul) to pass through Vranje, Novo Brdo, Krivareka (Egridere) and Morava (Gjilan). The etymology of Gjilan
Gjilan
is disputed. Albanian sources claim that the town (initially a village) obtained its name from Bahti Beg Gjinolli of Gjinaj clan that ruled the region of Vučitrn
Vučitrn
(Llapi and Drenica), and populated this area in the 18th century (around 1750). However, there is no definite evidence to support that claim, and in fact no one can confirm as to who the first true inhabitants were, or when they first settled there. On the other hand, Serbian sources claim that the origin of the town name is in the Serbian word gnjio (putrid, rotten).[4][better source needed] History[edit] Further information: History of Kosovo

Historical affiliations

Dardani
Dardani
Period 4th Century BC–2nd Century BC

Roman Empire
Roman Empire
c. 168 BC–c. 330 AD Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
c. 330–c. 850 First Bulgarian Empire
First Bulgarian Empire
c. 850–c. 1018 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
c. 1018–1040 Peter Delyan's Bulgaria
Bulgaria
1040–1041 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
1041–1072 Constantine Bodin's Bulgaria
Bulgaria
1072 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
1072–1180 Serbian Grand Principality
Serbian Grand Principality
1180–1217 Second Bulgarian Empire
Second Bulgarian Empire
1218–c. 1241 Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
c. 1241–1346 Serbian Empire
Serbian Empire
c. 1346–1389   Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1389–1689 Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
1689–1690   Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1690–1912 Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
1912–1915 Kingdom of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
1915–1918 Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
1918   Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
1918–1941 Albanian Kingdom (Kingdom of Italy) 1941–43 Albanian Kingdom (Nazi Germany) 1943–44 NKOJ 1944–45 SFR Yugoslavia 1945–1992 FR Yugoslavia 1992–1999 UNMIK 1999–2008

Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
2008–present

The city center of Gjilan, to the clock tower. The picture also shows the Little Mosque in the center of the city

In 1342, a place called Morava was visited by Serbian King Stefan Dušan (later Emperor, r. 1331-1355).[5] A fort was built nearby in the 14th century. Gornja Morava was known as simply Morava under Ottoman rule, and it extended west of the Upper Žegra-Budriga-Cernica line, thus Gjilan
Gjilan
stayed in the oblast (province) of Topolnica, which provincial seat was Novo Brdo.[6] In the 1455 defter (Ottoman tax registry), Gjilan
Gjilan
was inhabited by Serbs, and the priest Božidar served the town.[7] There were 41 households. Haji Kalfa (first half of the 17th century) mentions Morava being 17 days from Constantinople.[5] Gornja Morava and Izmornik were organized into the Sanjak of Vučitrn up until the 18th century.[8] Gjilan
Gjilan
became a kadiluk around 1780, and 20–25 years later a large village.[9] The exact year of establishment of Gjilan
Gjilan
to this day is not exactly determined. In the 17th century, Evlia Çelebija mentions Gjilan, but named Morava, as a cadillac within the Sandzak of Vushtrri. Among other things, Evlia Çelebija writes that "Seventeen days the road from Constantinople
Constantinople
(today's Istanbul) to Artana passes through Vranje, Krivarekë (Egridere) of Morava (Gjilan)". There is a tradition in the people that Gjilan
Gjilan
as a settlement was formed around 1750, and as an urban center - in 1772. Gjilan
Gjilan
as a town developed in addition to the extinction of (Artana), which in the Middle Ages was one of the cities and the largest commercial, economic and mining centers in the Balkans. The feudal family "Gjinaj" in the second half of the XIX century transferred their headquarters from Artana and built their own houses in the place where Gjilani is now located.[10] Modern history[edit]

Gjilan
Gjilan
celebrating the 10th anniversary of the 2008 Kosovo
Kosovo
declaration of independence

The exact year of establishment of Gjilan
Gjilan
to this day is not exactly determined. In the 17th century, Evlia Çelebija mentions Gjilan, but named Morava, as a cadillac within the Sandzak of Vushtrri. Among other things, Evlia Çelebija writes that "Seventeen days the road from Constantinople
Constantinople
(today's Istanbul) to Artana passes through Vranje, Krivarekë (Egridere) of Morava (Gjilan)". There is a tradition in the people that Gjilan
Gjilan
as a settlement was formed around 1750, and as an urban center - in 1772. Gjilan
Gjilan
as a town developed in addition to the extinction of (Artana), which in the Middle Ages was one of the cities and the largest commercial, economic and mining centers in the Balkans. The feudal family "Gjinaj" in the second half of the XIX century transferred their headquarters from Artana and built their own houses in the place where Gjilani is now located.[11] In 1999, Camp Monteith
Camp Monteith
was established outside the city as a base of operations for KFOR during Operation Joint Guardian, on the site of a destroyed Serbian military base which is handed over to Kosovo Protection Corps in 2007 after U.S. Military downsized their troops. Gjilan
Gjilan
has also served as the regional headquarters of the UNMIK International Police
International Police
task force from 1999. In between 23 and 27 November 1999, during the Gnjilane massacre, Gnjilane was the scene of the killing of 80 Serb and other civilians by the Kosovo
Kosovo
Liberation Army (UCK) paramilitary troops, subgroup called Gnjilane group, in November 1999, during the Kosovo
Kosovo
War.[12] Population[edit]

Communist-era apartment complex in Gjilan.

Historical population

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1953 48,748 —    

1961 52,415 +0.91%

1971 67,893 +2.62%

1981 84,085 +2.16%

1991 103,675 +2.12%

2011 90,178 −0.69%

2016 est. 80,525 −2.24%

Source: Division of Kosovo

According to the last official census done in 2011, the city of Gjilan has 90,178 inhabitants.

Ethnic groups[edit] The vast majority of the population is Albanian, followed by Serbs, and a small number of minorities. There are among others, 978 Turks or 1% of the municipal population. The number of Serbs
Serbs
has decreased due to partial boycott[13] and the creation of the Serb-majority municipality of Parteš. The ethnic composition of the municipality:

Ethnic composition

Year/Population Albanians  % Serbs  % Roma  % Others  % Total

1953 24,797 50.87 19,196 39.32

48,748

1961 29,942 57.12 18,297 34.91 735 1.50

52,415

1971 43,754 64.45 20,237 29.81 1,824 2.69

67,893

1981 59,764 71.08 19,212 22.85 3,347 3.98 1,762 2.1 84,085

1991 79,357 76.54 19,370 18.68 3,477 3.4 1,471 1.4 103,675

1998 94,218 79.4 19,481 16.4 3,568 3 1,387 1.2 118,654

2011 87,814 97,45 624 0,7 361 0,4 1,379 1,52 90,178

Source: Yugoslav Population Censuses for data through 1991,and Kosovo 2011 census.

Languages[edit] Albanian, Serbian and Turkish languages are official languages in the municipality.[14] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Gjilan Education in Gjilan
Education in Gjilan
includes primary, secondary education, and a public university. Currently there are 23,608 Albanian students and 881 minority students enrolled in educational institutions around Gjilan. The primary education ranging from grades 1−5 along with the lower secondary education is obligatory for all citizens and it begins when the child turns 6 years old. The mandatory is nevertheless free of charge. The second phase of the obligatory education is the so-called lower secondary education which consists of teenagers usually around 12–15 years of age, therefore, grades 6-9. This education, according to the law, is also free of charge and publicly funded. The lower secondary education in Gjilan
Gjilan
is held in these language: Albanian, Serbian, Turkish. Higher education is available of attaining in various Universities and different educational institutions offering high professional education. Higher education is also available in public or private institutions where the students are offered associate degrees', Bachelor's degrees', Master's degrees', and PhD's. Various schedules are additionally available where students can choose to pursue their studies full-time or part-time. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Gjilan There are 3,700 registered private businesses in the municipality employing 7,900 people. Before 1999, Gjilan
Gjilan
was an important industrial centre in Kosovo. Still in operation are the radiator factory and tobacco factory, which has been recently privatized. The new city business incubator, supported by the European Agency for Reconstruction, was inaugurated in summer 2007. Culture[edit]

An Albanian dance during "Flame's Pentagram"

Serbian traditional dance (kolo) from Gjilan

Flaka e Janarit[edit] Main article: Flaka e Janarit Flaka e Janarit
Flaka e Janarit
is a cultural event that starts on January 11 in Gjilan, Kosovo
Kosovo
with symbolic opening of the flame, to keep up with various cultural activities to 31 January of each year. It gathers thousands of artists and art lovers from all the Albanian territories, who for three consecutive weeks transform the city into a cultural metropolis. The nation's martyrs are honored through values of art by this event, which began before the 10th anniversary of the assassination of writer, activist and patriot Jusuf Gërvalla, along with Kadri Zeka and Bardhosh Gërvalla. It was exactly the 10th anniversary without these three martyrs of freedom and from coincidence of these murders in a same date on 11 January, this event got this name "Flaka e Janarit". Moreover, this month has "eaten" lots of devout patriots.[15] There are 41 mosques in Gjilan.[16] Features[edit] Gjilan
Gjilan
is the administrative center of the District of Gjilan
District of Gjilan
of Kosovo. Since February 15, 2003, it is the headquarters of the Local Democracy Agency in Kosovo
Kosovo
of the Council of Europe. Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Gjilan Gjilan
Gjilan
is home to the basketball club Drita Gjilan, the football clubs KF Gjilani
KF Gjilani
and KF Drita
KF Drita
and volleyball club KV Drita, male and female- the most successful club in Gjilan's history. Also has the football club which is in the 2nd league Kf.Bashkimi. Gallery[edit]

Gjilan
Gjilan
old city center 1913

Gjilani 1925

House of Zekirja Abdullahu in Gjilan

Monastery of St. Nicholas, Straza Gjilan

Main Street in Gjilan

City Theater of Gjilan

Conservatory of Gjilan

Clock Tower of Gjilan

Big Mosque of Gjilan

Oldest Mosque of Gjilan
Gjilan
from 1606

Gjilan
Gjilan
park in Winter

Dunav Church

Notable people[edit]

Idriz Seferi
Idriz Seferi
(b.1847), Albanian patriot Mulla Idriz Gjilani (b.1901), Albanian patriot Zoran Antić (b. 1975), Serbian footballer Faton Bislimi (b. 1983), Kosovan author Nijazi Ramadani
Nijazi Ramadani
(b. 1964), Kosovan poetry writer Albert Bunjaku
Albert Bunjaku
(b. 1983), Swiss footballer Daut Dauti (b. 1960) Kosovan author Dragan Dimić, Serbian footballer Bajram Haliti (b. 1955), Romani writer Shpëtim Hasani (b. 1982), Kosovan footballer Lutfi Haziri (b. 1969), Kosovan politician Genta Ismajli (b. 1985), Kosovan singer Ismet Munishi (b. 1974), Kosovan footballer Aljmir Murati (b. 1985), Swiss footballer Zenun Pajaziti
Zenun Pajaziti
(b. 1966), Kosovan politician Xherdan Shaqiri
Xherdan Shaqiri
(b. 1991), Swiss footballer Jahi Jahiu, (b. 1959), Kosovan artist Mira Stupica
Mira Stupica
(b. 1923), Serbian actress Goran Svilanović
Goran Svilanović
(b. 1963), Serbian politician Faton Toski
Faton Toski
(b. 1987), German footballer Agim Ramadani
Agim Ramadani
(b. 1963), KLA commander Abdullah Tahiri
Abdullah Tahiri
(b. 1956), KLA commander Antun Marković (b. 1992), Croatian footballer

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Kosovo Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Gjilan
Gjilan
is twinned with:

Peć, Kosovo

Annotations[edit]

^ Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

See also[edit]

Municipalities of Kosovo Cities and towns in Kosovo Populated places in Kosovo

References[edit]

^ "Gjilan's Liberation Day to be marked today". Kosovapress. Retrieved 16 March 2018.  ^ "Geographical position". Municipality of Gjilan
Gjilan
- Official Website. Municipality of Gjilan. Retrieved 31 March 2018.  ^ "Geographical position". Municipality of Gjilan
Gjilan
- Official Website. Municipality of Gjilan. Retrieved 31 March 2018.  ^ http://kk.rks-gov.net/gjilan/City-guide/History.aspx ^ a b Kostić 1922, p. 126

"ГЊИЛАНЕ. ИЛИ. ГИЉАНЕ. У 14. веку помиње се неко место Морава, где се 1342. год бакио краљ Душан. Хаџи Калфа (прва половина 17. века) помиње неко место Мораву, на 17 дана од Цариграда. Јањева, Новог Брда и Кача- ..." Gnjilane or Giljane. In 14th century some place Morava was mentioned, where king Dusan rested in 1342. Haji Kalfa (first half of the 17th century) mentioned some place Morava, on 17 days (distance) from Istanbul. Janjeva, Novo Brdo
Novo Brdo
and Kaca -..."

^ Urošević/Macura 1987, p. 10

"Горња Морава се под турском управом звала само Мора- ва, а протезала се западно од линије с. Жегра — Будрига — Церница, тако да је Гњилане остајало у области Топонице, чије је обласно средиште било Ново Брдо." "Upper Morava under Ottoman rule was called just Morava. It was located Western of the line s. Zegra - Budriga - Cernica, so Gnjilane was in area of Toponica, which regional center was Novo Brdo."

^ Kalezić 2002, p. 448

"Из турског дефтера (1455) види се да је насељено Србима и да је у њему служио свештеник Божидар. Старо Гњилане налазило се у Петиковиди (Петковици) предграђу данашњег насеља које је подиг- нуто на месту" "From the Ottoman Defter (1455) it is seen that it was inhabited by Serbs
Serbs
and that in it the priest Bozidar served. Old Gnjilane was located in Petikovida (Petkovica) suburb of today's settlement which was created in that place"

^ Urošević/Macura 1987, p. 11 ^ Cvijić 1930, p. 38

"Гњилане је дакле могло постати тек после овог кадије, око 1780 године, тако да је после 20 — 25 година, на крају 18 века, могло бити велико село — варошица. При доласку Џинића у новобрдски" "So, Gnjilane was founded only after this kadi, around the year 1780, so it was after 20 - 25 yeas, at the end of 18th century, a large village - varosica"

^ "The history". https://kk.rks-gov.net/gjilan/. Gjilan
Gjilan
municipality. Retrieved 31 March 2018.  External link in website= (help) ^ "The history". https://kk.rks-gov.net/gjilan/. Gjilan
Gjilan
municipality. Retrieved 31 March 2018.  External link in website= (help) ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-09-27. Retrieved 2009-11-01.  ^ "ECMI: Minority figures in Kosovo
Kosovo
census to be used with reservations". ECMI.  ^ OSCE Implementation of the Law on the Use of Languages by Kosovo Municipalities ^ Rrustemi, Sabit (2001). Cultural literary magazine "Agmia". 5: Pg.85–86.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "MUNICIPAL PROFILE". OSCE. 

Sources[edit]

А. Урошевић: Гњилане — Гласник Географског друштва, св. ХУП. Београд, 1931 А. Урошевић: Горња Морава и Изморник., Насеља и порекло становништва, књ. 28, Београд 1935

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gjilan.

Municipality of Gjilan SOK Kosovo
Kosovo
and its population

v t e

Municipalities of Kosovo1

Ferizaj
Ferizaj
District

Ferizaj
Ferizaj
(Uroševac) Elez Han
Elez Han
(Đeneral Janković) Kaçanik Štimlje Štrpce

Gjakova
Gjakova
District

Deçan Gjakova Junik Orahovac

Gjilan
Gjilan
District

Gjilan Kamenica Klokot Parteš Ranilug Vitina

Mitrovica District

Leposavić Mitrovica North Mitrovica Skenderaj
Skenderaj
(Srbica) Vučitrn Zubin Potok Zvečan

Peć
Peć
District

Peć Istok Klina

Pristina
Pristina
District

Glogovac Kosovo
Kosovo
Polje (Fushë Kosovë) Gračanica Obilić Lipljan Novo Brdo Podujevo Pristina

Prizren
Prizren
District

Mališevo Mamuša Prizren Dragaš Suva Reka

1  Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nati

.