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Some Buddhist
Buddhist
terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. Below are given a number of important Buddhist
Buddhist
terms, short definitions, and the languages in which they appear. In this list, an attempt has been made to organize terms by their original form and give translations and synonyms in other languages along with the definition. Languages and traditions dealt with here:

English (Eng.) Pāli: Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(or Buddhist
Buddhist
Hybrid Sanskrit): primarily Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism Burmese (Bur): Buddhism
Buddhism
in Myanmar Karen (Kar): Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism Khmer: Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism Mon (Mon): Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism Mongolian (Mn): Buddhism
Buddhism
in Mongolia Shan (Shan): Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism Tibetan (Tib): Tibetan Buddhism Thai: Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism CJKV languages

Chinese (Cn): Chinese Buddhism Japanese (Jp): Buddhism
Buddhism
in Japan Korean (Ko): Korean Buddhism Vietnamese (Vi): Buddhism
Buddhism
in Vietnam ( Mahayana
Mahayana
and Theravada)

Contents: 

Top 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

abhidhamma A category of scriptures that attempts to use Buddhist teachings to create a systematic, abstract description of all worldly phenomena

abhi is "above" or "about", dhamma is "teaching" Pāli: abhidhamma Sanskrit: abhidharma Khmer: អភិធម្ម

Bur: အဘိဓမ္မာ abhidhamma (IPA: [əbḭdəmà]) Tib: ཆོས་མངོན་པ chos mngon pa Mn: их ном, билиг ухаан; ikh nom, bilig ukhaan Thai: อภิธรรม a-pi-tam 阿毘達磨/阿毗昙

Cn: Āpídámó Jp: Abidatsuma Ko: 아비달마, Abidalma Vi: a-tì-đạt-ma, thắng pháp

Abhidhamma
Abhidhamma
Pitaka The third basket of the Tripitaka
Tripitaka
canon, the reorganization of all doctrines in a systematic way

Pāli: Abhidhamma-piṭaka Sanskrit: Abhidharma-piṭaka

Bur: အဘိဓမ္မာပိဋကတ် Abidhamma Pitakat (IPA: [əbḭdamà pḭdəɡaʔ]) Mon: အဘိဓဝ်ပိတကတ ([əpʰìʔtʰò pɔeʔtəkɔt]) Thai: อภิธรรมปิฎก a-pi-tam-pi-dok 論藏, 論蔵

Cn: Lùnzàng Jp: Ronzō Ko: 논장, Nonjang Vi: Luận tạng, Tạng luận, tạng thứ ba trong ba tạng là kinh, luật và luận

Mn: Илт ном, Ilt nom

acariya, lit. "teacher", One of the two teachers of a novice monk - the other one is called upādhyāya

Pāli: ācariya[1] Sanskrit: ācārya

Bur: ဆရာ saya (IPA: [sʰəjà]) Shan: ဢႃႇၸရီႉယႃႉ atsariya ([ʔaː˨ tsa˩ ri˥ jaː˥]) Thai: อาจารย์ ajahn 阿闍梨 or 阿闍梨耶

Cn: āshélí or āshélíyē Jp: ajari or ajariya Ko: 아사리, asari or 아사리야 asariya Vi: a-xà-lê or a-xà-lê-da or giáo thọ sư

adhitthana Determination, to pray, to wish

Pāli: Adhiṭṭhāna Sanskrit: अधिष्ठान

Bur: အဓိဋ္ဌာန် (IPA: [ədeɪʔtʰàɴ]) Thai: อธิษฐาน ah-tid-taan 決心 or 決意

Cn: Juéxīn, juéyì Jp: kesshin Ko: 결심, gyeolsim or 결의, gyeolui Vi: nguyện lực

Agama The non- Mahayana
Mahayana
divisions of the Sutra
Sutra
Pitaka

Sanskrit: Āgama

Pāli: Āgama (but usually called Nikāya) 阿含

Cn: Āhán Jp: Agon Ko: 아함, Aham Vi: A-hàm

ahimsa The devotion to non-violence and respect for all forms of life. Practicers of ahimsa are often vegetarians or vegans

Sanskrit: ahiṃsā Pāli: ahiṃsā

Thai: อหิงสา 'ah-hing-sa' 不害

Cn: bù hài Jp: fugai Ko: 불해, bulhae Vi: bất hại

Akshobhya

Sanskrit: Akṣobhya

Mn: ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ; Үл Хөдлөгч, Хөдөлшгүй; 阿閦如來

Cn: Āchùrúlái Jp: Ashuku Nyorai Vi: A-súc Như Lai

Ködelüsi ügei, Ülü hödelügci

alayavijnana, see store consciousness

Sanskrit: ālayavijñāna

Tib: ཀུན་གཞི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་ kun gzhi rnam par shes pa 阿賴耶識, 阿頼耶識

Cn: ālàiyēshí Jp: araya-shiki Ko: 아뢰야식, aroeyasik Vi: a-lại-da thức

Amitabha
Amitabha
Lit. "The Buddha of Infinite Light". The main buddha of the Pure Land
Pure Land
school, but is popular in other Mahayana
Mahayana
sects as well. The image is of light as the form of wisdom, which has no form. Also interpreted as the Tathagata
Tathagata
of Unhindered Light that Penetrates the Ten Quarters by Tan Luan, Shinran and others

Sanskrit: amitābha (lit. "limitless light") and amitāyus (lit. "limitless life")

阿彌陀 or 阿彌陀佛, 阿弥陀 or 阿弥陀仏

Cn: Ēmítuó or Ēmítuó fó Jp: Amida or Amida-butsu Ko: 아미타, Amita or 아미타불, Amitabul Vi: A-Di-Đà, A-Di-Đà Phật, or Phật A-Di-Đà

Tib: འོད་དཔག་མེད། Mn: ᠠᠮᠢᠨᠳᠠᠸᠠ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠦ; Аминдаваа, Цаглашгүй гэрэлт; Amindava, Tsaglasi ügei gereltü

Amoghasiddhi

Sanskrit: Amoghasiddhi

Tib: Dön yö drub pa Mn: ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰ ᠨᠥᠭᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠦᠢᠢᠯᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡ᠋᠌᠋᠋ᠺᠴᠢ; Төгс Нөгчигсөн, Үйл Бүтээгч; Tegüs nögcigsen, Üyile Bütügegci

anagarika A white-robed student in the Theravada
Theravada
tradition who, for a few months, awaits being considered for Samaneras ordination

Pāli: anāgarika

Thai: อนาคาริก a-na-ka-rik

anapanasati Mindfulness of the breath meditation

Pāli: ānāpānasati Sanskrit: ānāpānasmṛti Bur: အာနာပါန anapana (IPA: [ànàpàna̰])

anatta The principle denial of the soul in any phenomena. See also negative theology.

Pāli: anattā Sanskrit: anātman

Bur: အနတ္တ anatta (IPA: [ənaʔta̰]) Shan: ဢၼတ်ႉတႃႉ ([ʔa˩ nat˥ taː˥]) 無我

Cn: wúwǒ Jp: muga Ko: 무아, mua Vi: vô ngã

anicca Impermanence

Pāli: anicca Sanskrit: anitya

Bur: အနိစ္စ aneissa (IPA: [əneɪʔsa̰]) Shan: ဢၼိၵ်ႈၸႃႉ ([ʔa˩ nik˧ tsaː˥]) 無常

Cn: wúcháng Jp: mujō Ko: 무상, musang Vi: vô thường

anuttara Unsurpassing

Pāli: anuttara Sanskrit: anuttara

阿耨多羅/阿耨多罗 (無上/无上)

Cn: Ānòuduōluó ("wǔshàng") Jp: anokutara Ko: 아뇩다라, anyokdara Vi: A-nậu-đà-la (vô thượng) Fi: Ylittämätön

arhat, lit. "the Worthy One", A living person who has reached Enlightenment

Pāli: arahat or arahant Sanskrit: arhat or arhant

Bur: ရဟန္တာ yahanda (IPA: [jaháɴdà]) Shan: ရႁၢၼ်းတႃႇ rahanta ([ra˩ haːn˦ taː˨]) Tib: དགྲ་ཅོམ་པ་, dgra com pa Mn: архад, arkhad 阿羅漢

Cn: āluóhàn Jp: arakan Ko: 아라한, arahan Vi: a-la-hán

anuttara samyak sambodhi, unsurpassable, complete, perfect enlightenment; unsurpassable, right, and full enlightenment

Pāli: Sanskrit:

Khmer: អនុត្តរសម្មាសម្ពោធិ "ak-nut-tha-rak-sam-ma-sam-po-thi" Tib: , Thai: อรหันต์ uh-ra-hann 阿耨多罗三藐三菩提 (or 無上正等正覺)

Cn: ānòuduōluó sānmiǎosānpútí (or wúshàng zhèngděng zhèngjué) Jp: anokutara sanmyakusanbodai Ko: 아뇩다라삼먁삼보리, Anyokdara sammyak sambori Vi: A-nậu-đà-la tam-miệu tam-bồ-đề, Vô-thượng chánh-đẳng chánh-giác, Sáng-suốt giác-ngộ hoàn-toàn

atman literally "self", sometimes "soul" or "ego". In Buddhism, the predominant teaching is the negating doctrine of anatman, that there is no permanent, persisting atman, and that belief in atman is the prime consequence of ignorance, the foundation of samsara

Pāli: atta Sanskrit: ātman

Bur: အတ္တ atta (IPA: [aʔta̰]) 我

Cn: wǒ Jp: ga Ko: 아, a Vi: ngã

Avalokitesvara, lit. "One Who Hears the Suffering Cries of the World", The bodhisattva of compassion (see also Guan Yin)

Sanskrit: Avalokiteśvara Bur: လောကနတ် lawka nat (IPA: [lɔ́ka̰ naʔ])

Tib: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་ spyan ras gzigs Mn: Жанрайсиг, Janraisig 觀世音 or 觀音

Cn: Guānshì Yīn or Guān Yīn Jp: Kanzeon or Kannon Ko: 관세음, Gwanse-eum or 관음, Gwaneum Vi: "Quan Thế Âm Bồ Tát" , "Quán Thế Âm Bồ Tát' or "Quan Âm"

avidya "ignorance" or "delusion"

Sanskrit: avidyā

Pāli: avijjā Bur: အဝိဇ္ဇာ aweizza (IPA: [əweɪʔ zà]) Shan: ဢဝိၵ်ႉၸႃႇ awitsa ([ʔa wik˥ tsaː˨]) Thai: อวิชชา aa-wit-sha Tib: མ་རིག་པ་ ma rig-pa 無明

Cn: wúmíng Jp: mumyō Ko: 무명, mumyeong Vi: vô minh

Contents: 

Top 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

B[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

bardo, lit. "intermediate state" or "in-between state", According to Tibetan tradition, the state of existence intermediate between two lives

Tib: བར་མ་དོའི་སྲིད་པ་ bar ma do'i srid pa

Sanskrit: antarābhava Mn: зуурд, zuurd 中有,中陰身

Cn: zhongyǒu Jp: chūu Ko: 중유 jungyu or 바르도 bareudo Vi: trung hữu, trung ấm thân, thân trung-ấm

bhavacakra/bhavacakka A circular symbolic representation of samsara, also known as Wheel of becoming

Pāli: bhavacakka Sanskrit: bhava-cakra

Bur: ဘဝစက် bawa set (IPA: [bəwa̰ sɛʔ]) Mon: ဘဝစက် ([həwɛ̀ʔ cɛk]) Shan: ၽဝႃႉၸၢၵ်ႈ ([pʰa˩ waː˥ tsaːk˧]) Tib: སྲིད་པའི་འཁོར་ལ Mn: Орчлонгийн хүрдэн, Orchlongiin khurden 有輪

Cn: yǒulún Jp: ariwa Ko: 유륜, yuryun Vi: hữu luân

bhante The polite particle used to refer to Buddhist
Buddhist
monks in the Theravada
Theravada
tradition. Bhante literally means "Venerable Sir."

Pāli

Bur: ဘန္တေ bhante (IPA: [bàɴdè])

bhava Becoming, being, existing; the 10th link of Pratitya-samutpada

Pāli, Sanskrit: bhava

Bur: ဘဝ bawa (IPA: [bəwa̰]) Mon: ဘဝ ([həwɛ̀ʔ]) Shan: ၽဝႃႉ ([pʰa˩ waː˥]) Thai: ภาวะ pa-wah 有(十二因緣)

Cn: yǒu Jp: u Ko: 유, yu Vi: hữu (thập nhị nhân duyên)

bhikkhu/bhikshu, lit. "beggar", A Buddhist
Buddhist
monk

Pāli: bhikkhu Sanskrit: bhikṣu

Bur: ဘိက္ခု bheikkhu (IPA: [beɪʔkʰù]) Shan: ၽိၵ်ႈၶူႇ ([pʰik˧ kʰu˨]) Tib: དགེ་སློང་ dge slong Mn: гэлэн, gelen Thai: ภิกขุ bhikku 比丘

Cn: bǐ qiū Jp: biku Ko: 비구, bigu or 스님 seunim, also 중, jung (pejorative) Vi: tì-kheo

bhikkhuni/bhikshuni A Buddhist
Buddhist
nun

from bhikkhu Pāli: bhikkhuni Sanskrit: bhikṣuni

Bur: ဘိက္ခုနီ bheikkhuni (IPA: [beɪʔkʰùnì]) Shan: ၽိၵ်ႈၶူႇၼီႇ ([pʰik˧ kʰu˨ ni˨]) Kar: ဘံကူနံ or ဖံဝါ "beegoonee" or "hpeewah" Tib: དགེ་སློང་མ་ sde slong ma Mn: гэлэнмаа, gelenmaa Thai: ภิกษุณี bhiksuni 比丘尼

Cn: bǐqiūní" Jp: bikuni Ko: 비구니, biguni, 여승 (女僧), yeoseung Vi: tỉ-khâu-ni, tỉ-khưu-ni or tì-kheo-ni, ni

bija, lit. "seed", A metaphor for the origin or cause of things, used in the teachings of the Yogacara
Yogacara
school

Sanskrit: bīja

Bur: ဗီဇ biza (IPA: [bì za̰]) 種子

Cn: zhŏngzi Jp: shūji Ko: 종자, jongja Vi: chủng tử, hạt giống, hột giống

bodhi Awakening or Enlightenment

Pāli, Sanskrit: bodhi

Bur: ဗောဓိ bawdhi (IPA: [bɔ́dḭ]) Shan: ပေႃးထီႉ ([pɔ˦ tʰi˥]) Thai: โพธิ์ poe Tib: བྱང་ཆུབ byang chub Mn: бодь, bodi 菩提

Cn: pútí Jp: bodai Ko: 보리, bori Vi: bồ-đề, giác, giác ngộ

Bodhi
Bodhi
tree The Sacred Fig
Sacred Fig
(Ficus religiosa) tree under which Gautama reached Enlightenment

from bodhi above

Bur: ဗောဓိညောင် bawdhi nyaung (IPA: [bɔ́ dḭ ɲàʊɴ]) Shan: ၺွင်ႇပေႃးထီႉ ([ɲɔŋ˨ pɔ˦ tʰi˥]) 菩提樹

Cn: Pútíshù Jp: Bodaiju Ko: 보리수, Borisu Vi: Bồ-đề thụ, Bồ-đề thọ, cây Bồ-đề

bodhicitta The motivation of a bodhisattva

Pāli, Sanskrit: bodhicitta

Bur: ဗောဓိစိတ္တ bawdhi seitta (IPA: [bɔ́dḭ seɪʔ da̰]) Tib: བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, byang chub kyi sems Mn: бодь сэтгэл, bodi setgel 菩提心

Cn: pútíxīn Jp: bodaishin Ko: 보리심, borisim Vi: bồ-đề tâm

bodhisattva One with the intention to become a Buddha in order to liberate all other sentient beings from suffering

Pāli: bodhisatta Sanskrit: bodhisattva

Bur: ဗောဓိသတ် bawdhi that (IPA: [bɔ́ dḭ θaʔ]) Mon: တြုံ လၟောဝ် ကျာ် ([kraoh kəmo caik]) Thai: โพธิสัตว์ poe-ti-satt Tib: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ, byang chub sems dpaʼ Mn: бодьсад(ва), bodisad(va) 菩薩

Cn: púsà Jp: bosatsu Ko: 보살, bosal Vi: bồ-tát

Boghda Holy, living Buddha, living Boddhisattva. The title of Jebtsundamba Khutuktu; also title used with the names of highest Buddhist
Buddhist
masters, e.g. boghda Tsongkhapa, Panchen
Panchen
boghda

Shan: ၽၵ်ႈၵဝႃႇ ([pʰak˧ ka˩ waː˨]) Mn: богд, bogd

Tib: བོག་ད་ bogda

Buddha A Buddha; also, the Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama.

from √budh: to awaken Pāli, Sanskrit: buddha

Bur: ဗုဒ္ဓ bodha (IPA: [boʊʔda̰]) Shan: ပုၵ်ႉထႃႉ ([puk˥ tʰaː˥]) Tib: སངས་རྒྱས sangs rgyas Mn: бурхан, burhan 佛, 仏, 仏陀

Cn: fó Jp: butsu or hotoke or budda Ko: 불, Bul or 부처, Bucheo Vi: Phật or Bụt

buddha nature The uncreated and deathless Buddhic element or principle concealed within all sentient beings to achieve Awakening; the innate (latent) Buddha essence (esp. in the Tathagatagarbha
Tathagatagarbha
sutras, Tendai/Tiantai, Nichiren
Nichiren
thought)

Sanskrit: buddha-dhatu, buddha-svabhāva, "tathagata-dhatu", or tathagatagarbha.

佛性, 仏性

Cn: fóxìng Jp: busshō Ko: 불성, bulseong Vi: Phật tính, Phật tánh, Cái tánh sáng-suốt giác-ngộ hoàn-toàn

Buddhism

from √budh: to awaken Pāli, Sanskrit:

Bur: ဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာ boddha batha (IPA: [boʊʔda̰ bàðà]) Shan: ပုၵ်ႉထႃႉၽႃႇသႃႇ ([puk˥ tʰaː˥ pʰaː˨ sʰaː˨]) Mon: ဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာ ([pùttʰɛ̀ʔ pʰɛ̀asa]) Tib: ནང་བསྟན། Mn: Бурханы Шашин, Burhanii Shashin 佛教, 仏教

Cn: Fójiào Jp: bukkyō Ko: 불교, bulgyo Vi: Phật-giáo

Contents: 

Top 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

C[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

cetana Volition

Pali: cetana

Bur: စေတနာ sedana (IPA: [sèdənà])

Cetiya
Cetiya
A reliquary holding holy objects of veneration

Pali: cetiya Sanskrit: caitya

Bur: စေတီ zedi (IPA: [zèdi]) Khm: Mon: စေတဳ setaow ([cetɔe]) Shan: ၸေႇတီႇ tseti ([tse˨ ti˨]) Sin: චෛත්යයය chedi Thai: เจดีย์ chetiya Tib: མཆོད་རྟེན༏ mchod rten (chorten) 塔

Zh: Ta Vi: Tháp Ko: Tap Jp: 卒塔婆 sotōba

D[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

dakini A supernatural female with volatile temperament who serves as a muse for spiritual practice. Dakinis are often depicted naked to represent the truth

Sanskrit: ḍākinī

Tibetan: མཁའ་འགྲོ་མ་, Wylie: mkha' 'gro ma Mn: дагина, dagina 空行女, 荼枳尼天

Cn: kong xing mu Jp: Dakini-ten Ko: 다키니 dakini or 공행녀 gonghaengnyeo Vi: không hành nữ

Dalai Lama, lit. "the lama with wisdom like an ocean", secular and spiritual leader of Tibet
Tibet
as nominated by the Mongols

Mn: далай, dalai, lit. "ocean" Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་ taa-la'i bla-ma

達賴喇嘛

Cn: Dálài Lǎma Jp: Darai Rama Ko: 달라이 라마 dalai nama Vi: Đạt Lai Lạt Ma or Đạt-lại Lạt-ma

dana Generosity or giving; in Buddhism, it also refers to the practice of cultivating generosity

Pāli, Sanskrit: dāna

Bur: ဒါန dana (IPA: [dàna̰]) Mon: ဒါန ([tɛ̀anɛ̀ʔ]) or ဒါန် ([tàn]) Thai: ทาน taan 布施

Cn: bùshī Jp: fuse Ko: 보시 bosi Vi: bố thí

Mn: өглөг

deva many different types of non-human beings who share the characteristics of being more powerful, longer-lived, and, in general, living more contentedly than the average human being

Pāli
Pāli
and Sanskrit: deva

Bur: ဒေဝ dewa (IPA: [dèwa̰]) Khmer: ទេព or preah (ព្រះ) Mn: тэнгэр tenger Mon: ဒေဝတဴ tewetao ([tèwətao]) Shan: တေႇဝႃႇ ([a˨ wɔ˨]) 天

Zh: tiān Ko: cheon Jp: ten Vi: thiên

dependent origination, see Pratityasamutpada

Pāli: paṭicca-samuppāda Sanskrit: pratītya-samutpāda

Bur: ပဋိစ္စသမုပ္ပါဒ် padeissa thamopad (IPA: [pədeɪʔsa̰ θəmoʊʔpaʔ]) Tib: rten.cing.'brel.bar.'byung.ba Mn: шүтэн барилдлага shuten barildlaga 因縁, also 緣起, 縁起

Cn: yīnyuan, also yuánqǐ Jp: innen, also engi Ko: 인연 inyeon, also 연기 yeongi Vi: nhân duyên, duyên khởi

dhamma/dharma Often refers to the doctrines and teachings of the faith, but it may have broader uses. Also, it is an important technical term meaning something like "phenomenological constituent." This leads to the potential for confusion, puns, and double entendres, as the latter meaning often has negative connotations

from √dhṛ: to hold Pāli: dhamma Sanskrit: dharma

Bur: ဓမ္မ dhamma (IPA: [dəma̰]) Mon: ဓဝ် ([thò]) Thai: ธรรมะ tharrma Tibetan: ཆོས་, Wylie: chos Mn: дээдийн ном, deediin nom 法

Cn: fă Jp: hō Ko: beop Vi: pháp

dhammavinaya The dharma and vinaya (roughly "doctrine and discipline") considered together. This term essentially means the whole teachings of Buddhism
Buddhism
as taught to monks

Mn: суртгаал номхотгол, surtgaal nomkhotgol

dhammacakka/dharmacakra A symbolic representation of the dharma, also known as the Wheel of Dharma

Sanskrit: dharmacakra Pāli: dhammacakka

Bur: ဓမ္မစကြာ dhamma sekya (IPA: [dəməsɛʔtɕà]) Tibetan: ཆོས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ, Wylie: chos kyi ʼkhor lo Mn: номын хүрдэн, momiin khurden 法輪

Cn: Fǎlún Jp: hōrin Ko: beomnyun Vi: pháp luân

Dhammapada
Dhammapada
a versified Buddhist
Buddhist
scripture traditionally ascribed to the Buddha

Pāli: Dhammapada Sanskrit: Dharmapada

Bur: ဓမ္မပဒ Dhammapada
Dhammapada
(IPA: [dəma̰pəda̰]) 法句經

Chinese: 法句经; pinyin: Fǎjù jīng Jp: Hokkukyō (shin. 法句経) Ko: Beopgugyeong Vi: Kinh Pháp Cú

dhammapala/dharmapala A fearsome deity, known as protector of the Dharma

Sanskrit: dharmapāla Pāli: dhammapāla

Tib: ཆོས་སྐྱོང་ chos skyong Mn: догшид, dogshid; хангал, khangal 護法

Cn: hùfǎ Jp: gohō Ko: hobeop Vi: Hộ Pháp

Dhyana, see jhana

Pāli: jhāna Sanskrit: dhyāna

Bur: ဈာန် zan (IPA: [zàɴ]) Mon: ဇျာန် ([chàn]) Mn: дияан, diyan 禪 or 禪那, 禅 or 禅那

Cn: Chán
Chán
or Chánnà Jp: Zen
Zen
or Zenna Ko: Seon Vi: Thiền or Thiền-na

Dīpankara Buddha

Pāli: Dīpamkara Sanskrit: Dīpankara

Bur: ဒီပင်္ကရာ dipankara (IPA: [dìpɪ̀ɴkəɹà]) Thai: พระทีปังกรพุทธเจ้า 燃燈佛

Cn: Rándēng Fo Jp: Nentōbutsu Vi: Nhiên-đăng Phật

doan In Zen, a term for person sounding the bell that marks the beginning and end of Zazen

Japanese: 堂行 dōan

dokusan A private meeting between a Zen
Zen
student and the master. It is an important element in Rinzai
Rinzai
Zen
Zen
training, as it provides an opportunity for the student to demonstrate understanding

Japanese: 独参 dokusan

獨參

Cn: dúcān Ko: dokcham Vi: độc tham

dudie official certificate for monks and nuns issued by government

度牒

Cn: dùdié Jp: dochō Ko: ?? Vi: ??

dukkha Suffering, dissatisfaction, unsatisfactoriness, stress

Pāli: dukkha Sanskrit: duḥkha

Bur: ဒုက္ခ doukkha (IPA: [doʊʔkʰa̰]) Shan: တုၵ်ႉၶႃႉ ([tuk˥ kʰaː˥]) Thai: ทุกข์ took Tib: སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal Mn: зовлон, zovlon 苦

Cn: kǔ Jp: ku Ko: go Vi: khổ

dzogchen The natural, intrinsic state of every sentient being

Tibetan: རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ rdzogs pa chen po

Sanskrit: atiyoga 大究竟

Cn: dàjiūjìng Jp: daikukyō Ko: daegugyeong Vi: đại cứu cánh

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F[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

Five Five-Hundred-Year Periods Five sub-divisions of the three periods following the Buddha's passing (三時繫念 Cn: sānshí; Jp: sanji; Vi: tam thời), significant for many Mahayana
Mahayana
adherents:

Age of enlightenment (解脱堅固 Cn: jiětuō jiāngù; Jp: gedatsu kengo) Age of meditation (禅定堅固 Cn: chándìng jiāngù; Jp: zenjō kengo) These two ages comprise the Former Day of the Law (正法時期 Cn: zhèngfǎ; Jp: shōbō) Age of reading, reciting, and listening (読誦多聞堅固 Cn: sòngduōwén jiāngù; Jp: dokuju tamon kengo) Age of building temples and stupas (多造塔寺堅固 Cn: duōzào tǎsì jiāngù; Jp: tazō tōji kengo) These two ages comprise the Middle Day of the Law (像法時期 Cn: xiàngfǎ; Jp: zōhō) Age of conflict (闘諍堅固 Cn: zhēng jiāngù; Jp: tōjō kengo), an age characterized by unrest, strife, famine, and other natural and human-made disasters. This age corresponds to the beginning of the Latter Day of the Law (末法時期 Cn: mòfǎ; Jp: mappō) when the (historical) Buddha's teachings would lose all power of salvation and perish (白法隠没 Cn: báifǎméi; Jp: byakuhō onmotsu) and a new Buddha would appear to save the people.

The three periods and the five five-hundred year periods are described in the Sutra
Sutra
of the Great Assembly (大集 Cn: dàjí; Jp: Daishutu-kyō, Daijuku-kyō, Daijikkyō, or Daishukkyō).

五箇五百歲, 五箇五百歳

Cn: 五箇五百歲 wǔ ge wǔbǎi suì Jp: 五箇の五百歳 go no gohyaku sai Vi: ??

Four Noble Truths

Truth of dukkha (suffering, anxiety, stress) (Sanskrit: duḥkhāryasatya; Bur: ဒုက္ခ dokkha; Thai: ทุกข์; 苦諦 Cn: kǔdì; Jp: kutai; Vi: khổ đế; Mn: зовлон, zovlon) Truth of the origin (samudaya) of dukkha (Sanskrit: samudayāryasatya; Bur: သမုဒယ thamodaya; Thai: สมุทัย; 集諦 Cn: jídì; Jp: jittai; Vi: tập khổ đế; ; Mn: зовлонгийн шалтгаан, zovlongiin shaltgaan) Truth of the cessation (nirodha) of dukkha (Sanskrit: duḥkhanirodhāryasatya; Bur: နိရောဓ niyawdha; Thai: นิโรธ; 滅諦 Cn: mièdì; Jp: mettai; Vi: diệt khổ đế; Mn: гэтлэх, getlekh) The path (marga) that leads out of dukkha (Sanskrit: duḥkhanirodhagāminī pratipad; Bur: မဂ် meg; Thai: มรรค; 道諦 Cn: dàodì; Jp: dōtai; Vi: đạo đế; Mn: мөр, mör)

Pāli: cattāri ariya-saccāni Sanskrit: चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि catvāry āryasatyāni Bur: သစ္စာလေးပါး thissa lei ba (IPA: [θɪʔsà lé bá]) Khmr: អរិយសច្ចៈទាំង៤ 四諦, 四聖諦, 苦集滅道

Cn: Sìdì Jp: shitai, shishōtai, kujūmetsudō Vi: Tứ diệu đế

Mn: Хутагтын дөрвөн үнэн, khutagtiin dörvön unen

fukudo In Zen, term for person who strikes the han

Japanese: 副堂 fukudō

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G[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

gassho A position used for greeting, with the palms together and fingers pointing upwards in prayer position; used in various Buddhist traditions, but also used in numerous cultures throughout Asia. It expresses greeting, request, thankfulness, reverence and prayer. Also considered a mudra or inkei of Japanese Shingon. See also: Añjali Mudrā, Namaste, Sampeah
Sampeah
and Wai.

Japanese: 合掌 gasshō

Sanskrit: anjali 合掌

Cn: hézhǎng (more common to say 合十 héshí) Vi: hiệp chưởng

Gautama Buddha

Pāli: Gotama Sanskrit: Gautama

Bur: ဂေါတမ (IPA: [ɡɔ́dəma̰]) 瞿曇 悉達多

Jp: Kudon Shiddatta

geshe A Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
academic degree in the Gelug
Gelug
tradition, awarded at the conclusion of lengthy studies often lasting nine years or more

Tibetan: དགེ་ཤེས་

Mn: гэвш gevsh 格西

gongan, lit. "public case", A meditative method developed in the Chán/Seon/ Zen
Zen
traditions, generally consisting of a problem that defies solution by means of rational thought; see koan

Chinese 公案 gōng-àn

公案

Jp: kōan Ko: gong'an Vi: công án

Guan Yin
Guan Yin
The bodhisattva of compassion in East Asian Buddhism, with full name being Guan Shi Yin. Guan Yin
Guan Yin
is considered to be the female form of Avalokiteshvara
Avalokiteshvara
but has been given many more distinctive characteristics.

Chinese 觀音 Guān Yīn or 觀世音 Guān Shì Yīn

觀音 or 觀世音

Jp: Kannon or Kanzeon Ko: Gwaneum or Gwanse-eum Vi: Quan Âm or Quan Thế Âm

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H[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

han In Zen
Zen
monasteries, wooden board that is struck announcing sunrise, sunset and the end of the day

Japanese: 板

Hinayana, lit. "small vehicle", A coinage by the Mahayana
Mahayana
for the Buddhist
Buddhist
doctrines concerned with the achievement of Nirvana
Nirvana
as a Śrāvakabuddha or a Pratyekabuddha, as opposed to a Samyaksambuddha. While sometime thought as derogatory, it means in fact that the Hinayana
Hinayana
doctrine is made to save but 1 individual, the one who follows its teachings, just like a 1 place vehicle, while the Mahayana allow the monk to take other people along with him, like a bus or a great plane.

Sanskrit: hīnayāna

Bur: ဟီနယာန hinayana (IPA: [hḭna̰jàna̰]) 小乘 or 小乗, 二乘

Cn: Xiǎoshèng Jp: Shōjō Vi: Tiểu thừa

Mn: Бага хөлгөн, Baga hölgön

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I[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

Ino, Jp. lit. "bringer of joy to the assembly." Originally from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
karmadana, lit. bestower of conduct [karma]. In Zen, the supervisor of the meditation hall [sodo]. One of the six senior temple administrators.

Japanese: 維那

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[1] J[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

jhana Meditative contemplation; more often associated with śamatha practices than vipaśyana. See also: shamata, samadhi, samapatti

from √dhyā: to think of, to contemplate, meditate on Pāli: jhāna Sanskrit: dhyāna

Bur: ဈာန် zan (IPA: [zàɴ]) Mon: ဇျာန် ([chàn]) Thai: ฌาน chaan 禪 or 禪那, 禅 or 禅那 Sinhala: ජාන jhāna

Cn: Chán
Chán
or Chánnà Jp: Zen
Zen
or Zenna Ko: Seon Vi: Thiền or Thiền-na

Mn: дияан, diyan

jisha In Zen, a senior priest's attendant

Japanese: 侍者 jisha

jukai Zen
Zen
public ordination ceremony wherein a lay student receives certain Buddhist
Buddhist
precepts.

Chinese: 受戒, shou jie Korean: 수계, sugye

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K[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

Kakusandha Buddha

Pāli: Kakusandha Sanskrit: Krakkucchanda

Bur: ကကုသန် Kakuthan (IPA: [ka̰kṵθàɴ]) 拘留孙佛

Zh: Jūliúsūn Fó Vi: Câu-lưu-tôn Phật

karma, lit. "action", The law of cause and effect in Buddhism

from √kri: to do Sanskrit: karma Pāli: kamma

Bur: ကံ kan (IPA: [kàɴ]) or ကြမ္မာ kyamma (IPA: [tɕəmà]) Mon: ကံ ([kɔm]) Shan: ၵျၢမ်ႇမႃႇ ([kjaːm˨ maː˨]) or ၵၢမ်ႇ ([kaːm˨]) Thai: กรรม gum Tib: ལས, las Mn: үйлийн үр, uiliin ür 業¹, 因果²

Cn: ¹yè, comm.: ²yīnguǒ Jp: gō, inga Ko: 업 eob Vi: nghiệp

Kassapa Buddha

Pāli: Kassapa

Sanskrit: Kasyapa

Bur: ကဿပ Kathapa (IPA: [kaʔθəpa̰]) 迦葉佛

Cn: Jiāyè Fó Jp: Kashōbutsu Vi: Ca-diếp Phật

kensho In Zen, enlightenment; has the same meaning as satōri, but is customary used for an initial awakening experience

Japanese: 見性 kenshō

見性

Cn: jiànxìng Vi: kiến tính, kiến tánh

khyenpo, also khenpo, An academic degree similar to a doctorate in theology, philosophy, and psychology

Tibetan

khanti patience

Bur: ခန္တီ khanti (IPA: [kʰàɴ dì]) Shan: ၶၼ်ႇထီႇ ([kʰan˨ tʰi˨]) Thai: ขันติ kanti 耐心

Cn: Nàixīn Vi: nhẫn (trong lục ba-la-mật)

kinhin Zen
Zen
walking meditation

Japanese: 経行 kinhin or kyōgyō

經行

Cn: jīngxíng Vi: kinh hành

koan A story, question, problem or statement generally inaccessible to rational understanding, yet may be accessible to Intuition

Japanese: 公案 kōan

公案

Cn: gōng-àn Ko: gong'an Vi: công án

ksanti The practice of exercising patience toward behaviour or situations that might not necessarily deserve it—it is seen as a conscious choice to actively give patience as a gift, rather than being in a state of oppression in which one feels obligated to act in such a way.

Sanskrit

忍辱

Jp: ninniku

Koṇāgamana Buddha

Pāli
Pāli
and Sanskrit: Koṇāgamana

Bur: ကောဏာဂုံ Kawnagon (IPA: [kɔ́nəɡòʊɴ]) 拘那含佛

Zh: Jūnàhán Fó Vi: Câu-na-hàm-mâu-ni Phật'

kyosaku In Zen, a flattened stick used to strike the shoulders during zazen, to help overcome fatigue or reach satori

Japanese: 警策 kyōsaku, called keisaku in Rinzai

香板

Cn: xiangban kr: jukbi(죽비)

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L[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

lama A Tibetan teacher or master; equivalent to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"guru"

Tibetan: བླ་མ་ bla ma

Sanskrit: guru 喇嘛

Cn: lǎma Jp: rama Vi: lạt-ma

Mn: лам, lam

lineage The official record of the historical descent of dharma teachings from one teacher to another; by extension, may refer to a tradition

傳承

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M[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
Buddhist
Buddhist
philosophical school, founded by Nagarjuna. Members of this school are called Madhyamikas

Sanskrit: mādhyamika

Tib: དབུ་མ་པ་ dbu ma pa Mn: төв үзэл, töv üzel 中觀宗, 中観派

Cn: Zhōngguānzōng Jp: Chūganha Vi: Trung quán tông

mahabhuta four great elements in traditional Buddhist
Buddhist
thought

Pāli
Pāli
and Sanskrit: Mahābhūta

Bur: မဟာဘုတ် Mahabhot (IPA: [məhà boʊʔ])

mahamudra A method of direct introduction the understanding of sunyata, of samsara and that the two are inseparable

Sanskrit: mahāmudrā

Bur: မဟာမုဒြာ maha modra (IPA: [məhà moʊʔdɹà]) Tib: ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ chag-je chen-po Mn: махамудра, mahamudra 大手印

Cn: dàshŏuyìn Jp: daishuin Vi: đại thủ ấn

mahasiddha litt. great spiritual accomplishment. A yogi in Tantric Buddhism, often associated with the highest levels of enlightenment

Sanskrit: mahāsiddha

Bur: မဟာသိဒ္ဒ maha theidda (IPA: [məhà θeɪʔda̰]) Thai: มหายาน 大成就

Cn: dàchéngjiù Jp: daijōju Vi: đại thành tựu

Mahayana, lit. "great vehicle", A major branch of Buddhism
Buddhism
practiced in China, Tibet, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan. Main goal is to achieve buddhahood or samyaksambuddha

Sanskrit: mahāyāna

Bur: မဟာယာန mahayana (IPA: [məhàjàna̰]) 大乘 or 大乗

Cn: Dàshèng Jp: Daijō Vi: Đại thừa

Mn: Ikh khölgön

Maitreya
Maitreya
The Buddha of the future epoch

Pāli: Metteyya Sanskrit: Maitreya

Bur: အရိမေတ္တေယျ arimetteya (IPA: [əɹḭmèdja̰]) Shan: ဢရီႉမိတ်ႈတေႇယႃႉ ([ʔa˩ ri˥ mit˧ ta˨ jɔ˥]) Tib: བྱམས་པ, byams pa Mn: Майдар, maidar 彌勒 or 彌勒佛, 弥勒 or 弥勒仏

Cn: Mílè or Mílè Fó Jp: Miroku or Miroku-butsu Vi: Di-lặc or Phật Di-lặc

makyo In Zen, unpleasant or distracting thoughts or illusions that occur during zazen

Japanese: 魔境 makyō

Vi: ma chướng

Māna conceit, arrogance, misconception

Pāli
Pāli
and Sanskrit: Māna

Bur: မာန mana (IPA: [màna̰]) Mon: မာန် man ([màn]) Shan: မႃႇၼႃႉ ([maː˨ naː˥]) 慢

Jp: man

mandala a spiritual and ritual symbol representing the Universe

Sanskrit: मण्डल Maṇḍala (lit. "circle")

曼荼羅

Cn: màntúluó Jp: mandara Vi: mạn-đà-la

mantra Chant used primarily to aid concentration, to reach enlightenment. The best-known Buddhist
Buddhist
mantra is possibly Om mani padme hum

Sanskrit: mantra

Thai: มนตร์ moan Mn: маань, тарни; maani, tarni 咒, 真言

Cn: zou Jp: shingon, ju Vi: chân âm, thần chú

Mappo
Mappo
The "degenerate" Latter Day of the Law. A time period supposed to begin 2,000 years after Sakyamuni Buddha's passing and last for "10,000 years"; follows the two 1,000-year periods of Former Day of the Law (正法 Cn: zhèngfǎ; Jp: shōbō) and of Middle Day of the Law (像法 Cn: xiàngfǎ; Jp: zōhō). During this degenerate age, chaos will prevail and the people will be unable to attain enlightenment through the word of Sakyamuni Buddha. See the Three periods

Japanese: 末法 mappō

末法

Cn: mòfǎ Vi: mạt pháp

merit

Pāli: puñña Sanskrit: puṇya

Bur: ကုသိုလ် kutho (IPA: [kṵðò]) Mon: ကုသဵု ([kaoʔsɒ]) or ပိုန် ([pɒn]) Shan: ပုင်ႇၺႃႇ ([puŋ˨ ɲaː˨]) or ၵူႉသူဝ်ႇ ([ku˥ sʰo˨]) or ၵူႉသလႃႉ ([ku˥ sʰa˩ laː˥]) 功徳

Jp: kudoku

metta loving kindness

Pāli: Sanskrit:

Bur: မေတ္တာ myitta (IPA: [mjɪʔtà]) Mon: မေတ္တာ ([mètta]) Shan: မိတ်ႈတႃႇ ([mit˧ taː˨]) or မႅတ်ႈတႃႇ ([mɛt˧ taː˨]) Thai: เมตตา metta 慈

Ch: Cí Jp: ji Vi: từ

Middle Way
Middle Way
The practice of avoidance of extreme views and lifestyle choices

Pāli: majjhimāpaṭipadā Sanskrit: madhyamāpratipad

Bur: မဇ္ဇိမပဋိပဒါ myizima badi bada (IPA: [mjɪʔzḭma̰ bədḭ bədà]) 中道

Ch: zhōngdào Jp: chūdō Vi: trung đạo

Mn: дундаж зам мөр, dundaj zam mör

(right) mindfulness The practice whereby a person is intentionally aware of his or her thoughts and actions in the present moment, non-judgmentally. The 7th step of the Noble Eightfold Path

Pāli: (sammā)-sati Sanskrit: (samyag)-smṛti Bur: သတိ thadi (IPA: [ðadḭ]) Thai: สัมมาสติ samma-sati 正念

Cn: zhèngniàn Jp: shōnen Vi: chính niệm, chánh niệm

moksha Liberation

Sanskrit: mokṣa

Pāli: vimutti Bur: ဝိမုတ္တိ wimouti (IPA: [wḭmoʊʔtḭ]) 解脱

Cn: jiětuō Jp: gedatsu Vi: giải thoát

mokugyo A wooden drum carved from one piece, usually in the form of a fish

Japanese: 木魚 mokugyo

木魚

Cn: mùyú Vi: mõ

mondo In Zen, a short dialogue between teacher and student

Japanese: 問答 mondō

問答

Cn: wèndǎ Vi:

mudra lit. "seal", A gesture made with hands and fingers in meditation

Sanskrit: mudrā

Bur: မုဒြာ modra (IPA: [moʊʔdɹà]) Tib: ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ phyag rgya Mn: чагжаа, chagjaa 手印

Cn: sohyìn (commonly only yìn) Jp: shuin Vi: ấn

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N[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

namo An exclamation showing reverence; devotion. Often placed in front of the name of an object of veneration, e.g., a Buddha's name or a sutra (Nam(u) Myōhō Renge Kyō), to express devotion to it. Defined in Sino-Japanese as 帰命 kimyō: to base one's life upon, to devote (or submit) one's life to Derivatives:

Namo Amitabha

Pāli: namo Sanskrit: namaḥ or namas

Derivatives:

Sanskrit: namo-'mitābhāya

Bur: နမော namaw (IPA: [nəmɔ́]) Tib: ཕྱག་འཚལ་(ལོ), chag tsal (lo) Mn: мөргөмү, mörgömü 南無

Cn: nánmó Jp: namu or nam Ko: namu Vi: nam-mô

Derivatives:

南無阿弥陀佛

Cn: Nánmó Ēmítuó fó Jp: Namu Amida butsu Ko: Namu Amita Bul Vi: Nam-mô A-di-đà Phật

南無觀世音菩薩

Cn: Nánmó Guán Syr Yín Pū Sá Jp: Namu Kanzeon Butsu Ko: Namu Gwan Se Eum Bo Sal Vi: Nam-mô Quan Thế Âm Bồ Tát

nekkhamma renunciation

Pāli: Sanskrit:

Bur: နိက္ခမ neikhama (IPA: [neɪʔkʰəma̰]) Thai: เนกขัมมะ nekkamma Mn: магад гарахуй, magad garahui 出世

Cn: Chūshì Jp: shusse Vi: xuất thế

Nirvana/Nibbana Extinction or extinguishing; ultimate enlightenment in the Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition

from niḥ-√vā: to extinguish Pāli: nibbāna Sanskrit: nirvana

Bur: နိဗ္ဗာန် neibban (IPA: [neɪʔbàɴ]) Thai: นิพพาน nípphaan Tib: མྱ་ངན་ལས་འདས་པ, mya-ngan-las-'das-pa Mn: нирван, nirvan 涅槃

Cn: Nièpán Jp: Nehan Ko: Yeolban Vi: Niết-bàn

Nikaya, lit. "volume", The Buddhist
Buddhist
texts in Pāli

Pāli: nikāya

Sanskrit: Āgama Bur: နိကာယ nikaya (IPA: [nḭkəja̰]) 部經

Cn: Bùjīng Jp: bukyō Vi: Bộ kinh

Noble Eightfold Path

Right View (Pāli: sammā-diṭṭhi; Sanskrit: samyag-dṛṣṭi; 正見 Cn: zhèngjiàn; Vi: chính kiến) Right Thought (Pāli: sammā-saṅkappa; Sanskrit: samyak-saṃkalpa; 正思唯 Cn: zhèngsīwéi; Vi: chính tư duy) These 2 constitute the path of Wisdom (Pāli: paññā; Sanskrit: prajñā) Right Speech (Pāli: sammā-vācā; Sanskrit: samyag-vāk; 正語 Cn: zhèngyǔ; Vi: chính ngữ) Right Action (Pāli: sammā-kammanta; Sanskrit: samyak-karmānta; 正業 Cn: zhèngyè; Vi: chính nghiệp) Right Living (Pāli: sammā-ājīva; Sanskrit: samyag-ājīva; 正命 Cn: zhèngmìng; Vi: chính mệnh) These 3 constitute the path of Virtue (Pāli: sīla; Sanskrit: śīla) Right Effort (Pāli: sammā-vāyāma; Sanskrit: samyag-vyāyāma; 正精進 Cn: zhèngjīngjìn; Vi: chính tinh tiến) Right Mindfulness (Pāli: sammā-sati; Sanskrit: samyag-smṛti; 正念 Cn: zhèngniàn; Vi: chính niệm) Right Concentration (Pāli: sammā-samādhi; Sanskrit: samyak-samādhi; 正定 Cn: zhèngdìng; Vi: chính định) The last 3 constitute the path of Concentration (Pāli, Sanskrit: samādhi)

Pāli: aṭṭhāṅgika-magga Sanskrit: aṣṭāṅgika-mārga

Bur: မဂ္ဂင် meggin (IPA: [mɛʔɡɪ̀ɴ]) Thai: อริยมรรค ariya-mak 八正道

Cn: Bāzhèngdào Jp: Hasshōdō Ko: Paljeongdo Vi: Bát chính đạo

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O[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

oryoki A set of bowls used in a Zen
Zen
eating ceremony

Japanese: 応量器 ōryōki

osho A term used to address a monk of the Zen
Zen
Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition. Originally reserved for high-ranking monks, it has since been appropriated for everyday use when addressing any male member of the Zen
Zen
clergy

Japanese: 和尚 oshō

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P[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

pabbajja, (a layperson) leaving home to join a community of monks and nuns (lit. "to go forth")

Sanskrit: pravrajya Pali: Pabbajja

出家

Cn: chūjiā Jp: shukke Vi: xuất gia

panca skandha The five constituent elements into which an individual is analyzed. They are:

"form": Pāli, Sanskrit: rūpa; Bu: ရူပ yupa; 色 Cn: sè; Jp: shiki "sensation": Pāli, Sanskrit: vedanā; Bu: ဝေဒန wedana; 受 Cn: shòu; Jp: ju "cognition": Pāli: saññā; Sanskrit: saṃjñā; Bu: သညာ thinnya; 想 Cn: xiàng; Jp: sō "mental formations": Pāli: saṅkhāra; Sanskrit: saṃskāra; Bu: သင်္ခါရ thinkhaya; 行 Cn: xíng; Jp: gyō "consciousness": Pāli: viññāṇa; Sanskrit: vijñāna; Bu: ဝိညာဉ် winyin; 識 Cn: shí; Jp: shiki

Sanskrit: pañca skandha Pāli: pañca khandha

Bur: ခန္ဒာငါးပါး khanda nga ba (IPA: [kʰàɴdà ŋá bá]) Shan: ႁႃႈ ၶၼ်ႇထႃႇ ([haː˧ kʰan˨ tʰaː˨]) 五蘊, 五陰, 五薀

Cn: wǔyùn Jp: go-on, sometimes go-un Vi: ngũ uẩn

Panchen
Panchen
Lama
Lama
The second highest ranking lama in the Gelugpa
Gelugpa
sect of Tibetan Buddhism. after the Dalai Lama

Tibetan: པན་ཆེན་བླ་མ་ pan-chen bla-ma

Sanskrit: paṇḍitaguru Mn: Банчин Богд, Banchin Bogd 班禪喇嘛

Cn: Bānchán Lǎma Jp: ?? Vi: Ban-thiền Lạt-ma

paññā, see prajna

Sanskrit:

Bur: ပညာ pyinnya (IPA: [pjɪ̀ɴɲà]) Mon: ပညာ ([pɔnɲa]) Shan: ပိင်ႇၺႃႇ ([piŋ˨ ɲaː˨]) Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་ shes rab Mn: билиг, bilig 智慧 or 知恵 or 般若

Cn: Zhìhuì, zhīhuì, bōrě Jp: chie,hannya Vi: bát-nhã

paramartha Absolute, as opposed to merely conventional, truth or reality; see also samvrti

Sanskrit: paramārtha

Bur: ပရမတ် paramat (IPA: [pəɹəmaʔ]) Thai: ปรมัตถ์ paramutt 真諦

Jp: shintai

paramita, lit. "reaching the other shore," usually rendered in English as "perfection." The Mahayana
Mahayana
practices for obtaining enlightenment; giving, ethics, patience, effort, concentration and wisdom

Pāli: pāramī Sanskrit: pāramitā

Bur: ပါရမီ parami (IPA: [pàɹəmì]) Mon: ပါရမဳ ([parəmɔe]) Thai: บารมี baramee Mn: барамид, baramid 波羅蜜 or 波羅蜜多

Cn: bōluómì or bōluómìduō Jp: haramitsu or haramita Vi: ba-la-mật or ba-la-mật-đa

parinibbana/parinirvana The final nibbana/nirvana

from nibbana/nirvana above Pāli: parinibbāna Sanskrit: parinirvāṇa

Bur: ပရိနိဗ္ဗာန် pareineibban (IPA: [pəɹeɪʔneɪʔbàɴ]) Thai: ปรินิพพาน pari-nippaan 般涅槃

Cn: bōnièpán Jp: hatsunehan Vi: bát-niết-bàn

Perfection of Wisdom

from pāramitā ("perfection") above and prajñā/paññā ("wisdom") below Sanskrit: prajñāpāramitā Pāli: paññāparami

Bur: ပညာပါရမီ pyinnya parami (IPA: [pjɪ̀ɴɲà pàɹəmì]) Mon: ပညာပါရမဳ ([pɔnɲa parəmɔe]) Mn: билиг барамид, bilig baramid 般若波羅蜜 or 般若波羅蜜多

Cn: bōrě-bōluómì or bōrě-bōluómìduō Jp: hannya-haramitsu or hannya-haramita Vi: bát-nhã-ba-la-mật or bát-nhã-ba-la-mật-đa

Pointing-out instruction The direct introduction to the nature of mind in the lineages of Essence Mahamudra
Mahamudra
and Dzogchen. A root guru is the master who gives the 'pointing-out instruction' so that the disciple recognizes the nature of mind

Tibetan: ངོ་སྤྲོད་ ngo-sprod

prajna/paññā "wisdom", "insight"

Pāli: paññā Sanskrit: prajñā

Bur: ပညာ pyinnya (IPA: [pjɪ̀ɴɲà]) Thai: ปัญญา pun-ya Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་ shes rab Mn: хөтлөх, khötlökh 般若

Cn: bōrě or bānruò Jp: hannya Vi: bát-nhã

pratitya-samutpada "Dependent origination," the view that no phenomenon exists (or comes about) without depending on other phenomena or conditions contingent with it. In English also called "conditioned genesis," "dependent co-arising," "interdependent arising," etc. A famous application of dependent origination is the Twelve Nidana, or 12 inter-dependences (Sanskrit: dvādaśāṅgapratītyasamutpāda; 十二因緣, 十二因縁 Cn: shíàr yīnyuán; Jp: jūni innen; Vi: thập nhị nhân duyên), which are:

Ignorance (Pāli: avijjā; Sanskrit: avidyā; 無明 Cn: wúmíng; Jp: mumyō; Vi: vô minh; Mn: мунхрахуй, munhrahui) Ignorance creates Mental Formation (Pāli: saṅkhāra; Sanskrit: saṃskāra; 行 Cn: xíng; Jp: gyō; Vi: hành; Mn: хуран үйлдэхүй, khuran uildehui) Mental Formation creates Consciousness (Pāli: viññāṇa; Sanskrit: vijñāna; 識 Cn: shí; Jp: shiki; Vi: thức; Mn: тийн мэдэхүй, tiin medehui) Consciousness creates Name & Form (Pāli, Sanskrit: nāmarūpa; 名色 Cn: míngsè; Jp: myōshiki; Vi: danh sắc; Mn: нэр өнгө, ner öngö) Name & Form create Sense Gates (Pāli: saḷāyatana; Sanskrit: ṣaḍāyatana; 六入 or 六処 Cn: liùrù; Jp: rokunyū or rokusho; Vi: lục căn; Mn: төрөн түгэхүй, törön tugehui) Sense Gates create Contact (Pāli: phassa; Sanskrit: sparśa; 觸, 触 Cn: chù; Jp: soku; Vi: xúc; Mn: хүрэлцэхүй, khureltsehui) Contact creates Feeling
Feeling
(Pāli, Sanskrit: vedanā; 受 Cn: shòu; Jp: ju; Vi: thụ; Mn: сэрэхүй, serehui) Feeling
Feeling
creates Craving (Pāli: taṇhā; Sanskrit: tṛṣṇā; 愛 Cn: ài; Jp: ai; Vi: ái; Mn: хурьцахуй, khuritsahui) Craving creates Clinging (Pāli, Sanskrit: upādāna; 取 Cn: qǔ; Jp: shu; Vi: thủ; Mn: авахуй, avahui) Clinging creates Becoming (Pāli, Sanskrit: bhava; 有 Cn: yǒu; Jp: u; Vi: hữu; Mn: сансар, sansar) Becoming creates Birth (Pāli, Sanskrit: jāti; 生 Cn: shēng; Jp: shō; Vi: sinh; Mn: төрөхүй, töröhui ) Birth leads to Aging & Death (Pāli, Sanskrit: jarāmaraṇa; 老死 Cn: láosǐ; Jp: rōshi; Vi: lão tử; Mn: өтлөх үхэхүй, ötlöh uhehui)

Pāli: paṭicca-samuppāda Sanskrit: pratitya-samutpāda

Bur: ပဋိစ္စသမုပ္ပါဒ် padeissa thamopad (IPA: [pədeɪʔsa̰ θəmoʊʔpaʔ]) Tib: རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་བར་འབྱུང་བ་ rten cing `brel bar `byung ba Mn: шүтэн барилдлага, shuten barildlaga 緣起 (thought to be an abbreviation for 因緣生起), 縁起

Cn: yuánqǐ Jp: engi Vi: duyên khởi

Also called 因緣, 因縁

Cn: yīnyuán Jp: innen Vi: nhân duyên

Pratyekabuddha/Paccekabuddha, lit. "a buddha by his own", A buddha who reaches enlightenment on his own

Pāli: paccekabuddha Sanskrit: pratyekabuddha

Bur: ပစ္စေကဗုဒ္ဓါ pyiseka boddha (IPA: [pjɪʔsèka̰ boʊʔdà]) 辟支佛

Cn: Bìzhī Fó Jp: Hyakushibutsu Vi: Bích-chi Phật

Pure Land
Pure Land
Buddhism
Buddhism
A large branch of Mahayana, dominantly in East Asia. The goal of Pure Land
Pure Land
Buddhism
Buddhism
is to be reborn in the Western sukhavati of Amitabha, either as a real place or within the mind, through the other-power of repeating the Buddha's name, nianfo or nembutsu.

净土宗(Ch), 浄土教(Jp)

Cn: Jìngtǔ-zōng Jp: Jōdo-kyo Ko: Jeongtojong Vi: Tịnh độ tông

purisa The practicing Buddhist
Buddhist
community as a whole; sangha and laity

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R[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

rebirth The process of continuity of life after death

Pāli: punabbhava Sanskrit: punarbhava

輪廻

Cn: lunhui Jp: rinne Vi: luân hồi

Ratnasambhava

Sanskrit: Ratnasambhava

Tib: རིན་ཆེན་འབྱུང་གནས Rinchen Jung ne Mn: ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠣ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ; Эрдэнэ гарахын орон, Төгс Эрдэнэ; Erdeni garkhu yin oron, Tegüs Erdeni 寶生佛, 宝生如来

Jp: Hōshō Nyorai Vi: Bảo-sanh Như Lai

refuge Usually in the form of "take refuge in the Three Jewels"

Pāli: saraṇa Sanskrit: śaraṇa

Bur: သရဏဂုံ tharanagon (IPA: [θəɹənəɡòʊɴ]) Mn: аврал, avral Tib: skyabs Thai: สรณะ sorana 歸依

Cn: guīyī Jp: kie Vi: quy y

Rigpa, the knowledge that ensues from recognizing one's nature

Tibetan: རིག་པ (rig pa)

Sanskrit: विद्या (vidyā)

Rinpoche, lit. "precious one", An honorific title for a respected Tibetan lama, such as a tulku

Tibetan: རིན་པོ་ཆེ་, rin-po-che

Mn: римбүчий, rimbuchii 仁波切

Cn: rénbōqiē Jp: リンポチェ rinpoche Vi: ??

Rinzai
Rinzai
Zen
Zen
sect emphasizing koan study; named for master Linji Yixuan

Japanese: 臨済宗 Rinzai-shū

臨濟宗

Cn: Línjì-zōng Vi: Lâm Tế tông

Rohatsu
Rohatsu
A day traditionally honored as the day of the Buddha's enlightenment. While deep in meditation under a bodhi tree, he attained enlightenment upon seeing the morning star just at dawn; celebrated on the 8th day either of December or of the 12th month of the lunar calendar

Japanese: 臘八 Rōhatsu or Rohachi

roshi, lit. "Master", An honorific given to Zen
Zen
teachers in the Rinzai and Obaku sects.

Japanese 老師 Rōshi

禅師

Cn: '’chan shī (lit., old master)

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S[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

sacca truthfulness

Sanskrit: Satya

Bur: သစ္စာ thissa (IPA: [θɪʔ sà]) Mon: သစ္စ ([sɔtcɛʔ]) Shan: သဵတ်ႈၸႃႇ ([sʰet˧ tsaː˨]) Thai: สัจจะ sadja 真

Cn: zhēn Jp: shin Vi:

samanera/shramanera A male novice monk, who, after a year or until the ripe age of 20, will be considered for the higher Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
ordination

Sanskrit: śrāmaṇera

Bur: (ရှင်)သာမဏေ (shin) thamane (IPA: [(ʃɪ̀ɴ) θàmənè]) Mon: သာမ္မဏဳ ([samənɔe]) Shan: သႃႇမၼေႇ ([sʰaː˨ mne˨]) Thai: สามเณร sama-naen 沙彌

Cn: shāmí Jp: shami Vi: sa-di, chú tiểu

samatha Mental stabilization; tranquility meditation. Distinguished from vipassanā meditation

Pāli: samatha Sanskrit: śamatha

Bur: သမထ thamahta (IPA: [θəmətʰa̰]) Thai: สมถะ samatha 舍摩他

Cn: shěmótā Jp: ?? Vi: ??

samsara The cycle of birth and rebirth; the world as commonly experienced

Pāli, Sanskrit: saṃsāra

Bur: သံသရာ thanthaya (IPA: [θàɴðəjà]) Thai: สังสารวัฏ sung-sara-wat Tib: འཁོར་བ khor ba Bur: သံသရာ Mn: орчлон, orchlon 輪迴, 輪廻

Cn: lúnhúi Jp: rinne Vi: luân hồi

samu Work, conceived as a part of Zen
Zen
training.[2]

Japanese: 作務 samu

作務

Cn: zuòwù Vi: ??

samvrti Conventional, as opposed to absolute, truth or reality; see also paramartha

Sanskrit: saṃvriti

Bur: သမ္မုတိ thamudi (IPA: [θəmṵdḭ]) Thai: สมมุติ sommoot 俗諦

Jp: zokutai

sangha The community of Buddhist
Buddhist
monks and nuns. Teachers and practitioners.

Sanskrit: saṅgha

Bur: သံဃာ thangha (IPA: [θàɴɡà]) Mon: သဳလ ([sɛŋ]) Shan: သၢင်ႇၶႃႇ ([sʰaːŋ˨ kʰaː˨]) Thai: สงฆ์ song Tib: ཚོགས་ཀ་མཆོག tsog gyu chog Mn: хуврагийн чуулган, khuvragiin chuulgan 僧團

Cn: sēng tuan Jp: sō, sōryō Vi: tăng già

Sanlun
Sanlun
Buddhist
Buddhist
philosophical school based on the Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
school

Chinese: 三論 sānlùn

三論宗

Cn: Sānlùnzōng Jp: Sanron-shū Vi: Tam luận tông

sanzen A formal interview with a teacher in many traditions of Zen. Similar to dokusan

Japanese

satori Awakening; understanding. A Japanese term for enlightenment

Japanese: 悟り satori

Cn: wú Vi: ngộ

sayadaw Burmese meditation master

Bur: ဆရာတော် sayadaw (IPA: [sʰəjàdɔ̀])

seichu In the Zen
Zen
Buddhist
Buddhist
calendar, a period of intensive, formal monastic training. It is typically characterized by week-long Daisesshins and periodic sanzen

Japanese: 制中 seichu

sesshin A Zen
Zen
retreat where practitioners meditate, eat and work together for several days

Japanese: 接心, 摂心

佛七

Cn: '’fóqī

坐臘/坐腊

Cn: zuòlà

shikantaza Soto Zen. "Only concentrated on sitting" is the main practice of the Soto school of Japanese Zen
Zen
Buddhism

Japanese: 只管打座

默照

Cn: mòzhào

shunyata Emptiness; see also Nagarjuna

Pāli: suññatā Sanskrit: śūnyatā

Bur: သုည ' (IPA: [θòʊɴɲa̰]) Shan: သုင်ႇၺႃႉ ([sʰuŋ˨ ɲaː˥]) Tib: stong pa nyid Mn: хоосон чанар, khooson chanar 空

Cn: kōng Jp: kū Vi: tính Không

Sikhī Buddha
Sikhī Buddha
Buddha of Knowledge

Pāli: Sikhī Buddha Sanskrit: Śikhīn Buddha

Jp: Shiki Butsu

sila "morals", "morality", "ethics": precepts

Pāli: sīla Sanskrit: śīla

Bur: သီလ thila (IPA: [θìla̰]) Mon: သဳ ([sɔelaʔ]) Shan: သီႇလႃႉ ([sʰi˨ laː˥]) Thai: ศีล seen 尸羅,戒

Cn: jiè Jp: kai Vi: giới

Mn: шагшаабад, shagshaabad

Sōtō
Sōtō
Sect of Zen
Zen
emphasizing shikantaza as the primary mode of practice; see also Dōgen

Japanese: 曹洞宗 Sōtō-shū

曹洞宗

Cn: Cáodòng-zōng Vi: Tào Động tông

store consciousness The base consciousness (alayavijnana) taught in Yogacara
Yogacara
Buddhism

Pāli, Sanskrit: ālayavijñāna

阿頼耶識

Cn: āyēshí Jp: arayashiki Vi: a-lại-da thức

sukha happiness; ease; pleasure; bliss

Pāli: sukha Sanskrit: sukha

Bur: သုခ Mon: ?? Mn: ?? 樂

Cn: lè Jp: ?? Vi: ??

sutra Scripture; originally referred to short aphoristic sayings and collections thereof

from √siv: to sew Sanskrit: sutra Pāli: sutta

Bur: သုတ် thoht (IPA: [θoʊʔ]) Mon: သုတ် ([sɔt]) Mon: သုၵ်ႈ ([sʰuk˧]) Thai: สูตร soothe Mn: судар, sudar 經, 経

Cn: jīng Jp: kyō Vi: kinh

Sutra
Sutra
Pitaka The second basket of the Tripiṭaka
Tripiṭaka
canon, the collection of all Buddha's teachings

Pāli: Sutta-piṭaka Sanskrit: Sūtra-piṭaka

Bur: သုတ် thoht (IPA: [θoʊʔ]) Mon: သုတ် ([sɔt]) Mon: သုၵ်ႈ ([sʰuk˧]) Mn: Судрын аймаг Sudriin aimag 經藏, 経蔵

Cn: jīngcáng Jp: kyōzō Vi: Kinh tạng

Contents: 

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T[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

tangaryō A period of waiting for admission into a Zen
Zen
monastery at the gate, lasting anywhere from one day to several weeks—depending on the quality of one's sitting. Refers to the room traveling monks stay in when visiting, or await admittance into the sōdō.

Japanese: 旦過寮 

tanha Craving or desire

Pāli: taṇhā Sanskrit: tṛṣṇā

Bur: တဏှာ tahna (IPA: [tən̥à]) Thai: ตัณหา tunha Mn: хурьцахуй, khuritsahui 愛

Cn: ài Jp: ai Kr: 애 ae Vi: ái

Tanto In Zen, one of the main temple leaders, lit."head of the tan." In a Zen
Zen
temple, the Tanto is one of two officers (with the Godo) in charge monks' training.[2]

Japanese:単頭

tantra Esoteric religious practices, including yoga, mantra, etc. See also Vajrayana.

Sanskrit: tantra

Mn: тарнийн ёс, дандар, tarniin yos, dandar 續部,怛特羅

Cn: dátèluó Jp: ?? Vi: đát-đặc-la

Tathagata
Tathagata
one of the Buddha's ten epithets

Sanskrit: tathāgata; The "Thus-Gone One"

Bur: တထာဂတ tahtagata (IPA: [ta̰tʰàɡəta̰]) Thai: ตถาคต tatha-kohd Mn: түүнчлэн ирсэн, tuunchlen irsen 如来

Cn: rúlái Jp: nyorai Vi: như lai

tathagatagarbha Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
or the seed of enlightenment

Sanskrit: tathāgatagarbha

佛性, 仏性

Cn: fóxìng Jp: busshō

Also 覚性

Cn: juéxìng Jp: kakushō Vi: giác tính

Also 如来藏, 如来蔵

Cn: rúláizàng Jp: nyuoraizō Vi: như lai tạng

teisho A presentation by a Zen
Zen
master during a sesshin. Rather than an explanation or exposition in the traditional sense, it is intended as a demonstration of Zen
Zen
realisation

Japanese: 提唱 teishō

tenzo In Zen, the head cook for a sesshin. In Zen
Zen
temples, the officer in charge of the kitchen

Japanese: 典座 tenzo

典座

Cn: diǎnzuò Vi: điển toạ

Theravada, lit. "words of the elders", Most popular form of Buddhism in Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka.

Pāli: theravāda Sanskrit: sthaviravāda

Bur: ထေရဝါဒ hterawada (IPA: [tʰèɹa̰wàda̰] or [tʰèja̰wàda̰]) Thai: เถรวาท tera-waad 上座部

Cn: shàngzuòbù Jp: jōzabu Vi: Thượng toạ bộ

thera or their, lit. "elder", Honorific applied to senior monks and nuns in the Theravada
Theravada
tradition.

Pāli: thera

Bur: ထေရ htera (IPA: [tʰèɹa̰])

Three Jewels
Three Jewels
Three things that Buddhists take refuge in: the Buddha, his teachings (Dharma) and the community of realized practitioners (Sangha), and in return look toward for guidance (see also Refuge (Buddhism))

Pāli: tiratana Sanskrit: triratna

Bur: သရဏဂုံသုံးပါး tharanagon thon ba (IPA: [θəɹənəɡòʊɴ θóʊɴ bá]) OR ရတနာသုံးပါး yadana thon ba ([jədənà θóʊɴ bá)]) Thai: ไตรรัตน์ trai-rut Tib: དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ, dkon mchog gsum Mn: чухаг дээд гурав chuhag deed gurav 三寶

Cn: sānbăo Jp: sanbō Vi: tam bảo

Three periods

Three divisions of the time following the historical Buddha's passing: the Former (or Early) Day of the Law (正法 Cn: zhèngfǎ; Jp: shōbō), the first thousand years; the Middle Day of the Law (像法 Cn: xiàngfǎ; Jp: zōhō), the second thousand years; and the Latter Day of the Law (末法 Cn: mòfǎ; Jp: mappō), which is to last for 10,000 years. The three periods are significant to Mahayana
Mahayana
adherents, particularly those who hold the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
in high regard; e.g., Tiantai
Tiantai
(Tendai) and Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhists, who believe that different Buddhist
Buddhist
teachings are valid (i.e., able to lead practitioners to enlightenment) in each period due to the different capacity to accept a teaching (機根 Cn: jīgēn; Jp: kikon) of the people born in each respective period. The three periods are further divided into five five-hundred year periods (五五百歳 Cn: wǔ wǔbǎi suì; Jp: go no gohyaku sai), the fifth and last of which was prophesied to be when the Buddhism
Buddhism
of Sakyamuni would lose all power of salvation and a new Buddha would appear to save the people. This time period would be characterized by unrest, strife, famine, and other, natural disasters. The three periods and the five five-hundred year periods are described in the Sutra
Sutra
of the Great Assembly (大集経 Cn: dàjí jīng; Jp: Daishutu-kyō, Daijuku-kyō, Daijikkyō, or Daishukkyō). Descriptions of the three periods also appear in other sutras, some of which ascribe different lengths of time to them (although all agree that Mappō will last for 10,000 years).

三時

Cn: Sānshí Jp: Sanji Vi: Tam thời

Three Poisons or Three Fires

The three primary causes of unskillful action that lead to the creation of "negative" karma; the three root kleshas:

Attachment (Pāli: lobha; Sanskrit: rāga; Tib.: འདོད་ཆགས་ 'dod chags) Aversion (Pali: doha; Sanskrit: dveṣa; Tib.: ཞེ་སྡང་ zhe sdang; Mn: урин хилэн, urin khilen; 瞋 Cn: chēn; Jp: jin; Vi: sân) Ignorance (Pāli: moha; Sanskrit: moha; Tib.: གཏི་མུག་ gti mug)

Pāli: kilesa (Defilements) Sanskrit: kleśa

Sanskit: triviṣa Tib: düsum (Wylie: dug gsum) Bur: မီးသုံးပါး mi thon ba (IPA: [mí θóʊɴ bá]) Mn: гурван хор, gurvan khor 三毒

Cn: Sāndú Jp: Sandoku Vi: Tam độc

Tiantai/ Tendai
Tendai
A Mahayana
Mahayana
school of China
China
that teaches the supremacy of the Lotus Sutra

Chinese: 天台 tiāntái

天台宗

Cn: tiāntái zōng Jp: tendai-shū Vi: Thiên Thai tông

trailõkya The 3 "regions" of the world:

Kamaloka
Kamaloka
or Kamadhatu: world of desires (Sanskrit, Pāli: kāmaloka, kāmadhātu; Tibetan: འདོད་ཁམས་ `dod khams; Mn: амармагийн орон, amarmagiin oron; 欲界 Cn: yùjiè, Jp: yokkai Vi: dục giới) Rupaloka or Rupadhatu: world of form (Sanskrit: rūpaloka, rūpadhātu; Tibetan: གཟུགས་ཁམས་ gzugs khams; Mn: дүрстийн орон, durstiin oron; 色界 Cn: sèjiè; Jp: shikikai , Vi: sắc giới) Arupaloka or Arupadhatu: world without form or desire (Sanskrit: arūpaloka, arūpadhātu; Tibetan: གཟུགས་མེད་ཁམས་ gzugs med khams; Mn: дүрсгүйн орон, dursquin oron; 無色界 Cn: wú sèjiè, Jp: mushikikai Vi: vô sắc giới)

Sanskrit: triloka

Pāli: tisso dhātuyo Tibetan: ཁམས་གསུམ་ khams gsum Mn: гурван орон, gurvan oron 三界

Cn: sānjiè Jp: sangai Vi: tam giới

trikaya The 3 "bodies" of Buddha:

Dharma-kaya (Sanskrit: dharmakāya; 法身 Cn: fǎshēn; Jp: hosshin; Vi: pháp thân) Sambhoga-kaya (Sanskrit: saṃbhogakāya; 報身 Cn: bàoshēn; Jp: hōshin; Vi: báo thân) Nirmana-kaya (Sanskrit: nirmāṇakāya; 應身,化身,応身 Cn: yìngshēn; Jp: ōjin; Vi: ứng thân)

Sanskrit: trikāya

三身

Cn: sānshēn Jp: sanjin Vi: tam thân

Tripitaka
Tripitaka
The "Three Baskets"; canon containing the sacred texts for Buddhism
Buddhism
(Pāli)

Vinaya
Vinaya
Pitaka (Pāli, Sanskrit: Vinaya-piṭaka; Tib: འདུལ་བའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ `dul ba`i sde snod; Mn: винайн аймаг сав vinain aimag sav; 律藏, 律蔵 Cn: lǜzàng; Jp: Ritsuzō; Vi: Luật tạng) Sutra
Sutra
Pitaka (Pāli: Sutta-piṭaka; Sanskrit: Sūtra-piṭaka; Tib: མདོ་སྡེའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ mdo sde`i sde snod; Mn: судрын аймаг сав sudriin aimag sav; 經藏, 経蔵 Cn: jīngzàng; Jp: Kyōzō; Vi: Kinh tạng) Abhidhamma
Abhidhamma
Pitaka (Pāli: Abhidhamma-piṭaka; Sanskrit: Abhidharma-piṭaka; Tib: མངོན་པའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ mngon pa`i sde snod; Mn: авидармын аймаг сав avidarmiin aimag sav; 論藏, 論蔵 Cn: lùnzàng; Jp: Ronzō; Vi: Luận tạng)

Pāli: tipiṭaka Sanskrit: tripiṭaka

Burmese: တိပိဋက Tipitaka (IPA: [tḭpḭtəka̰]) Thai: ไตรปิฎก Traipidok སྡེ་སྣོད་་གསུམ, sde snod gsum Mn: гурван аймаг сав, gurvan aimag sav 三藏, 三蔵

Cn: Sānzàng Jp: Sanzō Ko: Samjang Vi: Tam tạng

Triratna/Tiratana, see Three Jewels
Three Jewels
above

Pāli: tiratana Sanskrit: triratna

Tib: དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ, dkon mchog gsum Mn: гурван эрдэнэ, gurvan erdene

trsna, see tanha above

tulku A re-incarnated Tibetan teacher

Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་ tulku

Mn: хувилгаан, khuvilgaan 再來人 (轉世再來的藏系師長)

Cn: Zài lái rén Jp: keshin Vi: hoá thân

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U[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

upadana Clinging; the 9th link of Pratitya-Samutpada; the Ninth Twelve Nidanas

Pāli, Sanskrit: upādāna

Bur: ဥပါဒါန် upadan (IPA: [ṵpàdàɴ]) Shan: ဢူႉပႃႇတၢၼ်ႇ ([ʔu˥ paː˨ taːn˨]) Thai: อุปาทาน u-pa-taan Tib: ལེན་པ, len pa Mn: авахуй, avahui 取(十二因緣第九支)

Cn: qǔ Jp: shu Vi: thủ

Upajjhaya spiritual teacher

Pāli: Upajjhaya Sanskrit: upādhyāy

Bur: ဥပဇ္ဇာယ်ဆရာ Upyizesaya (IPA: [ṵ pjɪʔzèsʰajà])

upasaka A lay follower of Buddhism

Sanskrit: upāsaka

Bur: ဥပါသကာ upathaka (IPA: [ṵpàθəkà]) Mon: ဥပါသကာ ([ʊʔpasəka]) Thai: อุบาสก u-ba-sok 近事男, 優婆塞

Cn: jìnshìnán Jp: ubasoku Vi: cư sĩ

upasika A female lay follower

from upasaka above Sanskrit: upāsika

Bur: ဥပါသိကာ upathika (IPA: [ṵpàθḭkà]) Thai: อุบาสิกา u-ba-sika 近事女, 優婆夷

Cn: jìnshìnǚ Jp: ubai Vi: (nữ) cư sĩ

upaya Expedient though not necessarily ultimately true. Originally used as a polemical device against other schools - calling them "merely" expedient, lacking in ultimate truth, later used against one's own school to prevent students form forming attachments to doctrines In Mahayana, exemplified by the Lotus Sutra, upaya are the useful means that Buddhas (and Buddhist
Buddhist
teachers) use to free beings into enlightenment

Sanskrit: upāya

Bur: ဥပါယ် upe (IPA: [ṵ pè]) Tib: ཐབས, thabs Mn: арга, arga 方便

Cn: fāngbiàn Jp: hōben Vi: phương tiện

upekkha equanimity

Pāli: upekkhā Sanskrit: upekṣā

Bur: ဥပက္ခာ upyikkha (IPA: [ṵpjɪʔkʰà]) Thai: อุเบกขา u-bek-kha Tib: བཏང་སྙོམས་, btang snyoms Mn: тэгшид барихуй, tegshid barihui 镇定,沉着, 捨

Cn: Zhèndìng, chénzhuó Jp: sha

urna A concave circular dot on the forehead between the eyebrows

Sanskrit: urna

Mn: билгийн мэлмий, bilgiin melmii 白毫

Jp: byakugō Vi: bạch hào

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V[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

Vajrayana, The third major branch, alongside Hinayana
Hinayana
and Mahayana, according to Tibetan Buddhism's view of itself

Sanskrit: vajrayāna, lit. "diamond vehicle"

Bur: ဝဇိရယာန wazeirayana (IPA: [wəzeiɹa̰ jàna̰]) Thai: วชิรญาณ wachira-yaan Mn: Очирт хөлгөн, ochirt khölgön 金剛乘

Cn: Jīngāng shèng Jp: Kongō jō Vi: Kim cương thừa

Vairocana,

Sanskrit: वैरोचन

Tib: རྣམ་པར་སྣང་མཛད། rNam-par-snang mdzad Mn: ᠪᠢᠷᠦᠵᠠᠨ᠎ ᠠ᠂ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠋᠋ᠭᠡᠢᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠦ; Бярузана, Машид Гийгүүлэн Зохиогч, Гэгээн Гэрэлт; Biruzana, Masida Geyigülün Zohiyaghci, Gegegen Gereltü 毗盧遮那佛, 大日如來

Cn: Pílúzhēnàfó Jp: Dainichi Nyorai, Birushana-butsu Vi: Đại Nhật Như Lai

Vāsanā habitual tendencies or dispositions

Pāli
Pāli
and Sanskrit: Vāsanā

Bur: ဝါသနာ wathana (IPA: [wàðanà]) 習気

Jp: jikke

Vinaya
Vinaya
Pitaka, The first basket of the Tripitaka
Tripitaka
canon, which deals with the rules of monastic life

Pāli, Sanskrit: vinaya-piṭaka, lit. "discipline basket"

Bur: ဝိနည်းပိဋကတ် wini pitakat (IPA: [wḭní pḭdəɡaʔ]) Mon: ဝိနဲ ([wìʔnòa]) Shan: ဝီႉၼႄး ([wi˥˩ ɛ˦]) Thai: วินัย wi-nai Tib: འདུལ་བའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ dul-bai sde-snod Mn: Винайн аймаг сав, vinain aimag sav 律藏

Cn: Lǜzàng Jp: Ritsuzō Vi: Luật tạng

vipassana Usually translated as "Insight" meditation, most associated with the Theravāda tradition, but also present in some other traditions such as Tiantai. Often combined with śamatha meditation

from vi-√dṛś: to see apart Pāli: vipassanā Sanskrit: vipaśyanā, vidarśanā

Bur: ဝိပဿနာ wipathana (IPA: [wḭpaʔθanà]) Shan: ဝီႉပၢတ်ႈသၼႃႇ ([wi˥ paːt˧ sʰa˩ naː˨]) Thai: วิปัสสนา wipadsana Tib: ལྷག་མཐོངlhag mthong Mn: үлэмж үзэл, ulemj uzel 觀,観

Cn: guān Jp: kan Vi: quán

viriya energy, enthusiastic perseverance

from Pāli: viriya Sanskrit: vīrya,

Tib: brtson-grus Thai: วิริยะ wiriya 能量

Cn: néngliàng Jp: nōryō Vi: năng-lượng

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Y[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

yāna divisions or schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
according to their type of practice (lit. "vehicle")

Pāli: yāna Sanskrit: yāna

Cn: shèng Jp: jō Vi: thừa

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Z[edit]

Definition Etymology In other languages

zazen Sitting meditation as practiced in the Zen
Zen
School of Buddhism

Japanese: 坐禅

坐禪

Cn: zuòchán Kr: jwaseon Vi: toạ thiền

Zen
Zen
School A branch of Mahayana
Mahayana
originating in China
China
that originally emphasizes non-dualism and intuition. Modern monastic forms have a strong emphasis on zazen (Korean) or on zazen combined with militaristic top-down hazing (Japanese)

Japanese: 禅宗 Zen-shu

禪宗

Cn: Chánzōng Vi: Thiền tông

zendo In Zen, a hall where zazen is practiced

Japanese: 禅堂

禪堂

Cn: chántáng Vi: thiền đường

Contents: 

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See also[edit]

Buddhism Buddhist
Buddhist
texts Glossary of Japanese Buddhism

References[edit]

^ Leighton / Okumura (1996). Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community. Albany, NY: SUNY. p. 214. ISBN 0-7914-2710-2.  ^ Leighton/ Okumura (1996). Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community. Albany: SUNY. p. 231. ISBN 0-7914-2710-2. 

External links[edit]

Pali
Pali
Text Society Dictionary (Be sure to check the "Unicode font" option, and to have one; also, if looking for a word, choose "words that match") Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary Digital Dictionary of Buddhism
Buddhism
(Login with userid "guest") Kadampa Glossary of Buddhist
Buddhist
Terms

v t e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

Glossary Index Outline

Foundations

Three Jewels

Buddha Dharma Sangha

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way

The Buddha

Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Relics Iconography in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family

Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

Places where the Buddha stayed Buddha in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine

Cosmology

Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence

Practices

Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
Vipassanā
( Vipassana
Vipassana
movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness

Satipatthana

Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen
Panchen
Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

Texts

Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Pāli
Pāli
Canon Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
canon Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
canon

Branches

Theravada Mahayana

Chan Buddhism

Zen Seon Thiền

Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara

Navayana Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen

Early Buddhist
Buddhist
schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

Countries

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia

Kalmykia Buryatia

Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East

Iran

Western countries

Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela

History

Timeline Ashoka Buddhist
Buddhist
councils History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Great Anti- Buddhist
Buddhist
Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist
Buddhist
monks from Nepal Buddhist
Buddhist
crisis Sinhalese Buddhist
Buddhist
nationalism Buddhist
Buddhist
modernism Vipassana
Vipassana
movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism

Philosophy

Abhidharma Atomism Buddhology Creator Economics Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Eschatology Ethics Evolution Humanism Logic Reality Secular Buddhism Socialism The unanswered questions

Culture

Architecture

Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture Korean Buddhist
Buddhist
temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture

Art

Greco-Buddhist

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree Budai Buddharupa Calendar Cuisine Funeral Holidays

Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Vassa

Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Kasaya Mahabodhi Temple Mantra

Om mani padme hum

Mudra Music Pilgrimage

Lumbini Maya Devi Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar

Poetry Prayer beads Prayer wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

Temple of the Tooth Vegetarianism

Miscellaneous

Abhijñā Amitābha Avalokiteśvara

Guanyin

Brahmā Dhammapada Dharma
Dharma
talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

Pali Sanskrit

Siddhi Sutra Vinaya

Comparison

Bahá'í Faith Christianity

Influences Comparison

East Asian religions Gnosticism Hinduism Jainism Judaism Psychology Science Theosophy Violence Western philosophy

Lists

Bodhisattvas Books Buddhas

named

Buddhists Suttas Temples

.