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Some Buddhist
Buddhist
terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. Below are given a number of important Buddhist
Buddhist
terms, short definitions, and the languages in which they appear. In this list, an attempt has been made to organize terms by their original form and give translations and synonyms in other languages along with the definition.

Languages and traditions dealt with here:

* English (Eng.) * Pāli : Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism * Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(or Buddhist
Buddhist
Hybrid Sanskrit
Sanskrit
): primarily Mahayana Buddhism * Burmese (Bur): Buddhism
Buddhism
in Myanmar * Karen (Kar): Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism * Khmer : Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism * Mon (Mon): Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism * Mongolian (Mn): Buddhism
Buddhism
in Mongolia * Shan (Shan): Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism * Tibetan (Tib): Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
* Thai : Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism

* CJKV languages

* Chinese (Cn): Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
* Japanese (Jp): Buddhism
Buddhism
in Japan * Korean (Ko): Korean Buddhism
Buddhism
* Vietnamese (Vi): Buddhism
Buddhism
in Vietnam ( Mahayana
Mahayana
and Theravada)

Contents :

* Top * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z

A

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

ABHIDHAMMA A category of scriptures that attempts to use Buddhist teachings to create a systematic, abstract description of all worldly phenomena

* _abhi_ is "above" or "about", _dhamma_ is "teaching" * Pāli: _abhidhamma_ * Sanskrit: _abhidharma_ * Khmer: _អភិធម្ម_

* Bur: အဘိဓမ္မာ _abhidhamma_ (IPA: ) * Tib: ཆོས་མངོན་པ _chos mngon pa_ * Mn: их ном, билиг ухаан; _ikh nom, bilig ukhaan_ * Thai: อภิธรรม _a-pi-tam_

* 阿毘達磨/阿毗昙

* Cn: _Āpídámó_ * Jp: _Abidatsuma_ * Ko: 아비달마, _Abidalma_ * Vi: _a-tì-đạt-ma_, _thắng pháp_

ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA The third basket of the Tripitaka canon, the reorganization of all doctrines in a systematic way

* Pāli: _Abhidhamma-piṭaka_ * Sanskrit: _Abhidharma-piṭaka_

* Bur: အဘိဓမ္မာပိဋကတ် _Abidhamma Pitakat_ (IPA: ) * Mon: အဘိဓဝ်ပိတကတ ( ) * Thai: อภิธรรมปิฎก _a-pi-tam-pi-dok_

* 論藏, 論蔵

* Cn: _Lùnzàng_ * Jp: _Ronzō_ * Ko: 논장, _Nonjang_ * Vi: _Luận tạng_, _Tạng luận_, tạng thứ ba trong ba tạng là kinh, luật và luận

* Mn: Илт ном, _Ilt nom_

ACARIYA , lit. "teacher", One of the two teachers of a novice monk - the other one is called _upādhyāya_

* Pāli: _ācariya_ * Sanskrit: _ācārya_

* Bur: ဆရာ _saya_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ဢႃႇၸရီႉယႃႉ _atsariya_ ( ) * Thai: อาจารย์ _ajahn _

* 阿闍梨 or 阿闍梨耶

* Cn: _āshélí_ or _āshélíyē_ * Jp: _ajari_ or _ajariya_ * Ko: 아사리, _asari_ or 아사리야 _asariya_ * Vi: _a-xà-lê_ or _a-xà-lê-da_ or _giáo thọ sư_

ADHITTHANA Determination, to pray, to wish

* Pāli: _Adhiṭṭhāna_ * Sanskrit:

* Bur: အဓိဋ္ဌာန် (IPA: ) * Thai: อธิษฐาน _ah-tid-taan_

* 決心 or 決意

* Cn: _Juéxīn, juéyì_ * Jp: _kesshin_ * Ko: 결심, _gyeolsim_ or 결의, _gyeolui_ * Vi: _nguyện lực_

AGAMA The non- Mahayana
Mahayana
divisions of the Sutra
Sutra
Pitaka

* Sanskrit: _Āgama_

* Pāli: _Āgama_ (but usually called _Nikāya_)

* 阿含

* Cn: _Āhán_ * Jp: _Agon_ * Ko: 아함, _Aham_ * Vi: _A-hàm_

AHIMSA The devotion to non-violence and respect for all forms of life. Practicers of ahimsa are often vegetarians or vegans

* Sanskrit: _ahiṃsā_ * Pāli: _ahiṃsā_

* Thai: อหิงสา 'ah-hing-sa'

* 不害

* Cn: _bù hài_ * Jp: _fugai_ * Ko: 불해, _bulhae_ * Vi: _bất hại_

AKSHOBHYA

* Sanskrit: _Akṣobhya_

* Mn: ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ; Үл Хөдлөгч, Хөдөлшгүй; * 阿閦如來

* Cn: _Āchùrúlái_ * Jp: _Ashuku Nyorai_ * Vi: _A-súc Như Lai_

Ködelüsi ügei, Ülü hödelügci

ALAYAVIJNANA, see store consciousness

* Sanskrit: _ālayavijñāna_

* Tib: ཀུན་གཞི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་ _kun gzhi rnam par shes pa_ * 阿賴耶識, 阿頼耶識

* Cn: _ālàiyēshí_ * Jp: _araya-shiki_ * Ko: 아뢰야식, _aroeyasik_ * Vi: _a-lại-da thức_

AMITABHA Lit. "The Buddha of Infinite Light". The main buddha of the Pure Land school , but is popular in other Mahayana
Mahayana
sects as well. The image is of light as the form of wisdom, which has no form. Also interpreted as the Tathagata of Unhindered Light that Penetrates the Ten Quarters by Tan Luan, Shinran and others

* Sanskrit: _amitābha_ (lit. "limitless light") and _amitāyus_ (lit. "limitless life")

* 阿彌陀 or 阿彌陀佛, 阿弥陀 or 阿弥陀仏

* Cn: _Ēmítuó_ or _Ēmítuó fó_ * Jp: _Amida_ or _Amida-butsu_ * Ko: 아미타, _Amita_ or 아미타불, _Amitabul_ * Vi: _A-Di-Đà_, _A-Di-Đà Phật_, or _Phật A-Di-Đà_

* Tib: འོད་དཔག་མེད།

* Mn: ᠠᠮᠢᠨᠳᠠᠸᠠ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠦ; Аминдаваа, Цаглашгүй гэрэлт; _Amindava_, _Tsaglasi ügei gereltü_

AMOGHASIDDHI

* Sanskrit: _Amoghasiddhi_

* Tib: Dön yö drub pa

* Mn: ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰ ᠨᠥᠭᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠦᠢᠢᠯᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡ᠋᠌᠋᠋ᠺᠴᠢ; Төгс Нөгчигсөн, Үйл Бүтээгч; Tegüs nögcigsen, Üyile Bütügegci

ANAGARIKA A white-robed student in the Theravada
Theravada
tradition who, for a few months, awaits being considered for Samaneras ordination

* Pāli: _anāgarika_

* Thai: อนาคาริก _a-na-ka-rik_

ANAPANASATI Mindfulness of the breath meditation

* Pāli: _ānāpānasati_ * Sanskrit: _ānāpānasmṛti_ * Bur: အာနာပါန _anapana_ (IPA: )

ANATTA The principle denial of the soul in any phenomena. See also negative theology .

* Pāli: _anattā_ * Sanskrit: _anātman_

* Bur: အနတ္တ _anatta_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ဢၼတ်ႉတႃႉ ( )

* 無我

* Cn: _wúwǒ_ * Jp: _muga_ * Ko: 무아, _mua_ * Vi: _vô ngã_

ANICCA Impermanence

* Pāli: _anicca_ * Sanskrit: _anitya_

* Bur: အနိစ္စ _aneissa_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ဢၼိၵ်ႈၸႃႉ ( )

* 無常

* Cn: _wúcháng_ * Jp: _mujō_ * Ko: 무상, _musang_ * Vi: _vô thường_

ANUTTARA Unsurpassing

* Pāli: _anuttara_ * Sanskrit: _anuttara_

* 阿耨多羅/阿耨多罗 (無上/无上)

* Cn: _Ānòuduōluó_ ("wǔshàng") * Jp: _anokutara_ * Ko: 아뇩다라, _anyokdara_ * Vi: _A-nậu-đà-la_ (vô thượng) * Fi: Ylittämätön

ARHAT , lit. "the Worthy One", A living person who has reached Enlightenment

* Pāli: _arahat_ or _arahant_ * Sanskrit: _arhat_ or _arhant_

* Bur: ရဟန္တာ _yahanda_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ရႁၢၼ်းတႃႇ _rahanta_ ( ) * Tib: དགྲ་ཅོམ་པ་, _dgra com pa_ * Mn: архад, _arkhad_

* 阿羅漢

* Cn: _āluóhàn_ * Jp: _arakan_ * Ko: 아라한, _arahan_ * Vi: _a-la-hán_

ANUTTARA SAMYAK SAMBODHI , unsurpassable, complete, perfect enlightenment; unsurpassable, right, and full enlightenment

* Pāli: * Sanskrit:

* Khmer: អនុត្តរសម្មាសម្ពោធិ "ak-nut-tha-rak-sam-ma-sam-po-thi" * Tib: , * Thai: อรหันต์ _uh-ra-hann_

* 阿耨多罗三藐三菩提 (or 無上正等正覺)

* Cn: _ānòuduōluó sānmiǎosānpútí (_or _wúshàng zhèngděng zhèngjué)_ * Jp: _anokutara sanmyakusanbodai_ * Ko: 아뇩다라삼먁삼보리, _Anyokdara sammyak sambori_ * Vi: _A-nậu-đà-la tam-miệu tam-bồ-đề_, _Vô-thượng chánh-đẳng chánh-giác_, _Sáng-suốt giác-ngộ hoàn-toàn_

ATMAN literally "self", sometimes "soul" or "ego". In Buddhism, the predominant teaching is the negating doctrine of anatman, that there is no permanent, persisting atman, and that belief in atman is the prime consequence of ignorance, the foundation of samsara

* Pāli: _atta_ * Sanskrit: _ātman_

* Bur: အတ္တ _atta_ (IPA: )

* 我

* Cn: _wǒ_ * Jp: _ga_ * Ko: 아, _a_ * Vi: _ngã_

AVALOKITESVARA , lit. "One Who Hears the Suffering Cries of the World", The bodhisattva of compassion (see also Guan Yin )

* Sanskrit: _Avalokiteśvara_ * Bur: လောကနတ် _lawka nat_ (IPA: )

* Tib: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་ _spyan ras gzigs_ * Mn: Жанрайсиг, _Janraisig_

* 觀世音 or 觀音

* Cn: _Guānshì Yīn_ or _Guān Yīn_ * Jp: _Kanzeon_ or _Kannon_ * Ko: 관세음, _Gwanse-eum_ or 관음, _Gwaneum_ * Vi: "Quan Thế Âm Bồ Tát" , "Quán Thế Âm Bồ Tát' or "Quan Âm"

AVIDYA "ignorance" or "delusion"

* Sanskrit: _avidyā_

* Pāli: _avijjā_ * Bur: အဝိဇ္ဇာ _aweizza_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ဢဝိၵ်ႉၸႃႇ _awitsa_ () * Thai: อวิชชา _aa-wit-sha_ * Tib: མ་རིག་པ་ _ma rig-pa_

* 無明

* Cn: _wúmíng_ * Jp: _mumyō_ * Ko: 무명, _mumyeong_ * Vi: _vô minh_

Contents :

* Top * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z

B

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

BARDO , lit. "intermediate state" or "in-between state", According to Tibetan tradition, the state of existence intermediate between two lives

* Tib: བར་མ་དོའི་སྲིད་པ་ _bar ma do'i srid pa_

* Sanskrit: _antarābhava_ * Mn: зуурд, _zuurd_

* 中有,中陰身

* Cn: _zhongyǒu_ * Jp: _chūu_ * Ko: 중유 _jungyu_ or 바르도 _bareudo_ * Vi: _trung hữu_, _trung ấm thân_, _thân trung-ấm_

BHAVACAKRA/BHAVACAKKA A circular symbolic representation of samsara , also known as Wheel of becoming

* Pāli: _bhavacakka_ * Sanskrit: _bhava-cakra_

* Bur: ဘဝစက် _bawa set_ (IPA: ) * Mon: ဘဝစက် ( ) * Shan: ၽဝႃႉၸၢၵ်ႈ ( ) * Tib: སྲིད་པའི་འཁོར་ལ * Mn: Орчлонгийн хүрдэн, _Orchlongiin khurden_

* 有輪

* Cn: _yǒulún_ * Jp: _ariwa_ * Ko: 유륜, _yuryun_ * Vi: _hữu luân_

BHANTE The polite particle used to refer to Buddhist
Buddhist
monks in the Theravada
Theravada
tradition. _Bhante_ literally means "Venerable Sir."

* Pāli

* Bur: ဘန္တေ _bhante_ (IPA: )

BHAVA Becoming, being, existing; the 10th link of Pratitya-samutpada

* Pāli, Sanskrit: _bhava_

* Bur: ဘဝ _bawa_ (IPA: ) * Mon: ဘဝ ( ) * Shan: ၽဝႃႉ ( ) * Thai: ภาวะ _pa-wah_

* 有(十二因緣)

* Cn: _yǒu_ * Jp: _u_ * Ko: 유, _yu_ * Vi: _hữu_ (thập nhị nhân duyên)

BHIKKHU/BHIKSHU , lit. "beggar", A Buddhist
Buddhist
monk

* Pāli: _bhikkhu_ * Sanskrit: _bhikṣu_

* Bur: ဘိက္ခု _bheikkhu_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ၽိၵ်ႈၶူႇ () * Tib: དགེ་སློང་ _dge slong_ * Mn: гэлэн, _gelen_ * Thai: ภิกขุ _bhikku_

* 比丘

* Cn: _bǐ qiū_ * Jp: _biku_ * Ko: 비구, _bigu_ or 스님 _seunim_, also 중, _jung_ (pejorative) * Vi: _tì-kheo_

BHIKKHUNI/BHIKSHUNI A Buddhist
Buddhist
nun

* from bhikkhu * Pāli: _bhikkhuni_ * Sanskrit: _bhikṣuni_

* Bur: ဘိက္ခုနီ _bheikkhuni_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ၽိၵ်ႈၶူႇၼီႇ ( ) * Kar: ဘံကူနံ or ဖံဝါ "beegoonee" or "hpeewah" * Tib: དགེ་སློང་མ་ _sde slong ma_ * Mn: гэлэнмаа, _gelenmaa_ * Thai: ภิกษุณี _bhiksuni_

* 比丘尼

* Cn: _bǐqiūní"_ * Jp: _bikuni_ * Ko: 비구니, _biguni_, 여승 (女僧), _yeoseung_ * Vi: _tỉ-khâu-ni_, _tỉ-khưu-ni_ or _tì-kheo-ni_, _ni_

BIJA , lit. "seed", A metaphor for the origin or cause of things, used in the teachings of the Yogacara
Yogacara
school

* Sanskrit: _bīja_

* Bur: ဗီဇ _biza_ (IPA: )

* 種子

* Cn: _zhŏngzi_ * Jp: _shūji_ * Ko: 종자, _jongja_ * Vi: _chủng tử_, _hạt giống_, _hột giống_

BODHI Awakening or Enlightenment

* Pāli, Sanskrit: _bodhi_

* Bur: ဗောဓိ _bawdhi_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ပေႃးထီႉ () * Thai: โพธิ์ _poe_ * Tib: བྱང་ཆུབ _byang chub_ * Mn: бодь, _bodi_

* 菩提

* Cn: _pútí_ * Jp: _bodai_ * Ko: 보리, _bori_ * Vi: _bồ-đề_, _giác,_ giác ngộ

BODHI TREE The Sacred Fig
Sacred Fig
(_Ficus religiosa_) tree under which Gautama reached Enlightenment

* from bodhi above

* Bur: ဗောဓိညောင် _bawdhi nyaung_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ၺွင်ႇပေႃးထီႉ ( )

* 菩提樹

* Cn: _Pútíshù_ * Jp: _Bodaiju_ * Ko: 보리수, _Borisu_ * Vi: _Bồ-đề thụ_, _Bồ-đề thọ_, _cây Bồ-đề_

BODHICITTA The motivation of a bodhisattva

* Pāli, Sanskrit: _bodhicitta_

* Bur: ဗောဓိစိတ္တ _bawdhi seitta_ (IPA: ) * Tib: བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, _byang chub kyi sems_ * Mn: бодь сэтгэл, _bodi setgel_

* 菩提心

* Cn: _pútíxīn_ * Jp: _bodaishin_ * Ko: 보리심, _borisim_ * Vi: _bồ-đề tâm_

BODHISATTVA One with the intention to become a Buddha in order to liberate all other sentient beings from suffering

* Pāli: _bodhisatta_ * Sanskrit: _bodhisattva_

* Bur: ဗောဓိသတ် _bawdhi that_ (IPA: ) * Mon: တြုံ လၟောဝ် ကျာ် ( ) * Thai: โพธิสัตว์ _poe-ti-satt_ * Tib: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ, _byang chub sems dpaʼ_ * Mn: бодьсад(ва), _bodisad(va)_

* 菩薩

* Cn: _púsà_ * Jp: _bosatsu_ * Ko: 보살, _bosal_ * Vi: _bồ-tát_

BOGHDA Holy, living Buddha, living Boddhisattva. The title of Jebtsundamba Khutuktu ; also title used with the names of highest Buddhist
Buddhist
masters, e.g. _boghda Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
_, _ Panchen
Panchen
boghda _

* Shan: ၽၵ်ႈၵဝႃႇ () * Mn: богд, _bogd_

* Tib: བོག་ད་ _bogda_

BUDDHA A Buddha; also, the Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama.

* from _√budh_: to awaken * Pāli, Sanskrit: _buddha_

* Bur: ဗုဒ္ဓ _bodha_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ပုၵ်ႉထႃႉ () * Tib: སངས་རྒྱས _sangs rgyas_ * Mn: бурхан, _burhan_

* 佛, 仏, 仏陀

* Cn: _fó_ * Jp: _butsu_ or _hotoke _ or _budda_ * Ko: 불, _Bul_ or 부처, _Bucheo_ * Vi: _Phật_ or _Bụt_

BUDDHA NATURE The uncreated and deathless Buddhic element or principle concealed within all sentient beings to achieve Awakening; the innate (latent) Buddha essence (esp. in the Tathagatagarbha sutras, Tendai
Tendai
/ Tiantai
Tiantai
, Nichiren
Nichiren
thought)

* Sanskrit: _buddha-dhatu_, _buddha-svabhāva_, "tathagata-dhatu", or tathagatagarbha .

* 佛性, 仏性

* Cn: _fóxìng_ * Jp: _busshō_ * Ko: 불성, _bulseong_ * Vi: _Phật tính_, _Phật tánh_, _Cái tánh sáng-suốt giác-ngộ hoàn-toàn_

BUDDHISM

* from _√budh_: to awaken * Pāli, Sanskrit:

* Bur: ဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာ _boddha batha_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ပုၵ်ႉထႃႉၽႃႇသႃႇ ( ) * Mon: ဗုဒ္ဓဘာသာ ( ) * Tib: ནང་བསྟན། * Mn: Бурханы Шашин, _Burhanii Shashin_

* 佛教, 仏教

* Cn: _Fójiào_ * Jp: _bukkyō_ * Ko: 불교, _bulgyo_ * Vi: _Phật-giáo_

Contents :

* Top * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z

C

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

CETANA Volition

* Pali: _cetana_

* Bur: စေတနာ _sedana_ (IPA: )

CETIYA A reliquary holding holy objects of veneration

* Pali: _cetiya_ * Sanskrit: _caitya_

* Bur: စေတီ _zedi_ (IPA: ) * Khm: * Mon: စေတဳ _setaow_ ( ) * Shan: ၸေႇတီႇ _tseti_ ( ) * Sin: චෛත්යයය _chedi_ * Thai: เจดีย์ _chetiya_ * Tib: མཆོད་རྟེན༏ _mchod rten_ (chorten)

* 塔

* Zh: Ta * Vi: Tháp * Ko: Tap * Jp: 卒塔婆 _sotōba_

D

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

DAKINI A supernatural female with volatile temperament who serves as a muse for spiritual practice. Dakinis are often depicted naked to represent the truth

* Sanskrit: _ḍākinī_

* Tibetan : མཁའ་འགྲོ་མ་, Wylie : _mkha' 'gro ma_ * Mn: дагина, _dagina_

* 空行女, 荼枳尼天

* Cn: _kong xing mu_ * Jp: _Dakini-ten_ * Ko: 다키니 _dakini_ or 공행녀 _gonghaengnyeo_ * Vi: _không hành nữ_

DALAI LAMA , lit. "the lama with wisdom like an ocean", secular and spiritual leader of Tibet
Tibet
as nominated by the Mongols

* Mn: далай, _dalai_, lit. "ocean" * Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་ _taa-la'i bla-ma_

* 達賴喇嘛

* Cn: _Dálài Lǎma_ * Jp: _Darai Rama_ * Ko: 달라이 라마 _dalai nama_ * Vi: _Đạt Lai Lạt Ma_ or _Đạt-lại Lạt-ma_

DANA Generosity or giving; in Buddhism, it also refers to the practice of cultivating generosity

* Pāli, Sanskrit: _dāna_

* Bur: ဒါန _dana_ (IPA: ) * Mon: ဒါန ( ) or ဒါန် () * Thai: ทาน _taan_

* 布施

* Cn: _bùshī_ * Jp: _fuse_ * Ko: 보시 _bosi_ * Vi: _bố thí_

* Mn: өглөг

DEVA many different types of non-human beings who share the characteristics of being more powerful, longer-lived, and, in general, living more contentedly than the average human being

* Pāli and Sanskrit: _deva_

* Bur: ဒေဝ _dewa_ (IPA: ) * Khmer: ទេព or _preah_ (ព្រះ) * Mn: тэнгэр _tenger_ * Mon: ဒေဝတဴ _tewetao_ () * Shan: တေႇဝႃႇ ()

* 天

* Zh: tiān * Ko: cheon * Jp: ten * Vi: thiên

DEPENDENT ORIGINATION , see Pratityasamutpada

* Pāli: _paṭicca-samuppāda_ * Sanskrit: _pratītya-samutpāda_

* Bur: ပဋိစ္စသမုပ္ပါဒ် _padeissa thamopad_ (IPA: ) * Tib: rten.cing.'brel.bar.'byung.ba * Mn: шүтэн барилдлага _shuten barildlaga_

* 因縁, also 緣起, 縁起

* Cn: _yīnyuan_, also _yuánqǐ_ * Jp: _innen_, also _engi_ * Ko: 인연 _inyeon_, also 연기 _yeongi_ * Vi: _nhân duyên_, _duyên khởi_

DHAMMA/DHARMA Often refers to the doctrines and teachings of the faith, but it may have broader uses. Also, it is an important technical term meaning something like "phenomenological constituent." This leads to the potential for confusion, puns, and double entendres, as the latter meaning often has negative connotations

* from _√dhṛ_: to hold * Pāli: _dhamma_ * Sanskrit: _dharma_

* Bur: ဓမ္မ _dhamma_ (IPA: ) * Mon: ဓဝ် () * Thai: ธรรมะ _tharrma_ * Tibetan : ཆོས་, Wylie : _chos_ * Mn: дээдийн ном, _deediin nom_

* 法

* Cn: _fă_ * Jp: _hō_ * Ko: _beop_ * Vi: _pháp_

DHAMMAVINAYA The dharma and vinaya (roughly "doctrine and discipline") considered together. This term essentially means the whole teachings of Buddhism
Buddhism
as taught to monks

* Mn: суртгаал номхотгол, _surtgaal nomkhotgol_

DHAMMACAKKA/DHARMACAKRA A symbolic representation of the dharma , also known as the Wheel of Dharma

* Sanskrit: _dharmacakra_ * Pāli: _dhammacakka_

* Bur: ဓမ္မစကြာ _dhamma sekya_ (IPA: ) * Tibetan : ཆོས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ, Wylie : _chos kyi ʼkhor lo_ * Mn: номын хүрдэн, _momiin khurden_

* 法輪

* Cn: _Fǎlún_ * Jp: _hōrin_ * Ko: _beomnyun_ * Vi: _pháp luân_

DHAMMAPADA a versified Buddhist
Buddhist
scripture traditionally ascribed to the Buddha

* Pāli: _Dhammapada_ * Sanskrit: _Dharmapada_

* Bur: ဓမ္မပဒ _Dhammapada_ (IPA: )

* 法句經

* Chinese : 法句经; pinyin : _Fǎjù jīng_ * Jp: _Hokkukyō_ (shin. 法句経) * Ko: _Beopgugyeong_ * Vi: _Kinh Pháp Cú_

DHAMMAPALA/DHARMAPALA A fearsome deity, known as protector of the Dharma

* Sanskrit: _dharmapāla_ * Pāli: _dhammapāla_

* Tib: ཆོས་སྐྱོང་ _chos skyong_ * Mn: догшид, _dogshid_; хангал, _khangal_

* 護法

* Cn: _hùfǎ_ * Jp: _gohō_ * Ko: _hobeop_ * Vi: _Hộ Pháp_

DHYANA , see jhana

* Pāli: _jhāna_ * Sanskrit: _dhyāna_

* Bur: ဈာန် _zan_ (IPA: ) * Mon: ဇျာန် () * Mn: дияан, _diyan_

* 禪 or 禪那, 禅 or 禅那

* Cn: _Chán_ or _Chánnà_ * Jp: _Zen_ or _Zenna_ * Ko: _Seon_ * Vi: _Thiền_ or _Thiền-na_

DīPANKARA BUDDHA

* Pāli: _Dīpamkara_ * Sanskrit: _Dīpankara_

* Bur: ဒီပင်္ကရာ _dipankara_ (IPA: ) * Thai: พระทีปังกรพุทธเจ้า

* 燃燈佛

* Cn: _Rándēng Fo_ * Jp: _Nentōbutsu_ * Vi: _Nhiên-đăng Phật_

DOAN In Zen, a term for person sounding the bell that marks the beginning and end of Zazen
Zazen

* Japanese: 堂行 _dōan_

DOKUSAN A private meeting between a Zen
Zen
student and the master. It is an important element in Rinzai Zen
Zen
training, as it provides an opportunity for the student to demonstrate understanding

* Japanese: 独参 _dokusan_

* 獨參

* Cn: _dúcān_ * Ko: _dokcham_ * Vi: _độc tham_

DUDIE official certificate for monks and nuns issued by government

* 度牒

* Cn: _dùdié_ * Jp: _dochō_ * Ko: ?? * Vi: ??

DUKKHA Suffering, dissatisfaction, unsatisfactoriness, stress

* Pāli: _dukkha_ * Sanskrit: _duḥkha_

* Bur: ဒုက္ခ _doukkha_ (IPA: ) * Shan: တုၵ်ႉၶႃႉ () * Thai: ทุกข์ _took_ * Tib: སྡུག་བསྔལ་ _sdug bsngal_ * Mn: зовлон, _zovlon_

* 苦

* Cn: _kǔ_ * Jp: _ku_ * Ko: _go_ * Vi: _khổ_

DZOGCHEN The natural, intrinsic state of every sentient being

* Tibetan: རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ _rdzogs pa chen po_

* Sanskrit: _atiyoga_

* 大究竟

* Cn: _dàjiūjìng_ * Jp: _daikukyō_ * Ko: _daegugyeong_ * Vi: _đại cứu cánh_

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F

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

FIVE FIVE-HUNDRED-YEAR PERIODS Five sub-divisions of the three periods following the Buddha\'s passing (三時繫念 Cn: _sānshí_; Jp: _sanji_; Vi: _tam thời_), significant for many Mahayana adherents:

* Age of enlightenment (解脱堅固 Cn: _jiětuō jiāngù_; Jp: _gedatsu kengo_)

* Age of meditation (禅定堅固 Cn: _chándìng jiāngù_; Jp: _zenjō kengo_) These two ages comprise the Former Day of the Law (正法時期 Cn: _zhèngfǎ_; Jp: _shōbō_) * Age of reading, reciting, and listening (読誦多聞堅固 Cn: _sòngduōwén jiāngù_; Jp: _dokuju tamon kengo_)

* Age of building temples and stupas (多造塔寺堅固 Cn: _duōzào tǎsì jiāngù_; Jp: _tazō tōji kengo_) These two ages comprise the Middle Day of the Law (像法時期 Cn: _xiàngfǎ_; Jp: _zōhō_) * Age of conflict (闘諍堅固 Cn: _zhēng jiāngù_; Jp: _tōjō kengo_), an age characterized by unrest, strife, famine, and other natural and human-made disasters. This age corresponds to the beginning of the Latter Day of the Law (末法時期 Cn: _mòfǎ_; Jp: _mappō _) when the (historical) Buddha's teachings would lose all power of salvation and perish (白法隠没 Cn: _báifǎméi_; Jp: _byakuhō onmotsu_) and a new Buddha would appear to save the people.

* The three periods and the five five-hundred year periods are described in the Sutra
Sutra
of the Great Assembly (大集 Cn: _dàjí_; Jp: _Daishutu-kyō_, _Daijuku-kyō_, _Daijikkyō_, or _Daishukkyō_).

* 五箇五百歲, 五箇五百歳

* Cn: 五箇五百歲 _wǔ ge wǔbǎi suì_ * Jp: 五箇の五百歳 _go no gohyaku sai_ * Vi: ??

FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS

* Truth of dukkha (suffering, anxiety, stress) (Sanskrit: _duḥkhāryasatya_; Bur: ဒုက္ခ _dokkha_; Thai: ทุกข์; 苦諦 Cn: _kǔdì_; Jp: _kutai_; Vi: _khổ đế_; Mn: зовлон, _zovlon_) * Truth of the origin (samudaya ) of dukkha (Sanskrit: _samudayāryasatya_; Bur: သမုဒယ _thamodaya_; Thai: สมุทัย; 集諦 Cn: _jídì_; Jp: _jittai_; Vi: _tập khổ đế_; ; Mn: зовлонгийн шалтгаан, _zovlongiin shaltgaan_) * Truth of the cessation (nirodha ) of dukkha (Sanskrit: _duḥkhanirodhāryasatya_; Bur: နိရောဓ _niyawdha_; Thai: นิโรธ; 滅諦 Cn: _mièdì_; Jp: _mettai_; Vi: _diệt khổ đế_; Mn: гэтлэх, _getlekh_) * The path (marga ) that leads out of dukkha (Sanskrit: _duḥkhanirodhagāminī pratipad_; Bur: မဂ် _meg_; Thai: มรรค; 道諦 Cn: _dàodì_; Jp: _dōtai_; Vi: _đạo đế_; Mn: мөр, _mör_)

* Pāli: _cattāri ariya-saccāni_ * Sanskrit: चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि _catvāry āryasatyāni_ * Bur: သစ္စာလေးပါး _thissa lei ba_ (IPA: ) * Khmr: អរិយសច្ចៈទាំង៤

* 四諦, 四聖諦, 苦集滅道

* Cn: _Sìdì_ * Jp: _shitai_, _shishōtai_, _kujūmetsudō_ * Vi: _Tứ diệu đế_

* Mn: Хутагтын дөрвөн үнэн, _khutagtiin dörvön unen_

FUKUDO In Zen, term for person who strikes the han

* Japanese: 副堂 _fukudō_

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G

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

GASSHO A position used for greeting, with the palms together and fingers pointing upwards in prayer position; used in various Buddhist traditions, but also used in numerous cultures throughout Asia. It expresses greeting, request, thankfulness, reverence and prayer. Also considered a _mudra_ or _inkei_ of Japanese Shingon. See also: Añjali Mudrā , Namaste
Namaste
, Sampeah and Wai .

* Japanese: 合掌 _gasshō_

* Sanskrit: _anjali_

* 合掌

* Cn: _hézhǎng_ (more common to say 合十 _héshí_) * Vi: _hiệp chưởng_

GAUTAMA BUDDHA

* Pāli: _Gotama_ * Sanskrit: _Gautama_

* Bur: ဂေါတမ (IPA: )

* 瞿曇 悉達多

* Jp: _Kudon Shiddatta_

GESHE A Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
academic degree in the Gelug tradition, awarded at the conclusion of lengthy studies often lasting nine years or more

* Tibetan: དགེ་ཤེས་

* Mn: гэвш _gevsh_ * 格西

GONGAN, lit. "public case", A meditative method developed in the Chán /Seon / Zen
Zen
traditions, generally consisting of a problem that defies solution by means of rational thought; see koan

* Chinese 公案 _gōng-àn_

* 公案

* Jp: _kōan_ * Ko: _gong'an_ * Vi: _công án_

GUAN YIN The bodhisattva of compassion in East Asian Buddhism, with full name being Guan Shi Yin. Guan Yin is considered to be the female form of Avalokiteshvara
Avalokiteshvara
but has been given many more distinctive characteristics.

* Chinese 觀音 _Guān Yīn_ or 觀世音 _Guān Shì Yīn_

* 觀音 or 觀世音

* Jp: _Kannon_ or _Kanzeon_ * Ko: _Gwaneum_ or _Gwanse-eum_ * Vi: _Quan Âm_ or _Quan Thế Âm_

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H

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

HAN In Zen
Zen
monasteries, wooden board that is struck announcing sunrise, sunset and the end of the day

* Japanese: 板

HINAYANA , lit. "small vehicle", A coinage by the Mahayana
Mahayana
for the Buddhist
Buddhist
doctrines concerned with the achievement of Nirvana as a Śrāvakabuddha or a Pratyekabuddha , as opposed to a Samyaksambuddha . While sometime thought as derogatory, it means in fact that the Hinayana doctrine is made to save but 1 individual, the one who follows its teachings, just like a 1 place vehicle, while the Mahayana allow the monk to take other people along with him, like a bus or a great plane.

* Sanskrit: _hīnayāna_

* Bur: ဟီနယာန _hinayana_ (IPA: )

* 小乘 or 小乗, 二乘

* Cn: _Xiǎoshèng_ * Jp: _Shōjō_ * Vi: _Tiểu thừa_

* Mn: Бага хөлгөн, _Baga hölgön_

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I

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

INO, Jp. lit. "bringer of joy to the assembly." Originally from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_karmadana_, lit. bestower of conduct . In Zen, the supervisor of the meditation hall . One of the six senior temple administrators.

* Japanese: 維那

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J

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

JHANA Meditative contemplation; more often associated with _śamatha_ practices than _vipaśyana_. See also: shamata , samadhi , samapatti

* from _√dhyā_: to think of, to contemplate, meditate on * Pāli: _jhāna_ * Sanskrit: _dhyāna_

* Bur: ဈာန် _zan_ (IPA: ) * Mon: ဇျာန် () * Thai: ฌาน _chaan_ * 禪 or 禪那, 禅 or 禅那

* Sinhala: ජාන _jhāna_

* Cn: _Chán_ or _Chánnà_ * Jp: _Zen_ or _Zenna_ * Ko: _Seon_ * Vi: _Thiền_ or _Thiền-na_

* Mn: дияан, _diyan_

JISHA In Zen, a senior priest's attendant

* Japanese: 侍者 _jisha_

JUKAI Zen
Zen
public ordination ceremony wherein a lay student receives certain Buddhist
Buddhist
precepts.

* Chinese: 受戒, shou jie * Korean: 수계, sugye

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K

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

KAKUSANDHA BUDDHA

* Pāli: _Kakusandha_ * Sanskrit: _Krakkucchanda_

* Bur: ကကုသန် _Kakuthan_ (IPA: )

* 拘留孙佛

* Zh: Jūliúsūn Fó * Vi: _Câu-lưu-tôn Phật_

KARMA , lit. "action", The law of cause and effect in Buddhism

* from _√kri_: to do * Sanskrit: _karma_ * Pāli: _kamma_

* Bur: ကံ _kan_ (IPA: ) or ကြမ္မာ _kyamma_ (IPA: ) * Mon: ကံ () * Shan: ၵျၢမ်ႇမႃႇ () or ၵၢမ်ႇ () * Thai: กรรม _gum_ * Tib: ལས, _las_ * Mn: үйлийн үр, _uiliin ür_

* 業¹, 因果²

* Cn: ¹_yè_, comm.: ²_yīnguǒ_ * Jp: _gō_, _inga_ * Ko: 업 _eob_ * Vi: _nghiệp_

KASSAPA BUDDHA

* Pāli: _Kassapa_

Sanskrit: _Kasyapa_

* Bur: ကဿပ _Kathapa_ (IPA: )

* 迦葉佛

* Cn: _Jiāyè Fó_ * Jp: _Kashōbutsu_ * Vi: _Ca-diếp Phật_

KENSHO In Zen, enlightenment; has the same meaning as _satōri_, but is customary used for an initial awakening experience

* Japanese: 見性 _kenshō_

* 見性

* Cn: _jiànxìng_ * Vi: _kiến tính_, _kiến tánh_

KHYENPO , also _khenpo_, An academic degree similar to a doctorate in theology, philosophy, and psychology

* Tibetan

KHANTI patience

* Bur: ခန္တီ _khanti_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ၶၼ်ႇထီႇ () * Thai: ขันติ _kanti_

* 耐心

* Cn: _Nàixīn_ * Vi: _nhẫn (trong lục ba-la-mật)_

KINHIN Zen
Zen
walking meditation

* Japanese: 経行 _kinhin_ or _kyōgyō_

* 經行

* Cn: _jīngxíng_ * Vi: _kinh hành_

KOAN A story, question, problem or statement generally inaccessible to rational understanding, yet may be accessible to Intuition

* Japanese: 公案 _kōan_

* 公案

* Cn: _gōng-àn_ * Ko: _gong'an_ * Vi: _công án_

KSANTI The practice of exercising patience toward behaviour or situations that might not necessarily deserve it—it is seen as a conscious choice to actively give patience as a gift, rather than being in a state of oppression in which one feels obligated to act in such a way.

* Sanskrit

* 忍辱

* Jp: _ninniku_

KOṇāGAMANA BUDDHA

* Pāli and Sanskrit: _Koṇāgamana_

* Bur: ကောဏာဂုံ _Kawnagon_ (IPA: )

* 拘那含佛

* Zh: Jūnàhán Fó * Vi: _Câu-na-hàm-mâu-ni Phật'_

KYOSAKU In Zen, a flattened stick used to strike the shoulders during zazen , to help overcome fatigue or reach satori

* Japanese: 警策 _kyōsaku_, called _keisaku_ in Rinzai

* 香板

* Cn: _xiangban_

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L

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

LAMA A Tibetan teacher or master; equivalent to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"guru "

* Tibetan: བླ་མ་ _bla ma_

* Sanskrit: _guru_

* 喇嘛

* Cn: _lǎma_ * Jp: _rama_ * Vi: _lạt-ma_

* Mn: лам, _lam_

LINEAGE The official record of the historical descent of dharma teachings from one teacher to another; by extension, may refer to a tradition

* 傳承

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M

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

MADHYAMAKA Buddhist
Buddhist
philosophical school, founded by Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
. Members of this school are called Madhyamikas

* Sanskrit: _mādhyamika_

* Tib: དབུ་མ་པ་ _dbu ma pa_ * Mn: төв үзэл, _töv üzel_

* 中觀宗, 中観派

* Cn: _Zhōngguānzōng_ * Jp: _Chūganha_ * Vi: _Trung quán tông_

MAHABHUTA four great elements in traditional Buddhist
Buddhist
thought

* Pāli and Sanskrit: _Mahābhūta_

* Bur: မဟာဘုတ် _Mahabhot_ (IPA: )

MAHAMUDRA A method of direct introduction the understanding of sunyata , of samsara and that the two are inseparable

* Sanskrit: _mahāmudrā_

* Bur: မဟာမုဒြာ _maha modra_ (IPA: ) * Tib: ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ _chag-je chen-po_ * Mn: махамудра, _mahamudra_

* 大手印

* Cn: _dàshŏuyìn_ * Jp: _daishuin_ * Vi: _đại thủ ấn_

MAHASIDDHA litt. great spiritual accomplishment. A yogi in Tantric Buddhism
Buddhism
, often associated with the highest levels of enlightenment

* Sanskrit: _mahāsiddha_

* Bur: မဟာသိဒ္ဒ _maha theidda_ (IPA: ) * Thai: มหายาน

* 大成就

* Cn: _dàchéngjiù_ * Jp: _daijōju_ * Vi: _đại thành tựu_

MAHAYANA, lit. "great vehicle", A major branch of Buddhism practiced in China, Tibet, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan. Main goal is to achieve buddhahood or samyaksambuddha

* Sanskrit: _mahāyāna_

* Bur: မဟာယာန _mahayana_ (IPA: )

* 大乘 or 大乗

* Cn: _Dàshèng_ * Jp: _Daijō_ * Vi: _Đại thừa_

* Mn: _Ikh khölgön_

MAITREYA The Buddha of the future epoch

* Pāli: _Metteyya_ * Sanskrit: _Maitreya_

* Bur: အရိမေတ္တေယျ _arimetteya_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ဢရီႉမိတ်ႈတေႇယႃႉ () * Tib: བྱམས་པ, _byams pa_ * Mn: Майдар, _maidar_

* 彌勒 or 彌勒佛, 弥勒 or 弥勒仏

* Cn: _Mílè_ or _Mílè Fó_ * Jp: _Miroku_ or _Miroku-butsu_ * Vi: _Di-lặc_ or _Phật Di-lặc_

MAKYO In Zen, unpleasant or distracting thoughts or illusions that occur during zazen

* Japanese: 魔境 _makyō_

* Vi: _ma chướng_

MāNA conceit, arrogance, misconception

* Pāli and Sanskrit: _Māna_

* Bur: မာန _mana_ (IPA: ) * Mon: မာန် _man_ () * Shan: မႃႇၼႃႉ ()

* 慢

* Jp: _man_

MANDALA a spiritual and ritual symbol representing the Universe

* Sanskrit: _मण्डल Maṇḍala_ (lit. "circle")

* 曼荼羅

* Cn: _màntúluó_ * Jp: _mandara_ * Vi: _mạn-đà-la_

MANTRA Chant used primarily to aid concentration, to reach enlightenment. The best-known Buddhist
Buddhist
mantra is possibly _Om mani padme hum _

* Sanskrit: _mantra_

* Thai: มนตร์ _moan_ * Mn: маань, тарни; _maani, tarni_

* 咒, 真言

* Cn: _zou_ * Jp: _shingon_, _ju_ * Vi: _chân âm_, _thần chú_

MAPPO The "degenerate" Latter Day of the Law. A time period supposed to begin 2,000 years after Sakyamuni Buddha's passing and last for "10,000 years"; follows the two 1,000-year periods of Former Day of the Law (正法 Cn: _zhèngfǎ_; Jp: _shōbō_) and of Middle Day of the Law (像法 Cn: _xiàngfǎ_; Jp: _zōhō_). During this degenerate age, chaos will prevail and the people will be unable to attain enlightenment through the word of Sakyamuni Buddha. See the Three periods

* Japanese: 末法 _mappō_

* 末法

* Cn: _mòfǎ_ * Vi: _mạt pháp_

MERIT

* Pāli: _puñña_ * Sanskrit: _puṇya_

* Bur: ကုသိုလ် _kutho_ (IPA: ) * Mon: ကုသဵု ( ) or ပိုန် () * Shan: ပုင်ႇၺႃႇ ( ) or ၵူႉသူဝ်ႇ () or ၵူႉသလႃႉ ()

* 功徳

* Jp: _kudoku_

METTA loving kindness

* Pāli: * Sanskrit:

* Bur: မေတ္တာ _myitta_ (IPA: ) * Mon: မေတ္တာ () * Shan: မိတ်ႈတႃႇ () or မႅတ်ႈတႃႇ () * Thai: เมตตา _metta_

* 慈

* Ch: _Cí_ * Jp: _ji_ * Vi: _từ_

MIDDLE WAY The practice of avoidance of extreme views and lifestyle choices

* Pāli: _majjhimāpaṭipadā_ * Sanskrit: _madhyamāpratipad_

* Bur: မဇ္ဇိမပဋိပဒါ _myizima badi bada_ (IPA: )

* 中道

* Ch: _zhōngdào_ * Jp: _chūdō_ * Vi: _trung đạo_

* Mn: дундаж зам мөр, _dundaj zam mör_

(RIGHT) MINDFULNESS The practice whereby a person is intentionally aware of his or her thoughts and actions in the present moment, non-judgmentally. The 7th step of the Noble Eightfold Path

* Pāli: _(sammā)-sati_ * Sanskrit: _(samyag)-smṛti_ * Bur: သတိ _thadi_ (IPA: ) * Thai: สัมมาสติ _samma-sati_

* 正念

* Cn: _zhèngniàn_ * Jp: _shōnen_ * Vi: _chính niệm_, _chánh niệm_

MOKSHA Liberation

* Sanskrit: _mokṣa_

* Pāli: _vimutti_ * Bur: ဝိမုတ္တိ _wimouti_ (IPA: )

* 解脱

* Cn: _jiětuō_ * Jp: _gedatsu_ * Vi: _giải thoát_

MOKUGYO A wooden drum carved from one piece, usually in the form of a fish

* Japanese: 木魚 _mokugyo_

* 木魚

* Cn: _mùyú_ * Vi: _mõ_

MONDO In Zen, a short dialogue between teacher and student

* Japanese: 問答 _mondō_

* 問答

* Cn: _wèndǎ_ * Vi:

MUDRA lit. "seal", A gesture made with hands and fingers in meditation

* Sanskrit: _mudrā_

* Bur: မုဒြာ _modra_ (IPA: ) * Tib: ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ _phyag rgya_ * Mn: чагжаа, _chagjaa_

* 手印

* Cn: _sohyìn_ (commonly only _yìn_) * Jp: _shuin_ * Vi: _ấn_

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DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

NAMO An exclamation showing reverence; devotion. Often placed in front of the name of an object of veneration, e.g., a Buddha's name or a sutra (Nam(u) Myōhō Renge Kyō ), to express devotion to it. Defined in Sino-Japanese as 帰命 _kimyō_: to base one's life upon, to devote (or submit) one's life to

Derivatives:

* Namo Amitabha

* Pāli: _namo_ * Sanskrit: _namaḥ_ or _namas_

Derivatives:

* Sanskrit: _namo-'mitābhāya_

* Bur: နမော _namaw_ (IPA: ) * Tib: ཕྱག་འཚལ་(ལོ), _chag tsal (lo)_ * Mn: мөргөмү, _mörgömü_

* 南無

* Cn: _nánmó_ * Jp: _namu_ or _nam_ * Ko: _namu_ * Vi: _nam-mô_

Derivatives:

* 南無阿弥陀佛

* Cn: _Nánmó Ēmítuó fó_ * Jp: _Namu Amida butsu_ * Ko: _Namu Amita Bul_ * Vi: _Nam-mô A-di-đà Phật_

* 南無觀世音菩薩

* Cn: _Nánmó Guán Syr Yín Pū Sá_ * Jp: _Namu Kanzeon Butsu_ * Ko: _Namu Gwan Se Eum Bo Sal_ * Vi: _Nam-mô Quan Thế Âm Bồ Tát_

NEKKHAMMA renunciation

* Pāli: * Sanskrit:

* Bur: နိက္ခမ _neikhama_ (IPA: ) * Thai: เนกขัมมะ _nekkamma_ * Mn: магад гарахуй, _magad garahui_

* 出世

* Cn: _Chūshì_ * Jp: _shusse_ * Vi: _xuất thế_

NIRVANA/NIBBANA Extinction or extinguishing; ultimate enlightenment in the Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition

* from _niḥ-√vā_: to extinguish * Pāli: _nibbāna_ * Sanskrit: _nirvana_

* Bur: နိဗ္ဗာန် _neibban_ (IPA: ) * Thai: นิพพาน _nípphaan_ * Tib: མྱ་ངན་ལས་འདས་པ, _mya-ngan-las-'das-pa_ * Mn: нирван, _nirvan_

* 涅槃

* Cn: _Nièpán_ * Jp: _Nehan_ * Ko: _Yeolban_ * Vi: _Niết-bàn_

NIKAYA , lit. "volume", The Buddhist
Buddhist
texts in Pāli

* Pāli: _nikāya_

* Sanskrit: _Āgama_ * Bur: နိကာယ _nikaya_ (IPA: )

* 部經

* Cn: _Bùjīng_ * Jp: _bukyō_ * Vi: _Bộ kinh_

NOBLE EIGHTFOLD PATH

* Right View (Pāli: _sammā-diṭṭhi_; Sanskrit: _samyag-dṛṣṭi_; 正見 Cn: _zhèngjiàn_; Vi: _chính kiến_)

* Right Thought (Pāli: _sammā-saṅkappa_; Sanskrit: _samyak-saṃkalpa_; 正思唯 Cn: _zhèngsīwéi_; Vi: _chính tư duy_) These 2 constitute the path of Wisdom (Pāli: _paññā_; Sanskrit: _prajñā_) * Right Speech (Pāli: _sammā-vācā_; Sanskrit: _samyag-vāk_; 正語 Cn: _zhèngyǔ_; Vi: _chính ngữ_) * Right Action (Pāli: _sammā-kammanta_; Sanskrit: _samyak-karmānta_; 正業 Cn: _zhèngyè_; Vi: _chính nghiệp_)

* Right Living (Pāli: _sammā-ājīva_; Sanskrit: _samyag-ājīva_; 正命 Cn: _zhèngmìng_; Vi: _chính mệnh_) These 3 constitute the path of Virtue (Pāli: _sīla_; Sanskrit: _śīla_) * Right Effort (Pāli: _sammā-vāyāma_; Sanskrit: _samyag-vyāyāma_; 正精進 Cn: _zhèngjīngjìn_; Vi: _chính tinh tiến_) * Right Mindfulness (Pāli: _sammā-sati_; Sanskrit: _samyag-smṛti_; 正念 Cn: _zhèngniàn_; Vi: _chính niệm_)

* Right Concentration (Pāli: _sammā-samādhi_; Sanskrit: _samyak-samādhi_; 正定 Cn: _zhèngdìng_; Vi: _chính định_) The last 3 constitute the path of Concentration (Pāli, Sanskrit: _samādhi_)

* Pāli: _aṭṭhāṅgika-magga_ * Sanskrit: _aṣṭāṅgika-mārga_

* Bur: မဂ္ဂင် _meggin_ (IPA: ) * Thai: อริยมรรค _ariya-mak_

* 八正道

* Cn: _Bāzhèngdào_ * Jp: _Hasshōdō_ * Ko: _Paljeongdo_ * Vi: _Bát chính đạo_

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O

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

ORYOKI A set of bowls used in a Zen
Zen
eating ceremony

* Japanese: 応量器 _ōryōki_

OSHO A term used to address a monk of the Zen
Zen
Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition. Originally reserved for high-ranking monks, it has since been appropriated for everyday use when addressing any male member of the Zen
Zen
clergy

* Japanese: 和尚 _oshō_

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P

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

PABBAJJA , (a layperson) leaving home to join a community of monks and nuns (lit. "to go forth")

* Sanskrit: _pravrajya_ * Pali: _Pabbajja_

* 出家

* Cn: _chūjiā_ * Jp: _shukke_ * Vi: _xuất gia_

PANCA SKANDHA The five constituent elements into which an individual is analyzed. They are:

* "form": Pāli, Sanskrit: _rūpa_; Bu: ရူပ _yupa_; 色 Cn: _sè_; Jp: _shiki_ * "sensation": Pāli, Sanskrit: _vedanā_; Bu: ဝေဒန _wedana_; 受 Cn: _shòu_; Jp: _ju_ * "cognition": Pāli: _saññā_; Sanskrit: _saṃjñā_; Bu: သညာ _thinnya_; 想 Cn: _xiàng_; Jp: _sō_ * "mental formations": Pāli: _saṅkhāra_; Sanskrit: _saṃskāra_; Bu: သင်္ခါရ _thinkhaya_; 行 Cn: _xíng_; Jp: _gyō_ * "consciousness ": Pāli: _viññāṇa_; Sanskrit: _vijñāna_; Bu: ဝိညာဉ် _winyin_; 識 Cn: _shí_; Jp: _shiki_

* Sanskrit: _pañca skandha_ * Pāli: _pañca khandha_

* Bur: ခန္ဒာငါးပါး _khanda nga ba_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ႁႃႈ ၶၼ်ႇထႃႇ ()

* 五蘊, 五陰, 五薀

* Cn: _wǔyùn_ * Jp: _go-on_, sometimes _go-un_ * Vi: _ngũ uẩn_

PANCHEN LAMA The second highest ranking lama in the Gelugpa
Gelugpa
sect of Tibetan Buddhism. after the Dalai Lama

* Tibetan: པན་ཆེན་བླ་མ་ _pan-chen bla-ma_

* Sanskrit: _paṇḍitaguru_ * Mn: Банчин Богд, _Banchin Bogd_

* 班禪喇嘛

* Cn: _Bānchán Lǎma_ * Jp: ?? * Vi: _Ban-thiền Lạt-ma_

PAññā , see prajna

* Sanskrit:

* Bur: ပညာ _pyinnya_ (IPA: ) * Mon: ပညာ ( ) * Shan: ပိင်ႇၺႃႇ ( ) * Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་ _shes rab_ * Mn: билиг, _bilig_

* 智慧 or 知恵 or 般若

* Cn: _Zhìhuì, zhīhuì, bōrě_ * Jp: _chie_,_hannya_ * Vi: _bát-nhã_

PARAMARTHA Absolute, as opposed to merely conventional, truth or reality; see also samvrti

* Sanskrit: _paramārtha_

* Bur: ပရမတ် _paramat_ (IPA: ) * Thai: ปรมัตถ์ _paramutt_

* 真諦

* Jp: _shintai_

PARAMITA , lit. "reaching the other shore," usually rendered in English as "perfection." The Mahayana
Mahayana
practices for obtaining enlightenment; giving, ethics, patience, effort, concentration and wisdom

* Pāli: _pāramī_ * Sanskrit: _pāramitā_

* Bur: ပါရမီ _parami_ (IPA: ) * Mon: ပါရမဳ ( ) * Thai: บารมี _baramee_ * Mn: барамид, _baramid_

* 波羅蜜 or 波羅蜜多

* Cn: _bōluómì_ or _bōluómìduō_ * Jp: _haramitsu_ or _haramita_ * Vi: _ba-la-mật_ or _ba-la-mật-đa_

PARINIBBANA/PARINIRVANA The final nibbana/nirvana

* from nibbana/nirvana above * Pāli: _parinibbāna_ * Sanskrit: _parinirvāṇa_

* Bur: ပရိနိဗ္ဗာန် _pareineibban_ (IPA: ) * Thai: ปรินิพพาน _pari-nippaan_

* 般涅槃

* Cn: _bōnièpán_ * Jp: _hatsunehan_ * Vi: _bát-niết-bàn_

PERFECTION OF WISDOM

* from pāramitā ("perfection") above and prajñā/paññā ("wisdom") below * Sanskrit: _prajñāpāramitā_ * Pāli: _paññāparami_

* Bur: ပညာပါရမီ _pyinnya parami_ (IPA: ) * Mon: ပညာပါရမဳ ( ) * Mn: билиг барамид, _bilig baramid_

* 般若波羅蜜 or 般若波羅蜜多

* Cn: _bōrě-bōluómì_ or _bōrě-bōluómìduō_ * Jp: _hannya-haramitsu_ or _hannya-haramita_ * Vi: _bát-nhã-ba-la-mật_ or _bát-nhã-ba-la-mật-đa_

POINTING-OUT INSTRUCTION The direct introduction to the nature of mind in the lineages of Essence Mahamudra
Mahamudra
and Dzogchen . A root guru is the master who gives the 'pointing-out instruction' so that the disciple recognizes the nature of mind

* Tibetan: ངོ་སྤྲོད་ _ngo-sprod_

PRAJNA/PAññā "wisdom", "insight"

* Pāli: _paññā_ * Sanskrit: _prajñā_

* Bur: ပညာ _pyinnya_ (IPA: ) * Thai: ปัญญา _pun-ya_ * Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་ _shes rab_ * Mn: хөтлөх, _khötlökh_

* 般若

* Cn: _bōrě_ or _bānruò_ * Jp: _hannya_ * Vi: _bát-nhã_

PRATITYA-SAMUTPADA "Dependent origination," the view that no phenomenon exists (or comes about) without depending on other phenomena or conditions contingent with it. In English also called "conditioned genesis," "dependent co-arising," "interdependent arising," etc.

A famous application of _dependent origination_ is the Twelve Nidana , or 12 inter-dependences (Sanskrit: _dvādaśāṅgapratītyasamutpāda_; 十二因緣, 十二因縁 Cn: _shíàr yīnyuán_; Jp: _jūni innen_; Vi: _thập nhị nhân duyên_), which are:

* Ignorance (Pāli: _avijjā_; Sanskrit: _avidyā_; 無明 Cn: _wúmíng_; Jp: _mumyō_; Vi: _vô minh_; Mn: мунхрахуй, _munhrahui_) * Ignorance creates Mental Formation (Pāli: _saṅkhāra_; Sanskrit: _saṃskāra_; 行 Cn: _xíng_; Jp: _gyō_; Vi: _hành_; Mn: хуран үйлдэхүй, _khuran uildehui_) * Mental Formation creates Consciousness (Pāli: _viññāṇa_; Sanskrit: _vijñāna_; 識 Cn: _shí_; Jp: _shiki_; Vi: _thức_; Mn: тийн мэдэхүй, _tiin medehui_) * Consciousness creates Name 名色 Cn: _míngsè_; Jp: _myōshiki_; Vi: _danh sắc_; Mn: нэр өнгө, _ner öngö_) * Name text-decoration: none">saḷāyatana_; Sanskrit: _ṣaḍāyatana_; 六入 or 六処 Cn: _liùrù_; Jp: _rokunyū_ or _rokusho_; Vi: _lục căn_; Mn: төрөн түгэхүй, _törön tugehui_) * Sense Gates create Contact (Pāli: _phassa_; Sanskrit: _sparśa_; 觸, 触 Cn: _chù_; Jp: _soku_; Vi: _xúc_; Mn: хүрэлцэхүй, _khureltsehui_) * Contact creates Feeling
Feeling
(Pāli, Sanskrit: _vedanā_; 受 Cn: _shòu_; Jp: _ju_; Vi: _thụ_; Mn: сэрэхүй, _serehui_) * Feeling
Feeling
creates Craving (Pāli: _taṇhā_; Sanskrit: _tṛṣṇā_; 愛 Cn: _ài_; Jp: _ai_; Vi: _ái_; Mn: хурьцахуй, _khuritsahui_) * Craving creates Clinging
Clinging
(Pāli, Sanskrit: _upādāna_; 取 Cn: _qǔ_; Jp: _shu_; Vi: _thủ_; Mn: авахуй, _avahui_) * Clinging
Clinging
creates Becoming (Pāli, Sanskrit: _bhava_; 有 Cn: _yǒu_; Jp: _u_; Vi: _hữu_; Mn: сансар, _sansar_) * Becoming creates Birth (Pāli, Sanskrit: _jāti_; 生 Cn: _shēng_; Jp: _shō_; Vi: _sinh_; Mn: төрөхүй, _töröhui_ ) * Birth leads to Aging text-decoration: none">jarāmaraṇa_; 老死 Cn: _láosǐ_; Jp: _rōshi_; Vi: _lão tử_; Mn: өтлөх үхэхүй, _ötlöh uhehui)_

* Pāli: _paṭicca-samuppāda_ * Sanskrit: _pratitya-samutpāda_

* Bur: ပဋိစ္စသမုပ္ပါဒ် _padeissa thamopad_ (IPA: ) * Tib: རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་བར་འབྱུང་བ་ _rten cing `brel bar `byung ba_ * Mn: шүтэн барилдлага, _shuten barildlaga_

* 緣起 (thought to be an abbreviation for 因緣生起), 縁起

* Cn: _yuánqǐ_ * Jp: _engi_ * Vi: _duyên khởi_

* Also called 因緣, 因縁

* Cn: _yīnyuán_ * Jp: _innen_ * Vi: _nhân duyên_

PRATYEKABUDDHA/PACCEKABUDDHA , lit. "a buddha by his own", A buddha who reaches enlightenment on his own

* Pāli: _paccekabuddha_ * Sanskrit: _pratyekabuddha_

* Bur: ပစ္စေကဗုဒ္ဓါ _pyiseka boddha_ (IPA: )

* 辟支佛

* Cn: _Bìzhī Fó_ * Jp: _Hyakushibutsu_ * Vi: _Bích-chi Phật_

PURE LAND BUDDHISM A large branch of Mahayana
Mahayana
, dominantly in East Asia . The goal of Pure Land Buddhism
Buddhism
is to be reborn in the Western sukhavati of Amitabha , either as a real place or within the mind, through the other-power of repeating the Buddha's name, nianfo or nembutsu.

* 净土宗(Ch), 浄土教(Jp)

* Cn: _Jìngtǔ-zōng_ * Jp: _Jōdo-kyo_ * Ko: _Jeongtojong_ * Vi: _Tịnh độ tông_

PURISA The practicing Buddhist
Buddhist
community as a whole; sangha and laity

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DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

REBIRTH The process of continuity of life after death

* Pāli: _punabbhava_ * Sanskrit: _punarbhava_

* 輪廻

* Cn: _lunhui_ * Jp: _rinne_ * Vi: _luân hồi_

RATNASAMBHAVA

* Sanskrit: _Ratnasambhava_

* Tib: རིན་ཆེན་འབྱུང་གནས Rinchen Jung ne

* Mn: ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠣ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ; Эрдэнэ гарахын орон, Төгс Эрдэнэ; Erdeni garkhu yin oron, Tegüs Erdeni * 寶生佛, 宝生如来

* Jp: _Hōshō Nyorai_ * Vi: _Bảo-sanh Như Lai_

REFUGE Usually in the form of "take refuge in the Three Jewels "

* Pāli: _saraṇa_ * Sanskrit: _śaraṇa_

* Bur: သရဏဂုံ _tharanagon_ (IPA: ) * Mn: аврал, _avral_ * Tib: _skyabs_ * Thai: สรณะ _sorana_

* 歸依

* Cn: _guīyī_ * Jp: _kie_ * Vi: _quy y_

RIGPA , the knowledge that ensues from recognizing one's nature

* Tibetan: རིག་པ (rig pa)

* Sanskrit: विद्या (vidyā)

RINPOCHE , lit. "precious one", An honorific title for a respected Tibetan lama, such as a _tulku _

* Tibetan: རིན་པོ་ཆེ་, _rin-po-che_

* Mn: римбүчий, _rimbuchii_

* 仁波切

* Cn: _rénbōqiē_ * Jp: リンポチェ _rinpoche_ * Vi: ??

RINZAI Zen
Zen
sect emphasizing koan study; named for master Linji Yixuan

* Japanese: 臨済宗 _Rinzai-shū_

* 臨濟宗

* Cn: _Línjì-zōng_ * Vi: _Lâm Tế tông_

ROHATSU A day traditionally honored as the day of the Buddha's enlightenment. While deep in meditation under a bodhi tree, he attained enlightenment upon seeing the morning star just at dawn; celebrated on the 8th day either of December or of the 12th month of the lunar calendar

* Japanese: 臘八 _Rōhatsu_ or _Rohachi_

ROSHI , lit. "Master", An honorific given to Zen
Zen
teachers in the Rinzai and Obaku sects.

* Japanese 老師 _Rōshi_

* 禅師

* Cn: '’chan shī _(lit., old master)_

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S

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

SACCA truthfulness

* Sanskrit: _Satya_

* Bur: သစ္စာ _thissa_ (IPA: ) * Mon: သစ္စ ( ) * Shan: သဵတ်ႈၸႃႇ ( ) * Thai: สัจจะ _sadja_

* 真

* Cn: _zhēn_ * Jp: _shin_ * Vi:

SAMANERA /SHRAMANERA A male novice monk, who, after a year or until the ripe age of 20, will be considered for the higher Bhikkhu ordination

* Sanskrit: _śrāmaṇera_

* Bur: (ရှင်)သာမဏေ _(shin) thamane_ (IPA: ) * Mon: သာမ္မဏဳ () * Shan: သႃႇမၼေႇ () * Thai: สามเณร _sama-naen_

* 沙彌

* Cn: _shāmí_ * Jp: _shami_ * Vi: _sa-di_, _chú tiểu_

SAMATHA Mental stabilization; tranquility meditation. Distinguished from vipassanā meditation

* Pāli: _samatha_ * Sanskrit: _śamatha_

* Bur: သမထ _thamahta_ (IPA: ) * Thai: สมถะ _samatha_

* 舍摩他

* Cn: _shěmótā_ * Jp: ?? * Vi: ??

SAMSARA The cycle of birth and rebirth; the world as commonly experienced

* Pāli, Sanskrit: _saṃsāra_

* Bur: သံသရာ _thanthaya_ (IPA: ) * Thai: สังสารวัฏ _sung-sara-wat_ * Tib: འཁོར་བ _khor ba_ * Bur: _သံသရာ_ * Mn: орчлон, _orchlon_

* 輪迴, 輪廻

* Cn: _lúnhúi_ * Jp: _rinne_ * Vi: _luân hồi_

SAMU Work, conceived as a part of Zen
Zen
training.

* Japanese: 作務 _samu_

* 作務

* Cn: _zuòwù_ * Vi: ??

SAMVRTI Conventional, as opposed to absolute, truth or reality; see also paramartha

* Sanskrit: _saṃvriti_

* Bur: သမ္မုတိ _thamudi_ (IPA: ) * Thai: สมมุติ _sommoot_

* 俗諦

* Jp: _zokutai_

SANGHA The community of Buddhist
Buddhist
monks and nuns. Teachers and practitioners.

* Sanskrit: _saṅgha_

* Bur: သံဃာ _thangha_ (IPA: ) * Mon: သဳလ ( ) * Shan: သၢင်ႇၶႃႇ ( ) * Thai: สงฆ์ _song_ * Tib: ཚོགས་ཀ་མཆོག _tsog gyu chog_ * Mn: хуврагийн чуулган, _khuvragiin chuulgan_

* 僧團

* Cn: _sēng tuan_ * Jp: _sō_, _sōryō_ * Vi: _tăng già_

SANLUN Buddhist
Buddhist
philosophical school based on the Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
school

* Chinese: 三論 _sānlùn_

* 三論宗

* Cn: _Sānlùnzōng_ * Jp: _Sanron-shū_ * Vi: _Tam luận tông_

SANZEN A formal interview with a teacher in many traditions of Zen. Similar to dokusan

* Japanese

SATORI Awakening; understanding. A Japanese term for enlightenment

* Japanese: 悟り _satori_

* 悟

* Cn: _wú_ * Vi: _ngộ_

SAYADAW Burmese meditation master

* Bur: ဆရာတော် _sayadaw_ (IPA: )

SEICHU In the Zen
Zen
Buddhist
Buddhist
calendar, a period of intensive, formal monastic training. It is typically characterized by week-long Daisesshins and periodic sanzen

* Japanese: 制中 _seichu_

SESSHIN A Zen
Zen
retreat where practitioners meditate, eat and work together for several days

* Japanese: 接心, 摂心

* 佛七

* Cn: '’fóqī

* 坐臘/坐腊

* Cn: _zuòlà_

SHIKANTAZA Soto Zen. "Only concentrated on sitting" is the main practice of the Soto school of Japanese Zen
Zen
Buddhism

* Japanese: 只管打座

* 默照

* Cn: _mòzhào_

SHUNYATA Emptiness; see also Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna

* Pāli: _suññatā_ * Sanskrit: _śūnyatā_

* Bur: သုည ' (IPA: ) * Shan: သုင်ႇၺႃႉ () * Tib: _stong pa nyid_ * Mn: хоосон чанар, _khooson chanar_

* 空

* Cn: _kōng_ * Jp: _kū_ * Vi: _tính Không_

SIKHī BUDDHA Buddha of Knowledge

* Pāli: _Sikhī Buddha_ * Sanskrit: _Śikhīn Buddha_

* Jp: _Shiki Butsu_

SILA "morals", "morality", "ethics": precepts

* Pāli: _sīla_ * Sanskrit: _śīla_

* Bur: သီလ _thila_ (IPA: ) * Mon: သဳ ( ) * Shan: သီႇလႃႉ ( ) * Thai: ศีล _seen_

* 尸羅,戒

* Cn: _jiè_ * Jp: _kai_ * Vi: _giới_

* Mn: шагшаабад, _shagshaabad_

SōTō Sect of Zen
Zen
emphasizing shikantaza as the primary mode of practice; see also Dōgen

* Japanese: 曹洞宗 _Sōtō-shū_

* 曹洞宗

* Cn: _Cáodòng-zōng_ * Vi: _Tào Động tông_

STORE CONSCIOUSNESS The base consciousness (alayavijnana ) taught in Yogacara
Yogacara
Buddhism

* Pāli, Sanskrit: _ālayavijñāna_

* 阿頼耶識

* Cn: _āyēshí_ * Jp: _arayashiki_ * Vi: _a-lại-da thức_

SUKHA happiness; ease; pleasure; bliss

* Pāli: _sukha_ * Sanskrit: _sukha_

* Bur: သုခ * Mon: ?? * Mn: ??

* 樂

* Cn: _lè_ * Jp: ?? * Vi: ??

SUTRA Scripture; originally referred to short aphoristic sayings and collections thereof

* from √siv: to sew * Sanskrit: _sutra_ * Pāli: _sutta_

* Bur: သုတ် _thoht_ (IPA: ) * Mon: သုတ် () * Mon: သုၵ်ႈ () * Thai: สูตร _soothe_ * Mn: судар, _sudar_

* 經, 経

* Cn: _jīng_ * Jp: _kyō_ * Vi: _kinh_

SUTRA PITAKA The second basket of the Tripiṭaka canon, the collection of all Buddha's teachings

* Pāli: _Sutta-piṭaka_ * Sanskrit: _Sūtra-piṭaka_

* Bur: သုတ် _thoht_ (IPA: ) * Mon: သုတ် () * Mon: သုၵ်ႈ () * Mn: Судрын аймаг _Sudriin aimag_

* 經藏, 経蔵

* Cn: _jīngcáng_ * Jp: _kyōzō_ * Vi: _Kinh tạng_

Contents :

* Top * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z

T

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

TANGARYō A period of waiting for admission into a Zen
Zen
monastery at the gate, lasting anywhere from one day to several weeks—depending on the quality of one's sitting. Refers to the room traveling monks stay in when visiting, or await admittance into the sōdō.

* Japanese: 旦過寮 

*

TANHA Craving or desire

* Pāli: _taṇhā_ * Sanskrit: _tṛṣṇā_

* Bur: တဏှာ _tahna_ (IPA: ) * Thai: ตัณหา _tunha_ * Mn: хурьцахуй, _khuritsahui_

* 愛

* Cn: _ài_ * Jp: _ai_ * Kr: 애 _ae_ * Vi: _ái_

TANTO In Zen, one of the main temple leaders, lit."head of the tan." In a Zen
Zen
temple, the Tanto is one of two officers (with the _Godo_) in charge monks' training.

* Japanese:単頭

*

TANTRA Esoteric religious practices, including yoga , mantra , etc. See also Vajrayana
Vajrayana
.

* Sanskrit: _tantra_

* Mn: тарнийн ёс, дандар, _tarniin yos, dandar_

* 續部,怛特羅

* Cn: _dátèluó_ * Jp: ?? * Vi: _đát-đặc-la_

TATHAGATA one of the Buddha 's ten epithets

* Sanskrit: _tathāgata_; The "Thus-Gone One"

* Bur: တထာဂတ _tahtagata_ (IPA: ) * Thai: ตถาคต _tatha-kohd_ * Mn: түүнчлэн ирсэн, _tuunchlen irsen_

* 如来

* Cn: _rúlái_ * Jp: _nyorai_ * Vi: _như lai_

TATHAGATAGARBHA Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
or the seed of enlightenment

* Sanskrit: _tathāgatagarbha_

* 佛性, 仏性

* Cn: _fóxìng_ * Jp: _busshō_

* Also 覚性

* Cn: _juéxìng_ * Jp: _kakushō_ * Vi: _giác tính_

* Also 如来藏, 如来蔵

* Cn: _rúláizàng_ * Jp: _nyuoraizō_ * Vi: _như lai tạng_

TEISHO A presentation by a Zen
Zen
master during a sesshin. Rather than an explanation or exposition in the traditional sense, it is intended as a demonstration of Zen
Zen
realisation

* Japanese: 提唱 _teishō_

TENZO In Zen, the head cook for a sesshin. In Zen
Zen
temples, the officer in charge of the kitchen

* Japanese: 典座 _tenzo_

* 典座

* Cn: _diǎnzuò_ * Vi: _điển toạ_

THERAVADA , lit. "words of the elders", Most popular form of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka.

* Pāli: _theravāda_ * Sanskrit: _sthaviravāda_

* Bur: ထေရဝါဒ _hterawada_ (IPA: or ) * Thai: เถรวาท _tera-waad_

* 上座部

* Cn: _shàngzuòbù_ * Jp: _jōzabu_ * Vi: _Thượng toạ bộ_

THERA or THEIR, lit. "elder", Honorific applied to senior monks and nuns in the Theravada
Theravada
tradition.

* Pāli: _thera_

* Bur: ထေရ _htera_ (IPA: )

THREE JEWELS Three things that Buddhists take refuge in: the Buddha, his teachings ( Dharma
Dharma
) and the community of realized practitioners ( Sangha
Sangha
), and in return look toward for guidance (see also Refuge (Buddhism) )

* Pāli: _tiratana_ * Sanskrit: _triratna_

* Bur: သရဏဂုံသုံးပါး _tharanagon thon ba_ (IPA: ) OR ရတနာသုံးပါး _yadana thon ba_ ( ) * Thai: ไตรรัตน์ _trai-rut_ * Tib: དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ, _dkon mchog gsum_ * Mn: чухаг дээд гурав _chuhag deed gurav_

* 三寶

* Cn: _sānbăo_ * Jp: _sanbō_ * Vi: _tam bảo_

THREE PERIODS

* Three divisions of the time following the historical Buddha's passing: the Former (or Early) Day of the Law (正法 Cn: _zhèngfǎ_; Jp: _shōbō_), the first thousand years; the Middle Day of the Law (像法 Cn: _xiàngfǎ_; Jp: _zōhō_), the second thousand years; and the Latter Day of the Law (末法 Cn: _mòfǎ_; Jp: _mappō_), which is to last for 10,000 years. * The three periods are significant to Mahayana
Mahayana
adherents, particularly those who hold the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
in high regard; e.g., Tiantai
Tiantai
( Tendai
Tendai
) and Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhists, who believe that different Buddhist
Buddhist
teachings are valid (i.e., able to lead practitioners to enlightenment) in each period due to the different _capacity to accept a teaching_ (機根 Cn: _jīgēn_; Jp: _kikon_) of the people born in each respective period. * The three periods are further divided into five five-hundred year periods (五五百歳 Cn: _wǔ wǔbǎi suì_; Jp: _go no gohyaku sai_), the fifth and last of which was prophesied to be when the Buddhism
Buddhism
of Sakyamuni would lose all power of salvation and a new Buddha would appear to save the people. This time period would be characterized by unrest, strife, famine, and other, natural disasters. * The three periods and the five five-hundred year periods are described in the Sutra
Sutra
of the Great Assembly (大集経 Cn: _dàjí jīng_; Jp: _Daishutu-kyō_, _Daijuku-kyō_, _Daijikkyō_, or _Daishukkyō_). Descriptions of the three periods also appear in other sutras, some of which ascribe different lengths of time to them (although all agree that Mappō will last for 10,000 years).

* 三時

* Cn: _Sānshí_ * Jp: _Sanji_ * Vi: _Tam thời_

THREE POISONS or THREE FIRES The three primary causes of unskillful action that lead to the creation of "negative" karma; the three root kleshas :

* Attachment (Pāli: _lobha_; Sanskrit: _rāga_; Tib.: འདོད་ཆགས་ '_dod chags_) * Aversion (Pali: _doha_; Sanskrit: _dveṣa_; Tib.: ཞེ་སྡང་ _zhe sdang_; Mn: урин хилэн, _urin khilen_; 瞋 Cn: _chēn_; Jp: _jin_; Vi: _sân_) * Ignorance (Pāli: _moha_; Sanskrit: _moha_; Tib.: གཏི་མུག་ _gti mug_)

* Pāli: _kilesa _ (Defilements) * Sanskrit: _kleśa_

* Sanskit: triviṣa * Tib: _düsum_ (Wylie : _dug gsum_) * Bur: မီးသုံးပါး _mi thon ba_ (IPA: ) * Mn: гурван хор, _gurvan khor_

* 三毒

* Cn: _Sāndú_ * Jp: _Sandoku_ * Vi: _Tam độc_

TIANTAI /TENDAI A Mahayana
Mahayana
school of China
China
that teaches the supremacy of the Lotus Sutra
Sutra

* Chinese: 天台 _tiāntái_

* 天台宗

* Cn: _tiāntái zōng_ * Jp: _tendai-shū_ * Vi: _Thiên Thai tông_

TRAILõKYA The 3 "regions" of the world:

* Kamaloka or Kamadhatu: world of desires (Sanskrit, Pāli: _kāmaloka_, _kāmadhātu_; Tibetan: འདོད་ཁམས་ _`dod khams_; Mn: амармагийн орон, _amarmagiin oron_; 欲界 Cn: _yùjiè_, Jp: _yokkai_ Vi: _dục giới_) * Rupaloka or Rupadhatu: world of form (Sanskrit: _rūpaloka_, _rūpadhātu_; Tibetan: གཟུགས་ཁམས་ _gzugs khams_; Mn: дүрстийн орон, _durstiin oron_; 色界 Cn: _sèjiè_; Jp: _shikikai_ , Vi: _sắc giới_) * Arupaloka or Arupadhatu: world without form or desire (Sanskrit: _arūpaloka_, _arūpadhātu_; Tibetan: གཟུགས་མེད་ཁམས་ _gzugs med khams_; Mn: дүрсгүйн орон, _dursquin oron_; 無色界 Cn: _wú sèjiè_, Jp: _mushikikai_ Vi: _vô sắc giới_)

* Sanskrit: _triloka_

* Pāli: _tisso dhātuyo_ * Tibetan: ཁམས་གསུམ་ _khams gsum_ * Mn: гурван орон, _gurvan oron_

* 三界

* Cn: _sānjiè_ * Jp: _sangai_ * Vi: _tam giới_

TRIKAYA The 3 "bodies" of Buddha:

* Dharma-kaya (Sanskrit: _dharmakāya_; 法身 Cn: _fǎshēn_; Jp: _hosshin_; Vi: _pháp thân_) * Sambhoga-kaya (Sanskrit: _saṃbhogakāya_; 報身 Cn: _bàoshēn_; Jp: _hōshin_; Vi: _báo thân_) * Nirmana-kaya (Sanskrit: _nirmāṇakāya_; 應身,化身,応身 Cn: _yìngshēn_; Jp: _ōjin_; Vi: _ứng thân_)

* Sanskrit: _trikāya_

* 三身

* Cn: _sānshēn_ * Jp: _sanjin_ * Vi: _tam thân_

TRIPITAKA The "Three Baskets"; canon containing the sacred texts for Buddhism
Buddhism
( Pāli )

* Vinaya Pitaka (Pāli, Sanskrit: _Vinaya-piṭaka_; Tib: འདུལ་བའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ _`dul ba`i sde snod_; Mn: винайн аймаг сав _vinain aimag sav_; 律藏, 律蔵 Cn: _lǜzàng_; Jp: _Ritsuzō_; Vi: _Luật tạng_) * Sutra
Sutra
Pitaka (Pāli: _Sutta-piṭaka_; Sanskrit: _Sūtra-piṭaka_; Tib: མདོ་སྡེའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ _mdo sde`i sde snod_; Mn: судрын аймаг сав _sudriin aimag sav_; 經藏, 経蔵 Cn: _jīngzàng_; Jp: _Kyōzō_; Vi: _Kinh tạng_) * Abhidhamma
Abhidhamma
Pitaka (Pāli: _Abhidhamma-piṭaka_; Sanskrit: _Abhidharma-piṭaka_; Tib: མངོན་པའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ _mngon pa`i sde snod_; Mn: авидармын аймаг сав _avidarmiin aimag sav_; 論藏, 論蔵 Cn: _lùnzàng_; Jp: _Ronzō_; Vi: _Luận tạng_)

* Pāli: _tipiṭaka_ * Sanskrit: _tripiṭaka_

* Burmese: တိပိဋက _Tipitaka_ (IPA: ) * Thai: ไตรปิฎก _Traipidok_ * སྡེ་སྣོད་་གསུམ, _sde snod gsum_ * Mn: гурван аймаг сав, _gurvan aimag sav_

* 三藏, 三蔵

* Cn: _Sānzàng_ * Jp: _Sanzō_ * Ko: _Samjang_ * Vi: _Tam tạng_

TRIRATNA/TIRATANA , see Three Jewels above

* Pāli: _tiratana_ * Sanskrit: _triratna_

* Tib: དཀོན་མཆོག་གསུམ, _dkon mchog gsum_ * Mn: гурван эрдэнэ, _gurvan erdene_

TRSNA , see tanha above

TULKU A re-incarnated Tibetan teacher

* Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་ _tulku_

* Mn: хувилгаан, _khuvilgaan_

* 再來人 (轉世再來的藏系師長)

* Cn: _Zài lái rén_ * Jp: _keshin_ * Vi: _hoá thân_

Contents :

* Top * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z

U

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

UPADANA Clinging; the 9th link of Pratitya-Samutpada ; the Ninth Twelve Nidanas

* Pāli, Sanskrit: _upādāna_

* Bur: ဥပါဒါန် _upadan_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ဢူႉပႃႇတၢၼ်ႇ () * Thai: อุปาทาน _u-pa-taan_ * Tib: ལེན་པ, _len pa_ * Mn: авахуй, _avahui_

* 取(十二因緣第九支)

* Cn: _qǔ_ * Jp: _shu_ * Vi: _thủ_

UPAJJHAYA spiritual teacher

* Pāli: _Upajjhaya_ * Sanskrit: _upādhyāy_

* Bur: ဥပဇ္ဇာယ်ဆရာ _Upyizesaya_ (IPA: )

UPASAKA A lay follower of Buddhism

* Sanskrit: _upāsaka_

* Bur: ဥပါသကာ _upathaka_ (IPA: ) * Mon: ဥပါသကာ ( ) * Thai: อุบาสก _u-ba-sok_

* 近事男, 優婆塞

* Cn: _jìnshìnán_ * Jp: _ubasoku_ * Vi: _cư sĩ_

UPASIKA A female lay follower

* from upasaka above * Sanskrit: _upāsika_

* Bur: ဥပါသိကာ _upathika_ (IPA: ) * Thai: อุบาสิกา _u-ba-sika_

* 近事女, 優婆夷

* Cn: _jìnshìnǚ_ * Jp: _ubai_ * Vi: _(nữ) cư sĩ_

UPAYA Expedient though not necessarily ultimately true. Originally used as a polemical device against other schools - calling them "merely" expedient, lacking in ultimate truth, later used against one's own school to prevent students form forming attachments to doctrines

In Mahayana, exemplified by the Lotus Sutra, upaya are the useful means that Buddhas (and Buddhist
Buddhist
teachers) use to free beings into enlightenment

* Sanskrit: _upāya_

* Bur: ဥပါယ် _upe_ (IPA: ) * Tib: ཐབས, _thabs_ * Mn: арга, _arga_

* 方便

* Cn: _fāngbiàn_ * Jp: _hōben_ * Vi: _phương tiện_

UPEKKHA equanimity

* Pāli: _upekkhā_ * Sanskrit: _upekṣā_

* Bur: ဥပက္ခာ _upyikkha_ (IPA: ) * Thai: อุเบกขา _u-bek-kha_ * Tib: བཏང་སྙོམས་, _btang snyoms_ * Mn: тэгшид барихуй, _tegshid barihui_

* 镇定,沉着, 捨

* Cn: _Zhèndìng, chénzhuó_ * Jp: _sha_

URNA A concave circular dot on the forehead between the eyebrows

* Sanskrit: _urna_

* Mn: билгийн мэлмий, _bilgiin melmii_

* 白毫

* Jp: _byakugō_ * Vi: _bạch hào_

Contents :

* Top * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z

V

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

VAJRAYANA , The third major branch, alongside Hinayana and Mahayana, according to Tibetan Buddhism's view of itself

* Sanskrit: _vajrayāna_, lit. "diamond vehicle"

* Bur: ဝဇိရယာန _wazeirayana_ (IPA: ) * Thai: วชิรญาณ _wachira-yaan_ * Mn: Очирт хөлгөн, _ochirt khölgön_

* 金剛乘

* Cn: _Jīngāng shèng_ * Jp: _Kongō jō_ * Vi: _Kim cương thừa_

VAIROCANA ,

* Sanskrit: _वैरोचन_

* Tib: རྣམ་པར་སྣང་མཛད། rNam-par-snang mdzad

* Mn: ᠪᠢᠷᠦᠵᠠᠨ᠎ ᠠ᠂ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠋᠋ᠭᠡᠢᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠦ; Бярузана, Машид Гийгүүлэн Зохиогч, Гэгээн Гэрэлт; Biruzana, Masida Geyigülün Zohiyaghci, Gegegen Gereltü * 毗盧遮那佛, 大日如來

* Cn: Pílúzhēnàfó * Jp: Dainichi Nyorai, Birushana-butsu * Vi: _Đại Nhật Như Lai_

VāSANā habitual tendencies or dispositions

* Pāli and Sanskrit: _Vāsanā_

* Bur: ဝါသနာ _wathana_ (IPA: )

* 習気

* Jp: _jikke_

VINAYA PITAKA , The first basket of the Tripitaka canon, which deals with the rules of monastic life

* Pāli, Sanskrit: _vinaya-piṭaka_, lit. "discipline basket"

* Bur: ဝိနည်းပိဋကတ် _wini pitakat_ (IPA: ) * Mon: ဝိနဲ ( ) * Shan: ဝီႉၼႄး ( ) * Thai: วินัย _wi-nai_ * Tib: འདུལ་བའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ _dul-bai sde-snod_ * Mn: Винайн аймаг сав, _vinain aimag sav_

* 律藏

* Cn: _Lǜzàng_ * Jp: _Ritsuzō_ * Vi: _Luật tạng_

VIPASSANA Usually translated as "Insight" meditation, most associated with the Theravāda tradition, but also present in some other traditions such as Tiantai. Often combined with śamatha meditation

* from _vi-√dṛś_: to see apart * Pāli: _vipassanā_ * Sanskrit: _vipaśyanā_, _vidarśanā_

* Bur: ဝိပဿနာ _wipathana_ (IPA: ) * Shan: ဝီႉပၢတ်ႈသၼႃႇ () * Thai: วิปัสสนา _wipadsana_ * Tib: ལྷག་མཐོང_lhag mthong_ * Mn: үлэмж үзэл, _ulemj uzel_

* 觀,観

* Cn: _guān_ * Jp: _kan_ * Vi: _quán_

VIRIYA energy, enthusiastic perseverance

* from * Pāli: _viriya_ * Sanskrit: _vīrya_,

* Tib: _brtson-grus_ * Thai: วิริยะ _wiriya_

* 能量

* Cn: _néngliàng_ * Jp: _nōryō_ * Vi: _năng-lượng_

Contents :

* Top * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z

Y

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

YāNA divisions or schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
according to their type of practice (lit. "vehicle")

* Pāli: _yāna_ * Sanskrit: _yāna_

* 乘

* Cn: _shèng_ * Jp: _jō_ * Vi: _thừa_

Contents :

* Top * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z

Z

DEFINITION ETYMOLOGY IN OTHER LANGUAGES

ZAZEN Sitting meditation as practiced in the Zen
Zen
School of Buddhism

* Japanese: 坐禅

* 坐禪

* Cn: _zuòchán_ * Kr: _jwaseon_ * Vi: _toạ thiền_

ZEN SCHOOL A branch of Mahayana
Mahayana
originating in China
China
that originally emphasizes non-dualism and intuition. Modern monastic forms have a strong emphasis on zazen (Korean) or on zazen combined with militaristic top-down hazing (Japanese)

* Japanese: 禅宗 _Zen-shu_

* 禪宗

* Cn: _Chánzōng_ * Vi: _Thiền tông_

ZENDO In Zen, a hall where zazen is practiced

* Japanese: 禅堂

* 禪堂

* Cn: _chántáng_ * Vi: _thiền đường_

Contents :

* Top * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z

SEE ALSO

* Buddhism
Buddhism
* Buddhist
Buddhist
texts * Glossary of Japanese Buddhism
Buddhism

REFERENCES

* ^ Leighton / Okumura (1996). _Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community_. Albany, NY: SUNY. p. 214. ISBN 0-7914-2710-2 . * ^ Leighton/ Okumura (1996). _Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community_. Albany: SUNY. p. 231. ISBN 0-7914-2710-2 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Pali
Pali
Text Society Dictionary (Be sure to check the "Unicode font" option, and to have one; also, if looking for a word, choose "words that match") * Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary * Digital Dictionary of Buddhism
Buddhism
(Login with userid "guest") * Kadampa Glossary of Buddhist
Buddhist
Terms

* v * t * e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

* Glossary * Index * Outline

FOUNDATIONS

* Three Jewels

* Buddha * Dharma
Dharma
* Sangha
Sangha

* Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
* Noble Eightfold Path * Nirvana * Middle Way

THE BUDDHA

* Tathāgata * Birthday * Four sights * Physical characteristics * Footprint * Relics * Iconography in Laos and Thailand * Films * Miracles

* Family

* Suddhodāna (father) * Māyā (mother) * Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) * Yasodhara (wife) * Rāhula (son) * Ānanda (cousin) * Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

* Places where the Buddha stayed * Buddha in world religions

KEY CONCEPTS

* Avidyā (Ignorance) * Bardo
Bardo
* Bodhicitta * Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
* Dhamma theory * Dharma
Dharma
* Enlightenment * Five hindrances * Indriya * Karma * Kleshas * Mind Stream * Parinirvana * Pratītyasamutpāda * Rebirth * Saṃsāra * Saṅkhāra * Skandha
Skandha
* Śūnyatā * Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) * Tathātā * Ten Fetters

* Three marks of existence

* Impermanence * Dukkha * Anatta
Anatta

* Two truths doctrine

COSMOLOGY

* Ten spiritual realms

* Six realms
Six realms

* Heaven * Human realm * Asura realm * Hungry Ghost realm * Animal realm * Hell

* Three planes of existence

PRACTICES

* Bhavana * Bodhipakkhiyādhammā

* Brahmavihara
Brahmavihara

* Mettā * Karuṇā * Mudita * Upekkha

* Dāna
Dāna
* Devotion * Dhyāna * Faith * Five Strengths * Iddhipada

* Meditation

* Mantras * Kammaṭṭhāna * Recollection * Smarana * Anapanasati
Anapanasati
* Samatha * Vipassanā ( Vipassana movement ) * Shikantaza * Zazen
Zazen
* Kōan * Mandala
Mandala
* Tonglen * Tantra
Tantra
* Tertön * Terma

* Merit

* Mindfulness

* Satipatthana

* Nekkhamma * Pāramitā * Paritta
Paritta

* Puja

* Offerings * Prostration * Chanting

* Refuge

* Satya
Satya

* Sacca

* Seven Factors of Enlightenment

* Sati * Dhamma vicaya * Pīti * Passaddhi

* Śīla

* Five Precepts * Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow * Prātimokṣa

* Threefold Training
Threefold Training

* Śīla * Samadhi
Samadhi
* Prajñā

* Vīrya

* Four Right Exertions

NIRVANA

* Bodhi
Bodhi
* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddhahood
Buddhahood
* Pratyekabuddha

* Four stages of enlightenment

* Sotāpanna * Sakadagami * Anāgāmi * Arhat
Arhat

MONASTICISM

* Bhikkhu * Bhikkhuni
Bhikkhuni
* Śrāmaṇera * Śrāmaṇerī * Anagarika * Ajahn * Sayadaw * Zen
Zen
master * Rōshi * Lama
Lama
* Rinpoche
Rinpoche
* Geshe * Tulku * Householder * Upāsaka and Upāsikā

* Śrāvaka

* The ten principal disciples
The ten principal disciples

* Shaolin Monastery
Monastery

MAJOR FIGURES

* Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
* Kaundinya
Kaundinya
* Assaji * Sāriputta * Mahamoggallāna * Mulian * Ānanda * Mahākassapa * Anuruddha * Mahākaccana * Nanda * Subhuti * Punna * Upali * Mahapajapati Gotamī * Khema * Uppalavanna * Asita
Asita
* Channa * Yasa * Buddhaghoṣa * Nagasena
Nagasena
* Angulimala * Bodhidharma * Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
* Asanga * Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
* Atiśa
Atiśa
* Padmasambhava * Nichiren
Nichiren
* Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
* Emperor Wen of Sui * Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
* Panchen
Panchen
Lama
Lama
* Karmapa * Shamarpa * Naropa * Xuanzang * Zhiyi

TEXTS

* Tripiṭaka * _ Madhyamakālaṃkāra _ * Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras * Pāli Canon * Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
canon * Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
canon

BRANCHES

* Theravada
Theravada

* Mahayana
Mahayana

* Chan Buddhism
Buddhism

* Zen
Zen
* Seon * Thiền

* Pure Land * Tiantai
Tiantai
* Nichiren
Nichiren
* Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
* Yogachara

* Navayana

* Vajrayana
Vajrayana

* Tibetan * Shingon * Dzogchen

* Early Buddhist
Buddhist
schools * Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Buddhism
* Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

COUNTRIES

* Afghanistan * Bangladesh * Bhutan * Cambodia * China
China
* India * Indonesia * Japan * Korea * Laos * Malaysia * Maldives * Mongolia * Myanmar * Nepal * Pakistan * Philippines

* Russia

* Kalmykia

* Singapore * Sri Lanka * Taiwan * Thailand * Tibet
Tibet
* Vietnam

* Middle East

* Iran

* Western countries

* Argentina * Australia * Brazil * France * United Kingdom * United States * Venezuela

HISTORY

* Timeline * Ashoka
Ashoka
* Buddhist
Buddhist
councils

* History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

* Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

* Great Anti- Buddhist
Buddhist
Persecution * Greco- Buddhism
Buddhism
* Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world * Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West * Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
* Persecution of Buddhists * Banishment of Buddhist
Buddhist
monks from Nepal * Buddhist
Buddhist
crisis * Sinhalese Buddhist
Buddhist
nationalism * Buddhist
Buddhist
modernism * Vipassana movement * 969 Movement * Women in Buddhism
Buddhism

PHILOSOPHY

* Abhidharma
Abhidharma
* Atomism * Buddhology * Creator * Economics * Eight Consciousnesses * Engaged Buddhism
Buddhism
* Eschatology * Ethics * Evolution * Humanism * Logic * Reality * Secular Buddhism
Buddhism
* Socialism * The unanswered questions

CULTURE

* Architecture

* Temple * Vihara
Vihara
* Wat
Wat
* Stupa
Stupa
* Pagoda
Pagoda
* Candi * Dzong architecture * Japanese Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture * Korean Buddhist
Buddhist
temples * Thai temple art and architecture * Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture

* Art

* Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist

* Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree * Budai
Budai
* Buddharupa
Buddharupa
* Calendar * Cuisine * Funeral

* Holidays

* Vesak
Vesak
* Uposatha
Uposatha
* Magha Puja * Asalha Puja * Vassa

* Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Bodhi
* Kasaya * Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple

* Mantra

* Om mani padme hum
Om mani padme hum

* Mudra
Mudra
* Music

* Pilgrimage

* Lumbini
Lumbini
* Maya Devi Temple * Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
* Sarnath
Sarnath
* Kushinagar

* Poetry * Prayer beads * Prayer wheel
Prayer wheel

* Symbolism

* Dharmachakra
Dharmachakra
* Flag * Bhavacakra
Bhavacakra
* Swastika
Swastika
* Thangka
Thangka

* Temple of the Tooth * Vegetarianism

MISCELLANEOUS

* Abhijñā * Amitābha

* Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara

* Guanyin
Guanyin

* Brahmā * _ Dhammapada _ * Dharma
Dharma
talk * Hinayana * Kalpa * Koliya * Lineage * Maitreya
Maitreya
* Māra * Ṛddhi

* Sacred languages

* Pali
Pali
* Sanskrit
Sanskrit

* Siddhi * Sutra
Sutra
* Vinaya

COMPARISON

* Bahá\'í Faith

* Christianity

* Influences * Comparison

* East Asian religions * Gnosticism * Hinduism * Jainism * Judaism * Psychology * Science * Theosophy * Violence * Western philosophy

LISTS

* Bodhisattvas * Books

* Buddhas

* named

* Buddhists * Suttas * Temples

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

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