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The Info List - Global 200



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The GLOBAL 200 is the list of ecoregions identified by WWF , the global conservation organization, as priorities for conservation. According to WWF, an ecoregion is defined as a "relatively large unit of land or water containing a characteristic set of natural communities that share a large majority of their species dynamics, and environmental conditions". So, for example, based on their levels of endemism , Madagascar
Madagascar
gets multiple listings, ancient Lake Baikal gets one, and the North American Great Lakes get none.

The WWF assigns a conservation status to each ecoregion in the Global 200: CRITICAL OR ENDANGERED; VULNERABLE; and RELATIVELY STABLE OR INTACT. Over half of the ecoregions in the Global 200
Global 200
are rated endangered.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 1.1 Classification * 1.2 Selection process

* 2 Global 200: Terrestrial

* 2.1 Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

* 2.1.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 2.1.2 Australasia * 2.1.3 Indomalaya * 2.1.4 Neotropic
Neotropic
* 2.1.5 Oceania

* 2.2 Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests
Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

* 2.2.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 2.2.2 Australasia * 2.2.3 Indomalaya * 2.2.4 Neotropic
Neotropic
* 2.2.5 Oceania

* 2.3 Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests

* 2.3.1 Nearctic * 2.3.2 Neotropic
Neotropic

* 2.4 Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

* 2.4.1 Australasia * 2.4.2 Indomalaya * 2.4.3 Nearctic * 2.4.4 Neotropic
Neotropic
* 2.4.5 Palearctic

* 2.5 Temperate coniferous forests

* 2.5.1 Nearctic * 2.5.2 Palearctic

* 2.6 Boreal forests/taiga
Boreal forests/taiga

* 2.6.1 Nearctic * 2.6.2 Palearctic

* 2.7 Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

* 2.7.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 2.7.2 Australasia * 2.7.3 Indomalaya * 2.7.4 Neotropic
Neotropic

* 2.8 Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

* 2.8.1 Australasia * 2.8.2 Nearctic * 2.8.3 Neotropic
Neotropic
* 2.8.4 Palearctic

* 2.9 Flooded grasslands and savannas

* 2.9.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 2.9.2 Indomalaya * 2.9.3 Neotropic
Neotropic

* 2.10 Montane grasslands and shrublands

* 2.10.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 2.10.2 Austral-asian * 2.10.3 Indomalaya * 2.10.4 Neotropic
Neotropic
* 2.10.5 Palearctic

* 2.11 Tundra

* 2.11.1 Nearctic * 2.11.2 Palearctic

* 2.12 Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub

* 2.12.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 2.12.2 Australasia * 2.12.3 Nearctic * 2.12.4 Neotropic
Neotropic
* 2.12.5 Palearctic

* 2.13 Deserts and xeric shrublands

* 2.13.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 2.13.2 Australasia * 2.13.3 Nearctic * 2.13.4 Neotropic
Neotropic
* 2.13.5 Palearctic

* 2.14 Mangroves
Mangroves

* 2.14.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 2.14.2 Australasia * 2.14.3 Indomalaya * 2.14.4 Neartic * 2.14.5 Neotropic
Neotropic

* 3 Global 200: Freshwater ecoregions

* 3.1 Large rivers

* 3.1.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 3.1.2 Indomalaya * 3.1.3 Nearctic * 3.1.4 Neotropic
Neotropic
* 3.1.5 Palearctic

* 3.2 Large river headwaters

* 3.2.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 3.2.2 Nearctic * 3.2.3 Neotropic
Neotropic

* 3.3 Large river deltas

* 3.3.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 3.3.2 Indomalaya * 3.3.3 Palearctic

* 3.4 Small rivers

* 3.4.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 3.4.2 Australasia * 3.4.3 Indomalaya * 3.4.4 Nearctic * 3.4.5 Neotropic
Neotropic
* 3.4.6 Palearctic

* 3.5 Large lakes

* 3.5.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 3.5.2 Neotropic
Neotropic
* 3.5.3 Palearctic

* 3.6 Small lakes

* 3.6.1 Afrotropic
Afrotropic
* 3.6.2 Australasia * 3.6.3 Indomalaya * 3.6.4 Neotropic
Neotropic

* 3.7 Xeric basins

* 3.7.1 Australasia * 3.7.2 Nearctic * 3.7.3 Palearctic

* 4 Global 200
Global 200
Marine ecoregions

* 4.1 Polar

* 4.1.1 Antarctic Ocean * 4.1.2 Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean

* 4.2 Temperate shelves and seas

* 4.2.1 Mediterranean * 4.2.2 North Temperate Atlantic * 4.2.3 North Temperate Indo-Pacific * 4.2.4 Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean

* 4.3 Temperate upwelling

* 4.3.1 North Temperate Indo-Pacific * 4.3.2 South Temperate Atlantic * 4.3.3 South Temperate Indo-Pacific

* 4.4 Tropical upwelling

* 4.4.1 Central Indo-Pacific * 4.4.2 Eastern Indo-Pacific * 4.4.3 Eastern Tropical Atlantic

* 4.5 Tropical coral

* 4.5.1 Central Indo-Pacific * 4.5.2 Eastern Indo-Pacific * 4.5.3 Western Indo-Pacific * 4.5.4 Western Tropical Atlantic

* 5 Global Priority Places * 6 Gallery * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

BACKGROUND

The WWF has identified 867 terrestrial ecoregions across the Earth's land surface, as well as freshwater and marine ecoregions . The goal of this classification system is to ensure that the full range of ecosystems will be represented in regional conservation and development strategies. Of these ecoregions, the WWF selected the Global 200
Global 200
as the ecoregions most crucial to the conservation of global biodiversity . The Global 200
Global 200
list actually contains 238 ecoregions, made up of 142 terrestrial, 53 freshwater, and 43 marine ecoregions.

Conservationists interested in preserving biodiversity have generally focused on the preservation of tropical moist broadleaf forests (commonly known as tropical rainforests) because it is estimated that they harbor one half of Earth's species. On the other hand, the WWF determined that a more comprehensive strategy for conserving global biodiversity should also consider the other half of species, as well as the ecosystems that support them.

Several habitats, such as Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome , were determined to be more threatened than tropical rain forests, and therefore require concerted conservation action. WWF maintains that "although conservation action typically takes place at the country level, patterns of biodiversity and ecological processes (e.g., migration) do not conform to political boundaries", which is why ecoregion-based conservation strategies are deemed essential.

CLASSIFICATION

Historically, zoologists and botanists have developed various classification systems that take into account the world's plant and animal communities. Two of the worldwide classification systems most commonly used today were summarized by Miklos Udvardy in 1975.

The Earth's land surface can be divided into eight biogeographical realms (formerly called kingdoms, and which the BBC calls ecozones ) that represent the major terrestrial communities of animals and plants, and are a synthesis of previous systems of floristic provinces and faunal regions. The biome system classifies the world into ecosystem types (i.e. forests, grasslands, etc.) based on climate and vegetation. Each biogeographical realm contains multiple biomes, and biomes occur across several biogeographical realms. A system of biogeographical provinces was developed to identify specific geographic areas in each biogeographical realm that were of a consistent biome type, and shared distinct plant and animal communities. The WWF system represents a further refinement of the system of biomes (which the WWF calls "major habitat types"), biogeographical realms, and biogeographical provinces (the WWF scheme divides most biogeographical provinces into multiple smaller ecoregions).

SELECTION PROCESS

Based on a comprehensive list of ecoregions , The Global 200
Global 200
includes all major habitat types (biomes), all ecosystem types, and species from every major habitat type. It focuses on each major habitat type of every continent (such as tropical forests or coral reefs ). It uses ecoregions as the unit of scale for comparison. WWF say ecoregions could be considered as conservation units at regional scale because they meet similar biological communities.

Some ecoregions were selected over other ecoregions of the same major habitat type (biome) or ecozone. Selection of the Global 200
Global 200
relied on extensive studies of 19 terrestrial, freshwater, and marine major habitat types. Selection of the ecoregions was based on analyses of species richness, species endemism , unique higher taxa , unusual ecological or evolutionary phenomena, and global rarity of major habitat type.

Global 200
Global 200
ecoregion list is most helpful to conservation efforts at a regional scale: local deforestation , destruction of swamp habitats, degradation of soils, etc. However, certain phenomena, such as bird or whale migration , depend on more complex parameters not used to define the current database , such as atmospheric currents and dynamic pelagic ecosystems. These would require gathering more information, and co-ordination of efforts between multiple ecoregions. However, the Global 200
Global 200
ecoregions can help these efforts by identifying habitat sites and resting sites for migratory animals. It may also help identify the origin of invasive species , and offer insights for slowing down or stopping their intrusion.

GLOBAL 200: TERRESTRIAL

TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL MOIST BROADLEAF FORESTS

Main article: Tropical rainforest Main article: Tropical seasonal forest

Afrotropic
Afrotropic

* Guinean moist forests

* AT0111 Eastern Guinean forests * AT0114 Guinean montane forests * AT0130 Western Guinean lowland forests

* Congolian coastal forests
Congolian coastal forests

* AT0102 Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests * AT0107 Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests * AT0127 Sao Tome, Principe and Annobon moist lowland forests

* Cameroon Highlands forests

* AT0103 Cameroonian Highlands forests * AT0121 Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests

* Northeastern Congolian lowland forests

* AT0124 Northeastern Congolian lowland forests

* Central Congo Basin Moist Forests

* AT0104 Central Congolian lowland forests * AT0110 Eastern Congolian swamp forests

* Western Congo Basin Moist Forests

* AT0126 Northwestern Congolian lowland forests * AT0129 Western Congolian swamp forests

* Albertine Rift montane forests

* AT0101 Albertine Rift montane forests

* East African Coastal Forests

* AT0125 Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic * AT0128 Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic

* Eastern Arc Montane Forests ( Kenya
Kenya
, Tanzania
Tanzania
)

* AT0108 East African montane forests

* Madagascar
Madagascar
lowlands and subhumid forests

* AT0117 Madagascar lowland forests * AT0118 Madagascar subhumid forests

* Seychelles and Mascarene Islands moist forests

* AT0113 Granitic Seychelles forests * AT0120 Mascarene forests

Australasia

* Sulawesi moist forests

* AA0123 Sulawesi lowland rain forests * AA0124 Sulawesi montane rain forests

* Moluccas moist forests ( Indonesia
Indonesia
)

* AA0106 Halmahera rain forests

* Southern New Guinea lowland forests

* AA0122 Southern New Guinea lowland rain forests

* New Guinea montane forests

* AA0116 Northern New Guinea montane rain forests

* Solomons-Vanuatu-Bismarck moist forests

* AA0126 Vanuatu rain forests

* Queensland tropical rain forests

* AA0117 Queensland tropical rain forests

* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
moist forests

* AA0113 New Caledonia rain forests

* Lord Howe –Norfolk Islands forests

* AA0109 Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island
subtropical forests

Indomalaya

* South Western Ghats montane rain forests and moist deciduous forests

* IM0150 South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests * IM0151 South Western Ghats montane rain forests

* Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
moist forests

* IM0154 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
lowland rain forests * IM0155 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
montane rain forests

* Northern Indochina
Indochina
Subtropical moist forests

* IM0137 Northern Indochina
Indochina
subtropical forests

* Southeast China-Hainan moist forests

* IM0149 South China- Vietnam
Vietnam
subtropical evergreen forests * IM0169 Hainan Island monsoon rain forests

* Taiwan
Taiwan
montane forests

* IM0172 Taiwan
Taiwan
subtropical evergreen forests

* Annamite Range
Annamite Range
moist forests ( Cambodia
Cambodia
, Laos
Laos
, Vietnam
Vietnam
)

* IM0136 Northern Annamites rain forests * IM0152 Southern Annamites montane rain forests

* Sumatran Islands lowland and montane forests

* IM0157 Sumatran freshwater swamp forests * IM0158 Sumatran lowland rain forests * IM0159 Sumatran montane rain forests * IM0160 Sumatran peat swamp forests

* Philippines moist forests

* IM0114 Greater Negros-Panay rain forests * IM0122 Luzon montane rain forests * IM0123 Luzon rain forests * IM0128 Mindanao montane rain forests * IM0129 Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests * IM0130 Mindoro rain forests * IM0156 Sulu rain forests

* Palawan
Palawan
moist forests

* IM0143 Palawan
Palawan
rain forests

* Kayah -Karen/Tenasserim moist forests

* IM0119 Kayah-Karen montane rain forests * IM0163 Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests

* Peninsular Malaysian lowland and montane forests

* IM0144 Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests * IM0145 Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests * IM0146 Peninsular Malaysian rain forests

* Borneo lowland and montane forests

* IM0102 Borneo lowland rain forests * IM0103 Borneo montane rain forests * IM0104 Borneo peat swamp forests

* Nansei Shoto Archipelago forests (Japan)

* IM0170 Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests
Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests

* Eastern Deccan Plateau moist forests (India)

* IM0111 Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests

* Naga - Manipuri - Chin Hills moist forests ( Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, India, Myanmar
Myanmar
)

* IM0109 Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests * IM0120 Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests * IM0131 Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests

* Cardamom Mountains moist forests

* IM0106 Cardamom Mountains rain forests
Cardamom Mountains rain forests

* Western Java montane forests

* IM0167 Western Java montane rain forests

* Maldives-Lakshadweep- Chagos Archipelago tropical moist forests

* IM0125 Maldives-Lakshadweep- Chagos Archipelago tropical moist forests

Neotropic
Neotropic

* Greater Antillean moist forests

* NT0120 Cuban moist forests * NT0127 Hispaniolan moist forests * NT0131 Jamaican moist forests * NT0155 Puerto Rican moist forests

* Talamancan-Isthmian Pacific forests

* NT0167 Talamancan montane forests

* Choco - Darien moist forests

* NT0115 Choco-Darien moist forests

* Northern Andean montane forests

* NT0145 Northwestern Andean montane forests

* Coastal Venezuela
Venezuela
montane forests

* NT0147 Orinoco Delta swamp forests
Orinoco Delta swamp forests
* NT0169 Tepuis * NT0171 Trinidad and Tobago moist forests

* Guianan moist forests

* NT0125 Guianan moist forests

* Napo moist forests

* NT0142 Napo moist forests

* Rio Negro - Jurua moist forests

* NT0132 Japura-Solimoes-Negro moist forests * NT0133 Jurua-Purus moist forests * NT0158 Rio Negro campinarana

* Guayana Highlands moist forests

* NT0124 Guayanan Highlands moist forests

* Central Andean yungas

* NT0105 Bolivian Yungas
Yungas
* NT0153 Peruvian Yungas
Yungas

* Southwestern Amazonian moist forests

* NT0166 Southwest Amazon moist forests

* Atlantic forests

* NT0103 Bahia coastal forests * NT0151 Pernambuco coastal forests
Pernambuco coastal forests
* NT0160 Serra do Mar coastal forests

Oceania

* South Pacific Islands forests ( American Samoa
American Samoa
- United States, Cook Islands - New Zealand, Fiji
Fiji
, French Polynesia - France, Niue
Niue
- New Zealand, Samoa
Samoa
, Tonga
Tonga
, Wallis and Futuna Islands - France)

* OC0102 Central Polynesian tropical moist forests * OC0103 Cook Islands tropical moist forests * OC0104 Eastern Micronesia tropical moist forests * OC0105 Fiji
Fiji
tropical moist forests * OC0112 Samoan tropical moist forests * OC0114 Tongan tropical moist forests * OC0117 Western Polynesian tropical moist forests

* Hawaii
Hawaii
moist forests

* OC0106 Hawaiian tropical rainforests

TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL DRY BROADLEAF FORESTS

Afrotropic

* Madagascar
Madagascar
dry deciduous forests

* AT0202 Madagascar
Madagascar
dry deciduous forests

Australasia

* Nusu Tenggara Dry Forests ( Indonesia
Indonesia
)

* AA0201 Lesser Sundas deciduous forests * AA0203 Sumba deciduous forests * AA0204 Timor and Wetar deciduous forests

* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
dry forests

* AA0202 New Caledonia
New Caledonia
dry forests

Indomalaya

* Indochina
Indochina
dry forests

* IM0202 Central Indochina
Indochina
dry forests

* Chhota - Nagpur dry forests

* IM0203 Chota Nagpur dry deciduous forests

Neotropic

* Mexican dry forests

* NT0204 Bajio dry forests * NT0205 Balsas dry forests * NT0227 Sierra de la Laguna dry forests

* Tumbesian - Andean valleys dry forests ( Colombia
Colombia
, Ecuador
Ecuador
, Peru
Peru
)

* NT0201 Apure-Villavicencio dry forests * NT0214 Ecuadorian dry forests * NT0221 Magdalena Valley dry forests * NT0223 Marañón dry forests * NT0232 Tumbes-Piura dry forests

* Chiquitano dry forests

* NT0212 Chiquitano dry forests

* Atlantic dry forests

* NT0202 Atlantic dry forests

Oceania

* Hawaii
Hawaii
dry forests

* OC0202 Hawaiian tropical dry forests
Hawaiian tropical dry forests

TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL CONIFEROUS FORESTS

Nearctic

* Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental pine-oak forests

* NA0302 Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests * NA0303 Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests

Neotropic

* Greater Antillean pine forests

* NT304 Cuban pine forests * NT305 Hispaniolan pine forests

* Mesoamerican pine-oak forests ( El Salvador
El Salvador
, Guatemala
Guatemala
, Honduras
Honduras
, Mexico
Mexico
, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
)

* NT0308 Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests * NT0309 Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests * NT0310 Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests

TEMPERATE BROADLEAF AND MIXED FORESTS

Australasia

* Eastern Australia temperate forests

* AA0402 Eastern Australian temperate forests

* Tasmanian temperate rain forests

* AA0413 Tasmanian temperate rain forests

* New Zealand temperate forests

* AA0403 Fiordland temperate forests * AA0404 Nelson Coast temperate forests * AA0405 Northland temperate forests * AA0406 Northland temperate kauri forests * AA0407 Rakiura Island temperate forests * AA0410 Southland temperate forests * AA0414 Westland temperate forests

Indomalaya

* Eastern Himalayan broadleaf and conifer forests

* IM0401 Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests

* Western Himalayan temperate forests

* IM0403 Western Himalayan broadleaf forests

Nearctic

* Appalachian and mixed mesophytic forests

* NA0402 Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests

Neotropic

* Valdivian temperate rain forests - Juan Fernández Islands
Juan Fernández Islands

* NT0401 Juan Fernández Islands
Juan Fernández Islands
temperate forests * NT0404 Valdivian temperate forests

Palearctic

* Southwest China temperate forests

* PA0417 Daba Mountains evergreen forests * PA0434 Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests * PA0437 Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests

* Russian Far East temperate forests

* PA0426 Manchurian mixed forests * PA0443 Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests

TEMPERATE CONIFEROUS FORESTS

Nearctic

* Pacific temperate rain forests

* NA0510 Central Pacific coastal forests * NA0512 Eastern Cascades forests * NA0520 Northern Pacific coastal forests

* Klamath - Siskiyou forests

* NA0516 Klamath-Siskiyou forests

* Sierra Nevada forests

* NA0527 Sierra Nevada forests

* Southeastern coniferous and broadleaf forests

* NA0529 Southeastern conifer forests

Palearctic

* European - Mediterranean montane mixed forests

* PA0501 Alps conifer and mixed forests * PA0513 Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests

* Caucasus-Anatolian-Hyrcanian temperate forest ( Armenia
Armenia
, Azerbaijan , Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Georgia , Iran
Iran
, Russia
Russia
, Turkey
Turkey
, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
)

* PA0407 Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests * PA0408 Caucasus mixed forests * PA0507 Elburz Range forest steppe * PA0515 Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests

* Altai - Sayan montane forests

* PA0502 Altai montane forest and forest steppe * PA0519 Sayan montane conifer forests

* Hengduan Shan coniferous forests

* PA0509 Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests

BOREAL FORESTS/TAIGA

Nearctic

* Muskwa / Slave Lake boreal forests

* NA0610 Muskwa-Slave Lake forests

* Canadian Boreal Forests

* NA0606 Eastern Canadian Shield taiga

Palearctic

* Ural Mountains taiga

* PA0610 Urals montane tundra and taiga
Urals montane tundra and taiga

* East Siberian taiga

* PA0601 East Siberian taiga

* Kamchatka
Kamchatka
taiga and grasslands

* PA0603 Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests * PA0604 Kamchatka-Kurile taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga
* painga mountains taiga

TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL GRASSLANDS, SAVANNAS, AND SHRUBLANDS

Afrotropic

* Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
acacia savannas

* AT0715 Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets

* East African acacia savannas

* AT0711 Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets

* Central and Eastern miombo woodlands

* AT0704 Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands * AT0706 Eastern Miombo woodlands

* Sudanian savannas

* AT0705 East Sudanian savanna * AT0722 West Sudanian savanna

Australasia

* Northern Australia and Trans-Fly savannas

* AA0701 Arnhem Land tropical savanna * AA0702 Brigalow tropical savanna * AA0703 Cape York tropical savanna * AA0704 Carpentaria tropical savanna * AA0705 Einasleigh upland savanna * AA0706 Kimberly tropical savanna * AA0708 Trans Fly savanna and grasslands

Indomalaya

* Terai-Duar savannas and grasslands

* IM0701 Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands

Neotropic

* Llanos savannas

* NT0709 Llanos

* Cerrado woodlands and savannas

* NT0704 Cerrado

TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS, SAVANNAS, AND SHRUBLANDS

Australasia

* Central Range subalpine grasslands

* AA0802 Central Range sub-alpine grasslands

Nearctic

* Northern prairie

* NA0810 Northern mixed grasslands * NA0811 Northern short grasslands * NA0812 Northern tall grasslands

Neotropic

* Patagonian steppe

* NT0805 Patagonian steppe

Palearctic

* Daurian steppe

* PA0804 Daurian forest steppe

FLOODED GRASSLANDS AND SAVANNAS

Afrotropic

* Sudd
Sudd
- Sahelian flooded grasslands and savannas ( Cameroon
Cameroon
, Chad
Chad
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, Mali
Mali
, Niger
Niger
, Nigeria
Nigeria
, Sudan
Sudan
, Uganda
Uganda
)

* AT0903 Inner Niger
Niger
Delta flooded savanna * AT0904 Lake Chad
Chad
flooded savanna * AT0905 Saharan flooded grasslands

* Zambezian flooded savannas

* AT0906 Zambezian flooded grasslands

Indomalaya

* Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
flooded grasslands

* IM0901 Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
seasonal salt marsh

Neotropic

* Everglades flooded grasslands

* NT0904 Everglades

* Pantanal flooded savannas

* NT0907 Pantanal

MONTANE GRASSLANDS AND SHRUBLANDS

Afrotropic

* Ethiopian Highlands

* AT1007 Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands * AT1008 Ethiopian montane moorlands

* Southern Rift montane woodlands

* AT1015 Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic

* East African moorlands

* AT1005 East African montane moorlands

* Drakensberg montane shrublands and woodlands

* AT1003 Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands * AT1004 Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests

Austral-asian

* New Guinea Central Range subalpine grasslands

Indomalaya

* Kinabalu montane shrublands

* IM1001 Kinabalu montane alpine meadows
Kinabalu montane alpine meadows

Neotropic

* Northern Andean páramo

* NT1006 Northern Andean páramo

* Central Andean dry puna

* NT1001 Central Andean dry puna

Palearctic

* Tibetan Plateau steppe

* PA1020 Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows

* Middle Asian montane steppe and woodlands ( Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, China, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan , Tajikistan
Tajikistan
, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
)

* PA1011 North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert * PA1015 Qilian Mountains subalpine meadows * PA1013 Ordos Plateau steppe

* Eastern Himalayan alpine meadows

* PA1003 Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows

TUNDRA

Nearctic

* Alaskan North Slope coastal tundra (Canada, United States)

* NA1103 Arctic coastal tundra * NA1104 Arctic foothills tundra * NA1108 Brooks-British Range tundra

* Canadian low arctic tundra (Canada)

* NA1114 Low Arctic tundra * NA1116 Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra * NA1118 Torngat Mountain tundra

Palearctic

* Fenno - Scandia alpine tundra and taiga (Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden)

* PA0608 Scandinavian and Russian taiga
Scandinavian and Russian taiga
* PA1106 Kola Peninsula tundra * PA1110 Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands

* Taimyr and Siberian coastal tundra

* PA1107 Northeast Siberian coastal tundra * PA1111 Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra

* Chukote coastal tundra (Russia)

* PA1104 Chukchi Peninsula tundra

MEDITERRANEAN FORESTS, WOODLANDS, AND SCRUB

Afrotropic

* Fynbos
Fynbos

* AT1202 Lowland fynbos and renosterveld * AT1203 Montane fynbos and renosterveld

Australasia

* Southwestern Australia forests and scrub

* AA1201 Coolgardie woodlands * AA1202 Esperance mallee * AA1209 Southwest Australia savanna * AA1210 Southwest Australia woodlands

* Southern Australia mallee and woodlands

* AA1203 Eyre and York mallee * AA1206 Mount Lofty woodlands * AA1208 Naracoorte woodlands
Naracoorte woodlands

Nearctic

* California chaparral and woodlands

* NA1201 California coastal sage and chaparral * NA1202 California interior chaparral and woodlands * NA1203 California montane chaparral and woodlands
California montane chaparral and woodlands

Neotropic

* Chilean Matorral

* NT1201 Chilean Matorral

Palearctic

* Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub

* PA1214 Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub

DESERTS AND XERIC SHRUBLANDS

Afrotropic

* Namib - Karoo - Kaokoveld deserts ( Angola
Angola
, Namibia
Namibia
, South Africa )

* AT1310 Kaokoveld desert * AT1314 Nama Karoo * AT1315 Namib desert * AT1322 Succulent Karoo
Succulent Karoo

* Madagascar
Madagascar
spiny thicket

* AT1311 Madagascar
Madagascar
spiny thickets

* Socotra Island desert ( Yemen
Yemen
)

* AT1318 Socotra Island xeric shrublands

* Arabian Highland woodlands and shrublands ( Oman
Oman
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
, Yemen
Yemen
)

* AT1320 Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna * AT1321 Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands

Australasia

* Carnavon xeric scrub

* AA1301 Carnarvon xeric shrublands
Carnarvon xeric shrublands

* Great Sandy - Tanami deserts

* AA1304 Great Sandy-Tanami desert

Nearctic

* Sonoran - Baja deserts

* NA1301 Baja California desert
Baja California desert
* NA1310 Sonoran desert

* Chihuahuan - Tehuacan deserts

* NA1303 Chihuahuan desert

Neotropic

* Galápagos Islands
Galápagos Islands
scrub

* NT1307 Galápagos Islands
Galápagos Islands
xeric scrub

* Atacama - Sechura deserts

* NT1303 Atacama desert
Atacama desert
* NT1315 Sechura desert

Palearctic

* Central Asian deserts ( Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan , Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
)

* PA1310 Central Asian northern desert * PA1312 Central Asian southern desert

MANGROVES

Afrotropic

* East African mangroves

* AT1402 East African mangroves

* Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
mangroves

* AT1403 Guinean mangroves

* Madagascar
Madagascar
mangroves

* AT1404 Madagascar
Madagascar
mangroves

Australasia

* New Guinea mangroves

* AA1401 New Guinea mangroves

Indomalaya

* Greater Sundas mangroves

* IM1405 Sunda Shelf mangroves

* Sundarbans mangroves

* IM1406 Sundarbans mangroves

Neartic

* Northwest Mexican coast mangroves

* NA1401 Northwest Mexican coast mangroves

Neotropic

* Guianan - Amazon mangroves

* NT1401 Alvarado mangroves * NT1402 Amapá mangroves * NT1406 Belizean reef mangroves * NT1411 Guianan mangroves * NT1427 Pará mangroves

* NT1405 Panama Bight mangroves
Panama Bight mangroves

* NT1414 Gulf of Panama mangroves * NT1409 Esmeraldes-Pacific Colombia
Colombia
mangroves * NT1418 Manabí mangroves * NT1413 Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes mangroves
Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes mangroves

GLOBAL 200: FRESHWATER ECOREGIONS

LARGE RIVERS

Afrotropic

* Congo River
Congo River
and flooded forests ( Angola
Angola
, Democratic Republic of Congo , Republic of Congo )

Indomalaya

* Mekong River
Mekong River
(Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam)

Nearctic

* Colorado River (Mexico, United States) * Lower Mississippi River
Mississippi River
(United States)

Neotropic

* Amazon River
Amazon River
and flooded forests (Brazil, Colombia, Peru) * Orinoco River and flooded forests (Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela)

Palearctic

* Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and lakes (China)

LARGE RIVER HEADWATERS

Afrotropic

* Congo basin piedmont rivers and streams (Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Sudan)

Nearctic

* Mississippi piedmont rivers and streams (United States)

Neotropic

* Upper Amazon rivers and streams (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana (France), Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela) * Upper Paraná rivers and streams (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay) * Brazilian Shield Amazonian rivers and streams (Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay)

LARGE RIVER DELTAS

Afrotropic

* Niger
Niger
River delta ( Nigeria
Nigeria
)

Indomalaya

* Indus River Delta (India, Pakistan)

Palearctic

* Volga River Delta (Kazakhstan, Russia) * Mesopotamian delta and marshes (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait) * Danube River delta (Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, Yugoslavia) * Lena River delta (Russia)

SMALL RIVERS

Afrotropic

* Upper Guinea rivers and streams (Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone) * Madagascar
Madagascar
freshwater ( Madagascar
Madagascar
) * Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
rivers and streams (Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, Republic of Congo) * Cape rivers and streams ( South Africa
South Africa
)

Australasia

* New Guinea rivers and streams ( Indonesia
Indonesia
, Papua New Guinea ) * New Caledonia
New Caledonia
rivers and streams ( New Caledonia
New Caledonia
) * Kimberley rivers and streams (Australia) * Southwest Australia rivers and streams (Australia) * Eastern Australia rivers and streams (Australia)

Indomalaya

* Xi Jiang rivers and streams (China, Vietnam) * Western Ghats
Western Ghats
Rivers and Streams (India) * Southwestern Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
rivers and streams ( Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
) * Salween River (China, Myanmar, Thailand) * Sundaland rivers and swamps (Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore)

Nearctic

* Southeastern rivers and streams (United States) * Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
coastal rivers and streams (United States) * Gulf of Alaska coastal rivers and streams (Canada, United States)

Neotropic

* Guianan freshwater (Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela) * Greater Antillean freshwater (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico)

Palearctic

* Balkan rivers and streams (Albania, Bosnia and Herzogovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Turkey, Yugoslavia) * Russian Far East rivers and wetlands (China, Mongolia, Russia)

LARGE LAKES

Afrotropic

* Rift Valley lakes
Rift Valley lakes
(Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia)

Neotropic

* High Andean lakes (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru)

Palearctic

* Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
(Russia) * Lake Biwa
Lake Biwa
(Japan)

SMALL LAKES

Afrotropic

* Cameroon
Cameroon
crater lakes (Cameroon)

Australasia

* Lakes Kutubu and Sentani (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea) * Central Sulawesi lakes (Indonesia)

Indomalaya

* Philippines freshwater (Philippines) * Inle Lake (Myanmar) * Yunnan
Yunnan
lakes and streams (China)

Neotropic

* Mexican highland lakes (Mexico)

XERIC BASINS

Australasia

* Central Australian freshwater (Australia)

Nearctic

* Chihuahuan freshwater (Mexico, United States)

Palearctic

* Anatolian freshwater (Syria, Turkey)

GLOBAL 200 MARINE ECOREGIONS

POLAR

Antarctic Ocean

* Antarctic Peninsula & Weddell Sea

Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean

* Bering Sea
Bering Sea
(Canada, Russia, United States) * Barents-Kara Sea (Norway, Russia)

TEMPERATE SHELVES AND SEAS

Mediterranean

* Mediterranean (Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Monaco, Morocco, Serbia & Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey)

North Temperate Atlantic

* Northeast Atlantic Shelf Marine (Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom) * Grand Banks
Grand Banks
(Canada, St. Pierre and Miquelon (France), United States) * Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
(United States)

North Temperate Indo-Pacific

* Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
(China, North Korea, South Korea) * Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
(Japan, Russia)

Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean

* Patagonian Southwest Atlantic (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay) * Southern Australian Marine (Australia) * New Zealand Marine (New Zealand)

TEMPERATE UPWELLING

North Temperate Indo-Pacific

* California Current (Canada, Mexico, United States)

South Temperate Atlantic

* Benguela Current (Namibia, South Africa)

South Temperate Indo-Pacific

* Humboldt Current (Chile, Ecuador, Peru) * Agulhas Current (Mozambique, South Africa)

TROPICAL UPWELLING

Central Indo-Pacific

* Western Australian Marine (Australia)

Eastern Indo-Pacific

* Panama Bight (Colombia, Ecuador, Panama) * Gulf of California (Mexico) * Galápagos Marine (Ecuador)

Eastern Tropical Atlantic

* Canary Current (Canary Islands, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, Western Sahara)

TROPICAL CORAL

Central Indo-Pacific

* Nansei Shoto (Ryukyu Islands) (Japan) * Sulu- Sulawesi Seas (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines) * Bismarck-Solomon Seas (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands) * Banda-Flores Sea (Indonesia) * New Caledonia
New Caledonia
Barrier Reef (New Caledonia) * Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef
(Australia) * Lord Howe-Norfolk Islands Marine (Australia) * Palau Marine (Palau) * Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
(Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India), Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand)

Eastern Indo-Pacific

* Tahitian Marine (Cook Islands, French Polynesia) * Hawaiian Marine (Hawaii) * Rapa Nui
Rapa Nui
(Easter Island) * Fiji
Fiji
Barrier Reef (Fiji)

Western Indo-Pacific

* Maldives
Maldives
, Chagos , and Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
atolls (Chagos Archipelago (United Kingdom), India, Maldives, Sri Lanka) * Red Sea
Red Sea
(Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Yemen) * Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
(Djibouti, Iran, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen) * East African Marine (Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania) * West Madagascar
Madagascar
Marine (Comoros, Madagascar, Mayotte and Iles Glorieuses (France), Seychelles)

Western Tropical Atlantic

* Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico) * Greater Antillean Marine (Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States) * Southern Caribbean Sea (Aruba, Colombia, Netherlands Antilles, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela) * Northeast Brazil Shelf Marine (Brazil)

GLOBAL PRIORITY PLACES

WWF WWF has identified 35 global priority places around the world (terrestrial, freshwater and marine) as either being home to irreplaceable and threatened biodiversity, or representing an opportunity to conserve the largest and most intact representative of their ecosystem.

* African Rift Lakes Region - Include the 3 largest lakes in Africa: Victoria, Tanganyika and Malawi, as well as lakes Turkana, Albert, Edward, Kivu and others. * Altai-Sayan Montane Forests - One of the last remaining untouched areas of the world * Amazon Guianas - World's largest tropical rain forest and river basin with a mosaic of mountains, coniferous forests, steppe and alpine meadows. * Amur-Heilong - Refuge for Amur leopard and tiger. * Arctic Seas & Associated Boreal/ Tundra - Protecting Arctic Environments * Atlantic Forests - Forest stretches from the Atlantic coast of Brazil, south along the Brazilian Atlantic coastline and inland into northeast Argentina and eastern Paraguay. * Borneo and Sumatra - Priceless forests harbor untold species * Cerrado-Pantanal * Chihuahuan Desert - Protecting the balance of a desert * Choco-Darien * Coastal East Africa - Improving livelihoods by conserving nature * Congo Basin - Protecting Africa's tropical forests * Coral Triangle - Home to the world's most abundant variety of corals and sea life * Eastern Himalayas - Empowering communities to protect sacred lands * Fynbos * The Galápagos - The world's most treasured islands * Greater Black Sea Basin * Lake Baikal * Madagascar
Madagascar
- Safeguarding one of Earth's most captivating islands * Mediterranean * Mekong Complex - Protecting the river of life from source to sea * Miombo Woodlands * Namib-Karoo-Kaokoveld * New Guinea & Offshore Islands * Northern Great Plains * Orinoco River ">

WWF terrestrial ecoregions. *

Map of the Amazon Basin. Urubamba - Ucayali River. *

Lijiang City, Yunnan, China. *

Hills of India. *

Major endorheic basins of the world. Basins are shown in dark gray; major endorheic lakes are shown in black. *

Terrestrial biomes classified by vegetation.

SEE ALSO

* Biodiversity
Biodiversity
hotspots * Megadiverse countries * Arid Forest Research Institute (AFRI)

REFERENCES

* ^ Olson, D. M. ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

World Wide Fund for Nature
World Wide Fund for Nature

PEOPLE

* Alan Macnaughton * Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld * Tetsuko Kuroyanagi

RELATED

* Anima Mundi (film) * Earth Hour
Earth Hour
* Global 200 * Heart of Borneo * WWF-Canada * WWF-India

* v * t * e

Biogeographic regionalisations

BIOMES

Terrestrial biomes

POLAR/MONTANE

* Tundra * Taiga
Taiga
* Montane grasslands and shrublands

TEMPERATE

* Coniferous forests * Broadleaf and mixed forests * Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Tropical and subtropical

* Coniferous forests * Moist broadleaf forests * Dry broadleaf forests * Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

DRY

* Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub * Deserts and xeric shrublands

WET

* Flooded grasslands and savannas * Riparian * Wetland

Aquatic biomes

* Pond * Littoral * Intertidal * Mangroves
Mangroves
* Kelp forests * Coral reefs * Neritic zone * Pelagic zone * Benthic zone * Hydrothermal vents * Cold seeps * Demersal zone

OTHER BIOMES

* Endolithic zone

Biogeographic realms

TERRESTRIAL

* Afrotropical * Antarctic * Australasian * Nearctic * Palearctic * Indomalayan * Neotropical * Oceanian

MARINE

* Arctic * Temperate Northern Pacific * Tropical Atlantic * Western Indo-Pacific * Central Indo-Pacific * Tropical Eastern Pacific

SUBDIVISIONS

* Biogeographic provinces * Bioregions

* Ecoregions
Ecoregions

* List of ecoregions * Global 200
Global 200
ecoregions

SEE ALSO

* Ecological land classification * Floristic kingdoms * Vegetation
Vegetation
classifications * Zoogeographic regions

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