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The Info List - Global 200


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The Global 200
Global 200
is the list of ecoregions identified by WWF, the global conservation organization, as priorities for conservation. According to WWF, an ecoregion is defined as a "relatively large unit of land or water containing a characteristic set of natural communities that share a large majority of their species dynamics, and environmental conditions".[1][2][3] So, for example, based on their levels of endemism, Madagascar
Madagascar
gets multiple listings, ancient Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
gets one, and the North American Great Lakes get none. The WWF assigns a conservation status to each ecoregion in the Global 200: critical or endangered; vulnerable; and relatively stable or intact. Over half of the ecoregions in the Global 200
Global 200
are rated endangered.

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Classification 1.2 Selection process

2 Global 200: Terrestrial

2.1 Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

2.1.1 Afrotropic 2.1.2 Australasia 2.1.3 Indomalaya 2.1.4 Neotropic 2.1.5 Oceania

2.2 Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

2.2.1 Afrotropic 2.2.2 Australasia 2.2.3 Indomalaya 2.2.4 Neotropic 2.2.5 Oceania

2.3 Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests

2.3.1 Nearctic 2.3.2 Neotropic

2.4 Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

2.4.1 Australasia 2.4.2 Indomalaya 2.4.3 Nearctic 2.4.4 Neotropic 2.4.5 Palearctic

2.5 Temperate coniferous forests

2.5.1 Nearctic 2.5.2 Palearctic

2.6 Boreal forests/taiga

2.6.1 Nearctic 2.6.2 Palearctic

2.7 Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

2.7.1 Afrotropic 2.7.2 Australasia 2.7.3 Indomalaya 2.7.4 Neotropic

2.8 Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

2.8.1 Australasia 2.8.2 Nearctic 2.8.3 Neotropic 2.8.4 Palearctic

2.9 Flooded grasslands and savannas

2.9.1 Afrotropic 2.9.2 Indomalaya 2.9.3 Neotropic

2.10 Montane grasslands and shrublands

2.10.1 Afrotropic 2.10.2 Austral-asian 2.10.3 Indomalaya 2.10.4 Neotropic 2.10.5 Palearctic

2.11 Tundra

2.11.1 Nearctic 2.11.2 Palearctic

2.12 Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub

2.12.1 Afrotropic 2.12.2 Australasia 2.12.3 Nearctic 2.12.4 Neotropic 2.12.5 Palearctic

2.13 Deserts and xeric shrublands

2.13.1 Afrotropic 2.13.2 Australasia 2.13.3 Nearctic 2.13.4 Neotropic 2.13.5 Palearctic

2.14 Mangroves

2.14.1 Afrotropic 2.14.2 Australasia 2.14.3 Indomalaya 2.14.4 Neartic 2.14.5 Neotropic

3 Global 200: Freshwater ecoregions

3.1 Large rivers

3.1.1 Afrotropic 3.1.2 Indomalaya 3.1.3 Nearctic 3.1.4 Neotropic 3.1.5 Palearctic

3.2 Large river headwaters

3.2.1 Afrotropic 3.2.2 Nearctic 3.2.3 Neotropic

3.3 Large river deltas

3.3.1 Afrotropic 3.3.2 Indomalaya 3.3.3 Palearctic

3.4 Small rivers

3.4.1 Afrotropic 3.4.2 Australasia 3.4.3 Indomalaya 3.4.4 Nearctic 3.4.5 Neotropic 3.4.6 Palearctic

3.5 Large lakes

3.5.1 Afrotropic 3.5.2 Neotropic 3.5.3 Palearctic

3.6 Small lakes

3.6.1 Afrotropic 3.6.2 Australasia 3.6.3 Indomalaya 3.6.4 Neotropic

3.7 Xeric basins

3.7.1 Australasia 3.7.2 Nearctic 3.7.3 Palearctic

4 Global 200
Global 200
Marine ecoregions

4.1 Polar

4.1.1 Antarctic Ocean 4.1.2 Arctic Ocean

4.2 Temperate shelves and seas

4.2.1 Mediterranean 4.2.2 North Temperate Atlantic 4.2.3 North Temperate Indo-Pacific 4.2.4 Southern Ocean

4.3 Temperate upwelling

4.3.1 North Temperate Indo-Pacific 4.3.2 South Temperate Atlantic 4.3.3 South Temperate Indo-Pacific

4.4 Tropical upwelling

4.4.1 Central Indo-Pacific 4.4.2 Eastern Indo-Pacific 4.4.3 Eastern Tropical Atlantic

4.5 Tropical coral

4.5.1 Central Indo-Pacific 4.5.2 Eastern Indo-Pacific 4.5.3 Western Indo-Pacific 4.5.4 Western Tropical Atlantic

5 Global Priority Places 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Background[edit] The WWF has identified 867 terrestrial ecoregions across the Earth's land surface, as well as freshwater and marine ecoregions. The goal of this classification system is to ensure that the full range of ecosystems will be represented in regional conservation and development strategies. Of these ecoregions, the WWF selected the Global 200
Global 200
as the ecoregions most crucial to the conservation of global biodiversity. The Global 200
Global 200
list actually contains 238 ecoregions, made up of 142 terrestrial, 53 freshwater, and 43 marine ecoregions. Conservationists interested in preserving biodiversity have generally focused on the preservation of tropical moist broadleaf forests (commonly known as tropical rainforests) because it is estimated that they harbor one half of Earth's species. On the other hand, the WWF determined that a more comprehensive strategy for conserving global biodiversity should also consider the other half of species, as well as the ecosystems that support them. Several habitats, such as Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome, were determined to be more threatened than tropical rain forests, and therefore require concerted conservation action. WWF maintains that "although conservation action typically takes place at the country level, patterns of biodiversity and ecological processes (e.g., migration) do not conform to political boundaries", which is why ecoregion-based conservation strategies are deemed essential. Classification[edit] Historically, zoologists and botanists have developed various classification systems that take into account the world's plant and animal communities. Two of the worldwide classification systems most commonly used today were summarized by Miklos Udvardy in 1975. The Earth's land surface can be divided into eight biogeographical realms (formerly called kingdoms, and which the BBC calls ecozones) that represent the major terrestrial communities of animals and plants, and are a synthesis of previous systems of floristic provinces and faunal regions. The biome system classifies the world into ecosystem types (i.e. forests, grasslands, etc.) based on climate and vegetation. Each biogeographical realm contains multiple biomes, and biomes occur across several biogeographical realms. A system of biogeographical provinces was developed to identify specific geographic areas in each biogeographical realm that were of a consistent biome type, and shared distinct plant and animal communities. The WWF system represents a further refinement of the system of biomes (which the WWF calls "major habitat types"), biogeographical realms, and biogeographical provinces (the WWF scheme divides most biogeographical provinces into multiple smaller ecoregions). Selection process[edit] Based on a comprehensive list of ecoregions, The Global 200
Global 200
includes all major habitat types (biomes), all ecosystem types, and species from every major habitat type. It focuses on each major habitat type of every continent (such as tropical forests or coral reefs). It uses ecoregions as the unit of scale for comparison. WWF say ecoregions could be considered as conservation units at regional scale because they meet similar biological communities. Some ecoregions were selected over other ecoregions of the same major habitat type (biome) or ecozone. Selection of the Global 200
Global 200
relied on extensive studies of 19 terrestrial, freshwater, and marine major habitat types. Selection of the ecoregions was based on analyses of species richness, species endemism, unique higher taxa, unusual ecological or evolutionary phenomena, and global rarity of major habitat type. Global 200
Global 200
ecoregion list is most helpful to conservation efforts at a regional scale: local deforestation, destruction of swamp habitats, degradation of soils, etc. However, certain phenomena, such as bird or whale migration, depend on more complex parameters not used to define the current database, such as atmospheric currents and dynamic pelagic ecosystems. These would require gathering more information, and co-ordination of efforts between multiple ecoregions. However, the Global 200
Global 200
ecoregions can help these efforts by identifying habitat sites and resting sites for migratory animals. It may also help identify the origin of invasive species, and offer insights for slowing down or stopping their intrusion. Global 200: Terrestrial[edit] Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests[edit] Main article: Tropical rainforest Main article: Tropical seasonal forest Afrotropic[edit]

Guinean moist forests

AT0111 Eastern Guinean forests AT0114 Guinean montane forests AT0130 Western Guinean lowland forests

Congolian coastal forests[4]

AT0102 Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests AT0107 Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests AT0127 Sao Tome, Principe and Annobon moist lowland forests

Cameroon
Cameroon
Highlands forests

AT0103 Cameroonian Highlands forests AT0121 Mount Cameroon
Cameroon
and Bioko montane forests

Northeastern Congolian lowland forests

AT0124 Northeastern Congolian lowland forests

Central Congo Basin Moist Forests

AT0104 Central Congolian lowland forests AT0110 Eastern Congolian swamp forests

Western Congo Basin Moist Forests

AT0126 Northwestern Congolian lowland forests AT0129 Western Congolian swamp forests

Albertine Rift montane forests

AT0101 Albertine Rift montane forests

East African Coastal Forests

AT0125 Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic AT0128 Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic

Eastern Arc Montane Forests (Kenya, Tanzania)

AT0108 East African montane forests

Madagascar
Madagascar
lowlands and subhumid forests

AT0117 Madagascar
Madagascar
lowland forests AT0118 Madagascar
Madagascar
subhumid forests

Seychelles
Seychelles
and Mascarene Islands
Mascarene Islands
moist forests

AT0113 Granitic Seychelles
Seychelles
forests AT0120 Mascarene forests

Australasia[edit]

Sulawesi
Sulawesi
moist forests

AA0123 Sulawesi
Sulawesi
lowland rain forests AA0124 Sulawesi
Sulawesi
montane rain forests

Moluccas moist forests (Indonesia)

AA0106 Halmahera rain forests

Southern New Guinea lowland forests

AA0122 Southern New Guinea lowland rain forests

New Guinea montane forests

AA0116 Northern New Guinea montane rain forests

Solomons-Vanuatu-Bismarck moist forests

AA0126 Vanuatu rain forests

Queensland tropical rain forests

AA0117 Queensland tropical rain forests

New Caledonia
New Caledonia
moist forests

AA0113 New Caledonia
New Caledonia
rain forests

Lord Howe–Norfolk Islands forests

AA0109 Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island
subtropical forests

Indomalaya[edit]

South Western Ghats montane rain forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests
and moist deciduous forests

IM0150 South Western Ghats
Western Ghats
moist deciduous forests IM0151 South Western Ghats
Western Ghats
montane rain forests

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
moist forests

IM0154 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
lowland rain forests IM0155 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
montane rain forests

Northern Indochina
Indochina
Subtropical moist forests

IM0137 Northern Indochina
Indochina
subtropical forests

Southeast China-Hainan moist forests

IM0149 South China- Vietnam
Vietnam
subtropical evergreen forests IM0169 Hainan Island monsoon rain forests

Taiwan
Taiwan
montane forests

IM0172 Taiwan
Taiwan
subtropical evergreen forests

Annamite Range
Annamite Range
moist forests (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam)

IM0136 Northern Annamites rain forests IM0152 Southern Annamites montane rain forests

Sumatran Islands lowland and montane forests

IM0157 Sumatran freshwater swamp forests IM0158 Sumatran lowland rain forests IM0159 Sumatran montane rain forests IM0160 Sumatran peat swamp forests

Philippines moist forests

IM0114 Greater Negros-Panay rain forests IM0122 Luzon montane rain forests IM0123 Luzon rain forests IM0128 Mindanao montane rain forests IM0129 Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests IM0130 Mindoro rain forests IM0156 Sulu rain forests

Palawan
Palawan
moist forests

IM0143 Palawan
Palawan
rain forests

Kayah-Karen/Tenasserim moist forests

IM0119 Kayah-Karen montane rain forests IM0163 Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests

Peninsular Malaysian lowland and montane forests

IM0144 Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests IM0145 Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests IM0146 Peninsular Malaysian rain forests

Borneo
Borneo
lowland and montane forests

IM0102 Borneo
Borneo
lowland rain forests IM0103 Borneo
Borneo
montane rain forests IM0104 Borneo
Borneo
peat swamp forests

Nansei Shoto Archipelago forests
Nansei Shoto Archipelago forests
(Japan)

IM0170 Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests

Eastern Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
moist forests (India)

IM0111 Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests

Naga - Manipuri - Chin Hills moist forests (Bangladesh, India, Myanmar)

IM0109 Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests IM0120 Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests IM0131 Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests

Cardamom Mountains moist forests

IM0106 Cardamom Mountains rain forests

Western Java montane forests

IM0167 Western Java montane rain forests

Maldives-Lakshadweep- Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
tropical moist forests

IM0125 Maldives-Lakshadweep- Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
tropical moist forests

Neotropic[edit]

Greater Antillean moist forests

NT0120 Cuban moist forests NT0127 Hispaniolan moist forests NT0131 Jamaican moist forests NT0155 Puerto Rican moist forests

Talamancan-Isthmian Pacific forests

NT0167 Talamancan montane forests

Choco - Darien moist forests

NT0115 Choco-Darien moist forests

Northern Andean montane forests

NT0145 Northwestern Andean montane forests

Coastal Venezuela
Venezuela
montane forests

NT0147 Orinoco Delta swamp forests NT0169 Tepuis NT0171 Trinidad and Tobago moist forests

Guianan moist forests

NT0125 Guianan moist forests

Napo moist forests

NT0142 Napo moist forests

Rio Negro - Jurua moist forests

NT0132 Japura-Solimoes-Negro moist forests NT0133 Jurua-Purus moist forests NT0158 Rio Negro campinarana

Guayana Highlands moist forests

NT0124 Guayanan Highlands moist forests

Central Andean yungas

NT0105 Bolivian Yungas NT0153 Peruvian Yungas

Southwestern Amazonian moist forests

NT0166 Southwest Amazon moist forests

Atlantic forests

NT0103 Bahia coastal forests NT0151 Pernambuco coastal forests NT0160 Serra do Mar coastal forests

Oceania[edit]

South Pacific Islands forests ( American Samoa
American Samoa
- United States, Cook Islands - New Zealand, Fiji, French Polynesia
French Polynesia
- France, Niue
Niue
- New Zealand, Samoa, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands
- France)

OC0102 Central Polynesian tropical moist forests OC0103 Cook Islands
Cook Islands
tropical moist forests OC0104 Eastern Micronesia tropical moist forests OC0105 Fiji
Fiji
tropical moist forests OC0112 Samoan tropical moist forests OC0114 Tongan tropical moist forests OC0117 Western Polynesian tropical moist forests

Hawaii
Hawaii
moist forests

OC0106 Hawaiian tropical rainforests

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests[edit] Afrotropic[edit]

Madagascar
Madagascar
dry deciduous forests

AT0202 Madagascar
Madagascar
dry deciduous forests

Australasia[edit]

Nusu Tenggara Dry Forests (Indonesia)

AA0201 Lesser Sundas deciduous forests AA0203 Sumba deciduous forests AA0204 Timor and Wetar deciduous forests

New Caledonia
New Caledonia
dry forests

AA0202 New Caledonia
New Caledonia
dry forests

Indomalaya[edit]

Indochina
Indochina
dry forests

IM0202 Central Indochina
Indochina
dry forests

Chhota - Nagpur dry forests

IM0203 Chota Nagpur dry deciduous forests

Neotropic[edit]

Mexican dry forests

NT0204 Bajio dry forests NT0205 Balsas dry forests NT0227 Sierra de la Laguna dry forests

Tumbesian - Andean valleys dry forests (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru)

NT0201 Apure-Villavicencio dry forests NT0214 Ecuadorian dry forests NT0221 Magdalena Valley dry forests NT0223 Marañón dry forests NT0232 Tumbes-Piura dry forests

Chiquitano dry forests

NT0212 Chiquitano dry forests

Atlantic dry forests

NT0202 Atlantic dry forests

Oceania[edit]

Hawaii
Hawaii
dry forests

OC0202 Hawaiian tropical dry forests

Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests[edit] Nearctic[edit]

Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental pine-oak forests

NA0302 Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests NA0303 Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests

Neotropic[edit]

Greater Antillean pine forests

NT304 Cuban pine forests NT305 Hispaniolan pine forests

Mesoamerican pine-oak forests (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua)

NT0308 Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests NT0309 Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests NT0310 Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests[edit] Australasia[edit]

Eastern Australia temperate forests

AA0402 Eastern Australian temperate forests

Tasmanian temperate rain forests

AA0413 Tasmanian temperate rain forests

New Zealand temperate forests

AA0403 Fiordland temperate forests AA0404 Nelson Coast temperate forests AA0405 Northland temperate forests AA0406 Northland temperate kauri forests AA0407 Rakiura Island temperate forests AA0410 Southland temperate forests AA0414 Westland temperate forests

Indomalaya[edit]

Eastern Himalayan broadleaf and conifer forests

IM0401 Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests

Western Himalayan temperate forests

IM0403 Western Himalayan broadleaf forests

Nearctic[edit]

Appalachian and mixed mesophytic forests

NA0402 Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests

Neotropic[edit]

Valdivian temperate rain forests
Valdivian temperate rain forests
- Juan Fernández Islands

NT0401 Juan Fernández Islands
Juan Fernández Islands
temperate forests NT0404 Valdivian temperate forests

Palearctic[edit]

Southwest China temperate forests

PA0417 Daba Mountains evergreen forests PA0434 Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests PA0437 Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests

Russian Far East temperate forests

PA0426 Manchurian mixed forests PA0443 Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests

Temperate coniferous forests[edit] Nearctic[edit]

Pacific temperate rain forests

NA0510 Central Pacific coastal forests NA0512 Eastern Cascades forests NA0520 Northern Pacific coastal forests

Klamath - Siskiyou forests

NA0516 Klamath-Siskiyou forests

Sierra Nevada forests

NA0527 Sierra Nevada forests

Southeastern coniferous and broadleaf forests

NA0529 Southeastern conifer forests

Palearctic[edit]

European - Mediterranean montane mixed forests

PA0501 Alps conifer and mixed forests PA0513 Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests

Caucasus-Anatolian-Hyrcanian temperate forest
Caucasus-Anatolian-Hyrcanian temperate forest
(Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey, Turkmenistan)

PA0407 Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests PA0408 Caucasus mixed forests PA0507 Elburz Range forest steppe PA0515 Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests

Altai - Sayan montane forests

PA0502 Altai montane forest and forest steppe PA0519 Sayan montane conifer forests

Hengduan Shan coniferous forests

PA0509 Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests

Boreal forests/taiga[edit] Nearctic[edit]

Muskwa / Slave Lake boreal forests

NA0610 Muskwa-Slave Lake forests

Canadian Boreal Forests

NA0606 Eastern Canadian Shield taiga

Palearctic[edit]

Ural Mountains taiga

PA0610 Urals montane tundra and taiga

East Siberian taiga

PA0601 East Siberian taiga

Kamchatka
Kamchatka
taiga and grasslands

PA0603 Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests PA0604 Kamchatka-Kurile taiga painga mountains taiga

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands[edit] Afrotropic[edit]

Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
acacia savannas

AT0715 Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets

East African acacia savannas

AT0711 Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets

Central and Eastern miombo woodlands

AT0704 Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands AT0706 Eastern Miombo woodlands

Sudanian savannas

AT0705 East Sudanian savanna AT0722 West Sudanian savanna

Australasia[edit]

Northern Australia and Trans-Fly savannas

AA0701 Arnhem Land tropical savanna AA0702 Brigalow tropical savanna AA0703 Cape York tropical savanna AA0704 Carpentaria tropical savanna AA0705 Einasleigh upland savanna AA0706 Kimberly tropical savanna AA0708 Trans Fly savanna and grasslands

Indomalaya[edit]

Terai-Duar savannas and grasslands

IM0701 Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands

Neotropic[edit]

Llanos savannas

NT0709 Llanos

Cerrado
Cerrado
woodlands and savannas

NT0704 Cerrado

Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands[edit] Australasia[edit]

Central Range subalpine grasslands

AA0802 Central Range sub-alpine grasslands

Nearctic[edit]

Northern prairie

NA0810 Northern mixed grasslands NA0811 Northern short grasslands NA0812 Northern tall grasslands

Neotropic[edit]

Patagonian steppe

NT0805 Patagonian steppe

Palearctic[edit]

Daurian steppe

PA0804 Daurian forest steppe

Flooded grasslands and savannas[edit] Afrotropic[edit]

Sudd
Sudd
- Sahelian flooded grasslands and savannas (Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Uganda)

AT0903 Inner Niger
Niger
Delta flooded savanna AT0904 Lake Chad
Chad
flooded savanna AT0905 Saharan flooded grasslands

Zambezian flooded savannas

AT0906 Zambezian flooded grasslands

Indomalaya[edit]

Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
flooded grasslands

IM0901 Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
seasonal salt marsh

Neotropic[edit]

Everglades
Everglades
flooded grasslands

NT0904 Everglades

Pantanal
Pantanal
flooded savannas

NT0907 Pantanal

Montane grasslands and shrublands[edit] Afrotropic[edit]

Ethiopian Highlands

AT1007 Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands AT1008 Ethiopian montane moorlands

Southern Rift montane woodlands

AT1015 Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic

East African moorlands

AT1005 East African montane moorlands

Drakensberg
Drakensberg
montane shrublands and woodlands

AT1003 Drakensberg
Drakensberg
alti-montane grasslands and woodlands AT1004 Drakensberg
Drakensberg
montane grasslands, woodlands and forests

Austral-asian[edit]

New Guinea Central Range subalpine grasslands

Indomalaya[edit]

Kinabalu montane shrublands

IM1001 Kinabalu montane alpine meadows

Neotropic[edit]

Northern Andean páramo

NT1006 Northern Andean páramo

Central Andean dry puna

NT1001 Central Andean dry puna

Palearctic[edit]

Tibetan Plateau steppe

PA1020 Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows

Middle Asian montane steppe and woodlands (Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan)

PA1011 North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert PA1015 Qilian Mountains subalpine meadows PA1013 Ordos Plateau steppe

Eastern Himalayan alpine meadows

PA1003 Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows

Tundra[edit] Nearctic[edit]

Alaskan North Slope coastal tundra (Canada, United States)

NA1103 Arctic coastal tundra NA1104 Arctic foothills tundra NA1108 Brooks-British Range tundra

Canadian low arctic tundra (Canada)

NA1114 Low Arctic tundra NA1116 Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra NA1118 Torngat Mountain tundra

Palearctic[edit]

Fenno - Scandia alpine tundra and taiga (Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden)

PA0608 Scandinavian and Russian taiga PA1106 Kola Peninsula tundra PA1110 Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands

Taimyr and Siberian coastal tundra

PA1107 Northeast Siberian coastal tundra PA1111 Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra

Chukote coastal tundra (Russia)

PA1104 Chukchi Peninsula tundra

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub[edit] Afrotropic[edit]

Fynbos

AT1202 Lowland fynbos and renosterveld AT1203 Montane fynbos and renosterveld

Australasia[edit]

Southwestern Australia forests and scrub

AA1201 Coolgardie woodlands AA1202 Esperance mallee AA1209 Southwest Australia savanna AA1210 Southwest Australia woodlands

Southern Australia mallee and woodlands

AA1203 Eyre and York mallee AA1206 Mount Lofty woodlands AA1208 Naracoorte woodlands

Nearctic[edit]

California chaparral and woodlands

NA1201 California coastal sage and chaparral NA1202 California interior chaparral and woodlands NA1203 California montane chaparral and woodlands

Neotropic[edit]

Chilean Matorral

NT1201 Chilean Matorral

Palearctic[edit]

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub

PA1214 Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub

Deserts and xeric shrublands[edit] Afrotropic[edit]

Namib - Karoo - Kaokoveld deserts (Angola, Namibia, South Africa)

AT1310 Kaokoveld desert AT1314 Nama Karoo AT1315 Namib desert AT1322 Succulent Karoo

Madagascar
Madagascar
spiny thicket

AT1311 Madagascar
Madagascar
spiny thickets

Socotra Island
Socotra Island
desert (Yemen)

AT1318 Socotra Island
Socotra Island
xeric shrublands

Arabian Highland woodlands and shrublands (Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen)

AT1320 Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna AT1321 Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands

Australasia[edit]

Carnavon xeric scrub

AA1301 Carnarvon xeric shrublands

Great Sandy - Tanami deserts

AA1304 Great Sandy-Tanami desert

Nearctic[edit]

Sonoran - Baja deserts

NA1301 Baja California desert NA1310 Sonoran desert

Chihuahuan - Tehuacan deserts

NA1303 Chihuahuan desert

Neotropic[edit]

Galápagos Islands
Galápagos Islands
scrub

NT1307 Galápagos Islands
Galápagos Islands
xeric scrub

Atacama - Sechura deserts

NT1303 Atacama desert NT1315 Sechura desert

Palearctic[edit]

Central Asian deserts (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan)

PA1310 Central Asian northern desert PA1312 Central Asian southern desert

Mangroves[edit] Afrotropic[edit]

East African mangroves

AT1402 East African mangroves

Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
mangroves

AT1403 Guinean mangroves

Madagascar
Madagascar
mangroves

AT1404 Madagascar
Madagascar
mangroves

Australasia[edit]

New Guinea mangroves

AA1401 New Guinea mangroves

Indomalaya[edit]

Greater Sundas mangroves

IM1405 Sunda Shelf mangroves

Sundarbans mangroves

IM1406 Sundarbans mangroves

Neartic[edit]

Northwest Mexican coast mangroves

NA1401 Northwest Mexican coast mangroves

Neotropic[edit]

Guianan - Amazon mangroves

NT1401 Alvarado mangroves NT1402 Amapá mangroves NT1406 Belizean reef mangroves NT1411 Guianan mangroves NT1427 Pará mangroves

NT1405 Panama Bight
Panama Bight
mangroves

NT1414 Gulf of Panama mangroves NT1409 Esmeraldes-Pacific Colombia
Colombia
mangroves NT1418 Manabí mangroves NT1413 Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes mangroves

Global 200: Freshwater ecoregions[edit] Large rivers[edit] Afrotropic[edit]

Congo River
Congo River
and flooded forests (Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo)

Indomalaya[edit]

Mekong River
Mekong River
(Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam)

Nearctic[edit]

Colorado River (Mexico, United States) Lower Mississippi River
Mississippi River
(United States)

Neotropic[edit]

Amazon River
Amazon River
and flooded forests (Brazil, Colombia, Peru) Orinoco River
Orinoco River
and flooded forests (Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela)

Palearctic[edit]

Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and lakes (China)

Large river headwaters[edit] Afrotropic[edit]

Congo basin piedmont rivers and streams (Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Sudan)

Nearctic[edit]

Mississippi piedmont rivers and streams (United States)

Neotropic[edit]

Upper Amazon rivers and streams (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana (France), Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela) Upper Paraná rivers and streams (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay) Brazilian Shield Amazonian rivers and streams (Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay)

Large river deltas[edit] Afrotropic[edit]

Niger
Niger
River delta
River delta
(Nigeria)

Indomalaya[edit]

Indus River Delta
Indus River Delta
(India, Pakistan)

Palearctic[edit]

Volga River Delta (Kazakhstan, Russia) Mesopotamian delta and marshes (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait) Danube River delta
River delta
(Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, Yugoslavia) Lena River delta
River delta
(Russia)

Small rivers[edit] Afrotropic[edit]

Upper Guinea rivers and streams (Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone) Madagascar
Madagascar
freshwater (Madagascar) Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
rivers and streams (Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, Republic of Congo) Cape rivers and streams (South Africa)

Australasia[edit]

New Guinea rivers and streams (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea) New Caledonia
New Caledonia
rivers and streams (New Caledonia) Kimberley rivers and streams (Australia) Southwest Australia rivers and streams (Australia) Eastern Australia rivers and streams (Australia)

Indomalaya[edit]

Xi Jiang rivers and streams (China, Vietnam) Western Ghats
Western Ghats
Rivers and Streams (India) Southwestern Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
rivers and streams (Sri Lanka) Salween River
Salween River
(China, Myanmar, Thailand) Sundaland
Sundaland
rivers and swamps (Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore)

Nearctic[edit]

Southeastern rivers and streams (United States) Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
coastal rivers and streams (United States) Gulf of Alaska
Gulf of Alaska
coastal rivers and streams (Canada, United States)

Neotropic[edit]

Guianan freshwater (Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela) Greater Antillean freshwater (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico)

Palearctic[edit]

Balkan rivers and streams (Albania, Bosnia and Herzogovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Turkey, Yugoslavia) Russian Far East rivers and wetlands (China, Mongolia, Russia)

Large lakes[edit] Afrotropic[edit]

Rift Valley lakes
Rift Valley lakes
(Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia)

Neotropic[edit]

High Andean lakes (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru)

Palearctic[edit]

Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
(Russia) Lake Biwa
Lake Biwa
(Japan)

Small lakes[edit] Afrotropic[edit]

Cameroon
Cameroon
crater lakes (Cameroon)

Australasia[edit]

Lakes Kutubu and Sentani (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea) Central Sulawesi
Sulawesi
lakes (Indonesia)

Indomalaya[edit]

Philippines freshwater (Philippines) Inle Lake
Inle Lake
(Myanmar) Yunnan
Yunnan
lakes and streams (China)

Neotropic[edit]

Mexican highland lakes (Mexico)

Xeric basins[edit] Australasia[edit]

Central Australian freshwater (Australia)

Nearctic[edit]

Chihuahuan freshwater (Mexico, United States)

Palearctic[edit]

Anatolian freshwater (Syria, Turkey)

Global 200
Global 200
Marine ecoregions[edit] Polar[edit] Antarctic Ocean[edit]

Antarctic Peninsula & Weddell Sea

Arctic Ocean[edit]

Bering Sea
Bering Sea
(Canada, Russia, United States) Barents-Kara Sea (Norway, Russia)

Temperate shelves and seas[edit] Mediterranean[edit]

Mediterranean (Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Monaco, Morocco, Serbia & Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey)

North Temperate Atlantic[edit]

Northeast Atlantic Shelf Marine (Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom) Grand Banks
Grand Banks
(Canada, St. Pierre and Miquelon (France), United States) Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
(United States)

North Temperate Indo-Pacific[edit]

Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
(China, North Korea, South Korea) Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
(Japan, Russia)

Southern Ocean[edit]

Patagonian Southwest Atlantic (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay) Southern Australian Marine (Australia) New Zealand Marine (New Zealand)

Temperate upwelling[edit] North Temperate Indo-Pacific[edit]

California Current
California Current
(Canada, Mexico, United States)

South Temperate Atlantic[edit]

Benguela Current
Benguela Current
(Namibia, South Africa)

South Temperate Indo-Pacific[edit]

Humboldt Current
Humboldt Current
(Chile, Ecuador, Peru) Agulhas Current
Agulhas Current
(Mozambique, South Africa)

Tropical upwelling[edit] Central Indo-Pacific[edit]

Western Australian Marine (Australia)

Eastern Indo-Pacific[edit]

Panama Bight
Panama Bight
(Colombia, Ecuador, Panama) Gulf of California
Gulf of California
(Mexico) Galápagos Marine (Ecuador)

Eastern Tropical Atlantic[edit]

Canary Current (Canary Islands, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, Western Sahara)

Tropical coral[edit] Central Indo-Pacific[edit]

Nansei Shoto
Nansei Shoto
(Ryukyu Islands) (Japan) Sulu- Sulawesi
Sulawesi
Seas (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines) Bismarck-Solomon Seas (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands) Banda-Flores Sea (Indonesia) New Caledonia
New Caledonia
Barrier Reef (New Caledonia) Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef
(Australia) Lord Howe-Norfolk Islands Marine (Australia) Palau Marine (Palau) Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
(Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India), Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand)

Eastern Indo-Pacific[edit]

Tahitian Marine (Cook Islands, French Polynesia) Hawaiian Marine (Hawaii) Rapa Nui
Rapa Nui
(Easter Island) Fiji
Fiji
Barrier Reef (Fiji)

Western Indo-Pacific[edit]

Maldives, Chagos, and Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
atolls ( Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
(United Kingdom), India, Maldives, Sri Lanka) Red Sea
Red Sea
(Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Yemen) Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
(Djibouti, Iran, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen) East African Marine (Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania) West Madagascar
Madagascar
Marine (Comoros, Madagascar, Mayotte and Iles Glorieuses (France), Seychelles)

Western Tropical Atlantic[edit]

Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System
Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System
(Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico) Greater Antillean Marine (Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States) Southern Caribbean Sea (Aruba, Colombia, Netherlands Antilles, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela) Northeast Brazil Shelf Marine (Brazil)

Global Priority Places[edit] WWF WWF has identified 35 global priority places around the world (terrestrial, freshwater and marine) as either being home to irreplaceable and threatened biodiversity, or representing an opportunity to conserve the largest and most intact representative of their ecosystem. [5]

African Rift Lakes Region - Include the 3 largest lakes in Africa: Victoria, Tanganyika and Malawi, as well as lakes Turkana, Albert, Edward, Kivu and others. Altai-Sayan Montane Forests - One of the last remaining untouched areas of the world Amazon Guianas - World's largest tropical rain forest and river basin with a mosaic of mountains, coniferous forests, steppe and alpine meadows. Amur-Heilong - Refuge for Amur leopard and tiger. Arctic Seas & Associated Boreal/ Tundra
Tundra
- Protecting Arctic Environments Atlantic Forests
Atlantic Forests
- Forest stretches from the Atlantic coast of Brazil, south along the Brazilian Atlantic coastline and inland into northeast Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Borneo
Borneo
and Sumatra - Priceless forests harbor untold species Cerrado-Pantanal Chihuahuan Desert - Protecting the balance of a desert Choco-Darien Coastal East Africa - Improving livelihoods by conserving nature Congo Basin - Protecting Africa's tropical forests Coral Triangle - Home to the world's most abundant variety of corals and sea life Eastern Himalayas - Empowering communities to protect sacred lands Fynbos The Galápagos - The world's most treasured islands Greater Black Sea Basin Lake Baikal Madagascar
Madagascar
- Safeguarding one of Earth's most captivating islands Mediterranean Mekong Complex - Protecting the river of life from source to sea Miombo Woodlands Namib-Karoo-Kaokoveld New Guinea & Offshore Islands Northern Great Plains Orinoco River
Orinoco River
& Flooded Forests Southeastern Rivers and Streams Southern Chile - A land of ancient forests and abundant oceans Southern Ocean Southwest Australia Southwest Pacific Sumatra West Africa Marine Western Ghats Yangtze Basin - Sustaining a valley of life

Gallery[edit]

WWF terrestrial ecoregions.

Map of the Amazon Basin. Urubamba - Ucayali River.

Lijiang City, Yunnan, China.

Hills of India.

Major endorheic basins of the world. Basins are shown in dark gray; major endorheic lakes are shown in black.

Terrestrial biomes classified by vegetation.

See also[edit]

Biodiversity
Biodiversity
hotspots Megadiverse countries Arid Forest Research Institute
Arid Forest Research Institute
(AFRI)

References[edit]

^ Olson, D. M. & E. Dinerstein. 1998. The Global 200: A representation approach to conserving the Earth’s most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conservation Biol. 12:502–515.[1]. ^ Olson, D. M., Dinerstein, E. 2002. The Global 200: Priority ecoregions for global conservation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89(2):199-224, [2]. ^ The Nature Conservancy. 1997. Designing a geography of hope: guidelines for ecoregion-based conservation in The Nature Conservancy. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia ^ Congolian Coastal Forests - A Global Ecoregion ^ WWF's Strategic Plan for Conservation

External links[edit]

Media related to Maps of WWF ecoregions at Wikimedia Commons A-Z of Areas of Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Importance: Global 200
Global 200
Ecoregions Map of the Global 200 Conservation status map of the global 200 List of the Global 200 Map of Ecoregions Global Priority Places

v t e

World Wide Fund for Nature

People

Alan Macnaughton Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld Syed Babar Ali Yolanda Kakabadse Tetsuko Kuroyanagi Oscar Soria

Related

Anima Mundi (film) Earth Hour Global 200 Heart of Borneo WWF-Canada WWF-India

v t e

Biogeographic regionalisations

Biomes

Terrestrial biomes

Polar/montane

Tundra Taiga Montane grasslands and shrublands

Temperate

Coniferous forests Broadleaf and mixed forests Deciduous forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Tropical and subtropical

Coniferous forests Moist broadleaf forests Dry broadleaf forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Dry

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub Deserts and xeric shrublands

Wet

Flooded grasslands and savannas Riparian Wetland

Aquatic biomes

Pond Littoral Intertidal Mangroves Kelp forests Coral reefs Neritic zone Pelagic
Pelagic
zone Benthic zone Hydrothermal vents Cold seeps Demersal zone

Other biomes

Endolithic zone

Biogeographic realms

Terrestrial

Afrotropical Antarctic Australasian Nearctic Palearctic Indomalayan Neotropical Oceanian

Marine

Arctic Temperate Northern Pacific Tropical Atlantic Western Indo-Pacific Central Indo-Pacific Tropical Eastern Pacific

Subdivisions

Biogeographic provinces Bioregions Ecoregions

List of ecoregions Global 200
Global 200
ecoregions

See also

Ecological land classification Floristic kingdoms Vegetation
Vegetation
classifications Zoo

.