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Glenn Theodore Seaborg (/ˈsiːbɔːrɡ/; April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.[3] His work in this area also led to his development of the actinide concept and the arrangement of the actinide series in the periodic table of the elements. Seaborg spent most of his career as an educator and research scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, serving as a professor, and, between 1958 and 1961, as the university's second chancellor.[4] He advised ten US Presidents – from Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
to Bill Clinton – on nuclear policy and was Chairman
Chairman
of the United States Atomic Energy Commission from 1961 to 1971, where he pushed for commercial nuclear energy and the peaceful applications of nuclear science. Throughout his career, Seaborg worked for arms control. He was a signatory to the Franck Report
Franck Report
and contributed to the Limited Test Ban Treaty, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. He was a well-known advocate of science education and federal funding for pure research. Toward the end of the Eisenhower administration, he was the principal author of the Seaborg Report on academic science, and, as a member of President Ronald Reagan's National Commission on Excellence in Education, he was a key contributor to its 1983 report "A Nation at Risk". Seaborg was the principal or co-discoverer of ten elements: plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and element 106, which, while he was still living, was named seaborgium in his honor. He also discovered more than 100 atomic isotopes and is credited with important contributions to the chemistry of plutonium, originally as part of the Manhattan Project where he developed the extraction process used to isolate the plutonium fuel for the second atomic bomb. Early in his career, he was a pioneer in nuclear medicine and discovered isotopes of elements with important applications in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, including iodine-131, which is used in the treatment of thyroid disease. In addition to his theoretical work in the development of the actinide concept, which placed the actinide series beneath the lanthanide series on the periodic table, he postulated the existence of super-heavy elements in the transactinide and superactinide series. After sharing the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
with Edwin McMillan, he received approximately 50 honorary doctorates and numerous other awards and honors. The list of things named after Seaborg ranges from his chemical element to an asteroid. He was a prolific author, penning numerous books and 500 journal articles, often in collaboration with others. He was once listed in the Guinness Book of World Records
Guinness Book of World Records
as the person with the longest entry in Who's Who in America.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Pioneering work in nuclear chemistry 3 Scientific contributions during the Manhattan Project 4 Professor and Chancellor at the University of California, Berkeley 5 Chairman
Chairman
of the Atomic Energy Commission 6 Return to California 7 Personal life 8 Honors and awards 9 Selected bibliography 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Early life[edit] Glenn Theodore Seaborg was born in Ishpeming, Michigan, on April 19, 1912, the son of Herman Theodore (Ted) and Selma Olivia Erickson Seaborg. He had one sister, Jeanette, who was two years younger. His family spoke Swedish at home. When Glenn Seaborg was a boy, the family moved to Los Angeles County, California, settling in a subdivision called Home Gardens, later annexed to the City of South Gate, California. About this time he changed the spelling of his first name from 'Glen' to "Glenn".[5] Seaborg kept a daily journal from 1927 until he suffered a stroke in 1998.[6] As a youth, Seaborg was both a devoted sports fan and an avid movie buff. His mother encouraged him to become a bookkeeper as she felt his literary interests were impractical. He did not take an interest in science until his junior year when he was inspired by Dwight Logan Reid, a chemistry and physics teacher at David Starr Jordan High School in Watts.[7] Seaborg graduated from Jordan in 1929 at the top of his class and received a bachelor of arts (AB) degree in chemistry at the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1933.[5] He worked his way through school as a stevedore and a laboratory assistant at Firestone.[8] Seaborg received his PhD in chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1937 with a doctoral thesis on the "Interaction of Fast Neutrons with Lead",[9] in which he coined the term "nuclear spallation".[10] Seaborg was a member of the professional chemistry fraternity Alpha Chi Sigma. As a graduate student in the 1930s Seaborg performed wet chemistry research for his advisor Gilbert Newton Lewis,[10] and published three papers with him on the theory of acids and bases.[11][12][13] Seaborg studied the text Applied Radiochemistry by Otto Hahn, of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
for Chemistry in Berlin, and it had a major impact on his developing interests as a research scientist. For several years, Seaborg conducted important research in artificial radioactivity using the Lawrence cyclotron at UC Berkeley. He was excited to learn from others that nuclear fission was possible—but also chagrined, as his own research might have led him to the same discovery.[14] Seaborg also became an expert in dealing with noted Berkeley physicist Robert Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer had a daunting reputation, and often answered a junior man's question before it had even been stated. Often the question answered was more profound than the one asked, but of little practical help. Seaborg learned to state his questions to Oppenheimer quickly and succinctly.[15] Pioneering work in nuclear chemistry[edit]

Seaborg in his lab

Seaborg remained at the University of California, Berkeley, for post-doctoral research. He followed Frederick Soddy's work investigating isotopes and contributed to the discovery of more than 100 isotopes of elements. Using one of Lawrence's advanced cyclotrons, John Livingood, Fred Fairbrother, and Seaborg created a new isotope of iron, iron-59 in 1937. Iron-59 was useful in the studies of the hemoglobin in human blood. In 1938, Livingood and Seaborg collaborated (as they did for five years) to create an important isotope of iodine, iodine-131, which is still used to treat thyroid disease.[16] (Many years later, it was credited with prolonging the life of Seaborg's mother.) As a result of these and other contributions, Seaborg is regarded as a pioneer in nuclear medicine and is one of its most prolific discoverers of isotopes.[17] In 1939 he became an instructor in chemistry at Berkeley, was promoted to assistant professor in 1941 and professor in 1945.[18] University of California, Berkeley, physicist Edwin McMillan
Edwin McMillan
led a team that discovered element 93, which he named neptunium in 1940. In November, he was persuaded to leave Berkeley temporarily to assist with urgent research in radar technology. Since Seaborg and his colleagues had perfected McMillan's oxidation-reduction technique for isolating neptunium, he asked McMillan for permission to continue the research and search for element 94. McMillan agreed to the collaboration.[19] Seaborg first reported alpha decay proportionate to only a fraction of the element 93 under observation. The first hypothesis for this alpha particle accumulation was contamination by uranium, which produces alpha-decay particles; analysis of alpha-decay particles ruled this out. Seaborg then postulated that a distinct alpha-producing element was being formed from element 93.[20] In February 1941, Seaborg and his collaborators produced plutonium-239 through the bombardment of uranium. In their experiments bombarding uranium with deuterons, they observed the creation of neptunium, element 93. But it then underwent beta-decay, forming a new element, plutonium, with 94 protons. Plutonium
Plutonium
is fairly stable, but undergoes alpha-decay, which explained the presence of alpha particles coming from neptunium.[20] Thus, on March 28, 1941, Seaborg, physicist Emilio Segrè and Berkeley chemist Joseph W. Kennedy
Joseph W. Kennedy
were able to show that plutonium (then known only as element 94) was fissile, an important distinction that was crucial to the decisions made in directing Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
research.[21] In 1966, Room 307 of Gilman Hall
Gilman Hall
on the campus at the Berkeley, where Seaborg did his work, was declared a U.S. National Historic Landmark.[22] In addition to plutonium, he is credited as a lead discoverer of americium, curium, and berkelium, and as a co-discoverer of californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium. He shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
in 1951 with Edwin McMillan for "their discoveries in the chemistry of the first transuranium elements."[3] Scientific contributions during the Manhattan Project[edit] On April 19, 1942, Seaborg reached Chicago and joined the chemistry group at the Metallurgical Laboratory
Metallurgical Laboratory
of the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
at the University of Chicago, where Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
and his group would later convert uranium-238 to plutonium-239 in a controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seaborg's role was to figure out how to extract the tiny bit of plutonium from the mass of uranium. Plutonium-239
Plutonium-239
was isolated in visible amounts using a transmutation reaction on August 20, 1942, and weighed on September 10, 1942, in Seaborg's Chicago laboratory. He was responsible for the multi-stage chemical process that separated, concentrated and isolated plutonium. This process was further developed at the Clinton Engineering Works
Clinton Engineering Works
in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and then entered full-scale production at the Hanford Engineer Works, in Richland, Washington.[23] Seaborg's theoretical development of the actinide concept resulted in a redrawing of the Periodic Table of the Elements into its current configuration with the actinide series appearing below the lanthanide series. Seaborg developed the chemical elements americium and curium while in Chicago. He managed to secure patents for both elements. His patent on curium never proved commercially viable because of the element's short half-life, but americium is commonly used in household smoke detectors and thus provided a good source of royalty income to Seaborg in later years. Prior to the test of the first nuclear weapon, Seaborg joined with several other leading scientists in a written statement known as the Franck Report
Franck Report
(secret at the time but since published) unsuccessfully calling on President Truman to conduct a public demonstration of the atomic bomb witnessed by the Japanese.[24] Professor and Chancellor at the University of California, Berkeley[edit]

Seaborg (second from left) during Operation Plumbob

After the conclusion of World War II and the Manhattan Project, Seaborg was eager to return to academic life and university research free from the restrictions of wartime secrecy. In 1946, he added to his responsibilities as a professor by heading the nuclear chemistry research at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory operated by the University of California
University of California
on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Seaborg was named one of the "Ten Outstanding Young Men in America" by the U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce in 1947 (along with Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
and others). Seaborg was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1948. From 1954 to 1961 he served as associate director of the radiation laboratory. He was appointed by President Truman to serve as a member of the General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission, an assignment he retained until 1960.[25] Seaborg served as chancellor at the University of California, Berkeley, from 1958 to 1961. His term coincided with a relaxation of McCarthy-era
McCarthy-era
restrictions on students' freedom of expression that had begun under his predecessor, Clark Kerr.[26] In October 1958, Seaborg announced that the University had relaxed its prior prohibitions on political activity on a trial basis,[27] and the ban on communists speaking on campus was lifted. This paved the way for the Free Speech Movement of 1964-65.[26] Seaborg was an enthusiastic supporter of Cal's sports teams. San Francisco columnist Herb Caen
Herb Caen
was fond of pointing out that Seaborg's surname is an anagram of "Go Bears", a popular cheer at UC Berkeley.[28] Seaborg was proud of the fact that the Cal Bears won their first and only National Collegiate Athletic Association
National Collegiate Athletic Association
(NCAA) basketball championship in 1959, while he was chancellor. The football team also won the conference title and played in the Rose Bowl that year.[29] He served on the Faculty Athletic Committee for several years and was the co-author of a book, Roses from the Ashes: Breakup and Rebirth in Pacific Coast Intercollegiate Athletics (2000), concerning the Pacific Coast Conference
Pacific Coast Conference
recruiting scandal, and the founding of what is now the Pac-12, in which he played a role in restoring confidence in the integrity of collegiate sports.[29][30] Seaborg served on the President's Science Advisory Committee
President's Science Advisory Committee
(PSAC) during the Eisenhower administration. PSAC produced a report on "Scientific Progress, the Universities, and the Federal Government", also known as the "Seaborg Report", in November 1960, that urged greater federal funding of science.[31] In 1959, he helped found the Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory
Space Sciences Laboratory
with Clark Kerr.[32]

From left to right: Chairman
Chairman
Seaborg, President Kennedy, Secretary McNamara on 23 March 1962. By this point, McNamara and Seaborg had been discussing the AEC's studies on the ecological effects of nuclear war and "clean" weapon alternatives. (Courtesy: National Security Archive, Original: National Archives)

Chairman
Chairman
of the Atomic Energy Commission[edit] After appointment by President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
and confirmation by the United States Senate, Seaborg was chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1961 to 1971. His pending appointment by President-elect Kennedy was nearly derailed in late 1960 when members of the Kennedy transition team learned that Seaborg had been listed in a U.S. News & World Report article as a member of "Nixon's Idea Men". Seaborg said that as a lifetime Democrat he was baffled when the article appeared associating him with outgoing Vice President Richard Nixon, a Republican whom Seaborg considered a casual acquaintance.[33] During the early 1960s, Seaborg became concerned with the ecological and biological effects of nuclear weapons, especially those that would impact human life significantly. In response, he commissioned the Technical Analysis Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission to study these matters further. [34] Seaborg's provision for these innovative studies led the U.S. Government to more seriously pursue the development and possible use of "clean" nuclear weapons. [35]

President Kennedy and his Atomic Energy Commission Chairman, Glenn Seaborg

While chairman of the AEC, Seaborg participated on the negotiating team for the Limited Test Ban Treaty
Limited Test Ban Treaty
(LTBT), in which the US, UK, and USSR
USSR
agreed to ban all above-ground test detonations of nuclear weapons. Seaborg considered his contributions to the achievement of the LTBT as one of his greatest accomplishments. Despite strict rules from the Soviets about photography at the signing ceremony, Seaborg used a tiny camera to take a close-up photograph of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
as he signed the treaty.[36] Seaborg enjoyed a close relationship with President Lyndon Johnson and influenced the administration to pursue the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[37] Seaborg was called to the White House
White House
in the first week of the Nixon Administration in January 1969 to advise President Richard Nixon on his first diplomatic crisis involving the Soviets and nuclear testing. He clashed with Nixon presidential adviser John Ehrlichman over the treatment of a Jewish scientist, Zalman Shapiro, whom the Nixon administration suspected of leaking nuclear secrets to Israel.[38] Seaborg published several books and journal articles during his tenure at the Atomic Energy Commission. He predicted the existence of elements beyond those on the periodic table,[39] the transactinide series and the superactinide series of undiscovered synthetic elements. While most of these theoretical future elements have extremely short half-lives and thus no expected practical applications, he also hypothesized the existence of stable super-heavy isotopes of certain elements in an island of stability.[40] Seaborg served as chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission until 1971.[41] Return to California[edit]

Seaborg (right) with marine biologist Dixy Lee Ray
Dixy Lee Ray
on September 17, 1968

Following his service as Chairman
Chairman
of the Atomic Energy Commission, Seaborg returned to UC Berkeley where he was awarded the position of University Professor. At the time, there had been fewer University Professors at UC Berkeley than Nobel Prize winners. He also served as Chairman
Chairman
of the Lawrence Hall of Science where he became the principal investigator for Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS)[42] working with director Jacqueline Barber. Seaborg served as chancellor at the University of California, Berkeley, from 1958 to 1961, and served as President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1972 and as President of the American Chemical Society
American Chemical Society
in 1976.[43] In 1980, he transmuted several thousand atoms of bismuth into gold at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. His experimental technique, using nuclear physics, was able to remove protons and neutrons from the bismuth atoms. Seaborg's technique would have been far too expensive to enable routine manufacturing of gold, but his work was close to the mythical Philosopher's Stone.[44][45] In 1981, Seaborg became a founding member of the World Cultural Council.[46] In 1983, President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
appointed Seaborg to serve on the National Commission on Excellence in Education. The commission produced a report "A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform",[47] which focused national attention on education as a national issue germane to the federal government.[48] In 2008, Margaret Spellings
Margaret Spellings
wrote that

A Nation at Risk
A Nation at Risk
delivered a wake up call for our education system. It described stark realities like a significant number of functionally illiterate high schoolers, plummeting student performance, and international competitors breathing down our necks. It was a warning, a reproach, and a call to arms.[49]

Seaborg with Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore
in the White House
White House
during a visit of the 1993 Science Talent Search (STS) finalists on March 4, 1993

Seaborg lived most of his later life in Lafayette, California, where he devoted himself to editing and publishing the journals that documented both his early life and later career. He rallied a group of scientists who criticized the science curriculum in the state of California, which he viewed as far too socially oriented and not nearly focused enough on hard science. California Governor Pete Wilson appointed Seaborg to head a committee that proposed changes to California's science curriculum despite outcries from labor organizations and others.[50] Personal life[edit] In 1942, Seaborg married Helen Griggs, the secretary of physicist Ernest Lawrence. Under wartime pressure, Seaborg had moved to Chicago while engaged to Griggs. When Seaborg returned to accompany Griggs for the journey back to Chicago, friends expected them to marry in Chicago. But, eager to be married, Seaborg and Griggs impulsively got off the train in the town of Caliente, Nevada, for what they thought would be a quick wedding. When they asked for City Hall, they found Caliente had none—they would have to travel 25 miles (40 km) north to Pioche, the county seat. With no car, this was no easy feat, but one of Caliente's newest deputy sheriffs turned out to be a recent graduate of the Cal Berkeley chemistry department and was more than happy to do a favor for Seaborg. The deputy sheriff arranged for the wedding couple to ride up and back to Pioche in a mail truck. The witnesses at the Seaborg wedding were a clerk and a janitor.[51] Glenn Seaborg and Helen Griggs Seaborg had seven children, of whom the first, Peter Glenn Seaborg, died in 1997 (his twin Paulette having died in infancy).[52] The others were Lynne Seaborg Cobb, David Seaborg, Steve Seaborg, Eric Seaborg, and Dianne Seaborg.[53] Seaborg was an avid hiker. Upon becoming Chairman
Chairman
of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1961, he commenced taking daily hikes through a trail that he blazed at the headquarters site in Germantown, Maryland. He frequently invited colleagues and visitors to accompany him, and the trail became known as the "Glenn Seaborg Trail." He and his wife Helen are credited with blazing a 12-mile (19 km) trail in the East Bay area near their home in Lafayette, California. This trail has since become a part of the American Hiking Association's cross-country network of trails. Seaborg and his wife walked the trail network from Contra Costa County
Contra Costa County
all the way to the California–Nevada border.[54][55]

There is a beauty in discovery. There is mathematics in music, a kinship of science and poetry in the description of nature, and exquisite form in a molecule. Attempts to place different disciplines in different camps are revealed as artificial in the face of the unity of knowledge. All literate men are sustained by the philosopher, the historian, the political analyst, the economist, the scientist, the poet, the artisan and the musician.

Glenn Seaborg [56]

Seaborg was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1972 and a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) of London in 1985.[2][57] He was honored as Swedish-American
Swedish-American
of the Year in 1962 by the Vasa Order of America. In 1991, the organization named "Local Lodge Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
No. 719" in his honor during the Seaborg Honors ceremony at which he appeared. This lodge maintains a scholarship fund in his name, as does the unrelated Swedish-American Club of Los Angeles.[58] Seaborg kept a close bond to his Swedish origin. He visited Sweden every so often, and his family were members of the Swedish Pemer Genealogical Society, a family association open for every descendant of the Pemer family, a Swedish family with German origin, from which Seaborg was descended on his mother's side.[59] On August 24, 1998, while in Boston to attend a meeting by the American Chemical Society, Seaborg suffered a stroke, which led to his death six months later on February 25, 1999, at his home in Lafayette.[60] Honors and awards[edit] Further information: List of accolades received by Glenn T. Seaborg and List of things named after Glenn T. Seaborg During his lifetime, Seaborg is said to have been the author or co-author of numerous books and 500 scientific journal articles, many of them brief reports on fast-breaking discoveries in nuclear science while other subjects, most notably the actinide concept, represented major theoretical contributions in the history of science. He held more than 40 patents – among them the only patents ever issued for chemical elements, americium and curium, and received more than 50 doctorates and honorary degrees in his lifetime.[61] At one time, he was listed in the Guinness Book of World Records
Guinness Book of World Records
as having the longest entry in Marquis Who's Who in America. In February 2005, he was posthumously inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.[41] In April 2011 the executive council of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI) selected Seaborg for inclusion in CSI's Pantheon of Skeptics. The Pantheon of Skeptics was created by CSI to remember the legacy of deceased fellows of CSI and their contributions to the cause of scientific skepticism.[62] His papers are in the Library of Congress.[63] The American Chemical Society-Chicago Section honored him with the Willard Gibbs Award in 1966.[64] The element seaborgium was named after Seaborg by Albert Ghiorso, E. Kenneth Hulet, and others, who also credited Seaborg as a co-discoverer.[61] It was named while Seaborg was still alive, which proved controversial. He influenced the naming of so many elements that with the announcement of seaborgium, it was noted in Discover magazine's review of the year in science that he could receive a letter addressed in chemical elements: seaborgium, lawrencium (for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
where he worked), berkelium, californium, americium.[65] Seaborgium
Seaborgium
is the first element ever to have been officially named after a living person.[61][66] The second element to be so named is oganesson, in 2016, after Yuri Oganessian.[67] Selected bibliography[edit] Main article: Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
bibliography

Seaborg, G. T.; James, R.A.; Morgan, L.O. (January 1948). The New Element Americium
Americium
(Atomic Number 95). US Atomic Energy Commission. OSTI 4435330.  Seaborg, G. T.; James, R.A.; Ghiorso, A. (January 1948). The New Element Curium
Curium
(Atomic Number 96). US Atomic Energy Commission. OSTI 4421946.  Seaborg, G. T.; Thompson, S.G.; Ghiorso, A. (April 1950). The New Element Berkelium
Berkelium
(Atomic Number 97). UC Berkeley, Radiation Laboratory. OSTI 4421999.  Seaborg, G. T.; Thompson, S.G.; Street, K. Jr.; Ghiroso, A. (June 1950). The New Element Californium
Californium
(Atomic Number 98). UC Berkeley, Radiation Laboratory. OSTI 4424011.  Seaborg, G. T. (December 1951). The Transuranium Elements – Present Status: Nobel Lecture. UC Berkeley, Radiation Laboratory. OSTI 4406579.  Seaborg, G. T.; Thompson, S.G.; Harvey, B.G.; Choppin, G.R. (July 1954). Chemical Properties of Elements 99 and 100 ( Einsteinium
Einsteinium
and Fermium). UC Berkeley, Radiation Laboratory. OSTI 4405197.  Seaborg, G. T. (September 1967). The First Weighing of Plutonium. US Atomic Energy Commission. OSTI 814965.  Seaborg, G. T. (July 1970). Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy: A Collection of Speeches. US Atomic Energy Commission. OSTI 4042849.  Seaborg, G. T., ed. (January 1980). Symposium Commemorating the 25th Anniversary of the Discovery of Mendelevium. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. OSTI 6468225.  Seaborg, G. T. (August 1990). Transuranium Elements: a Half Century. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. OSTI 6604648.  Seaborg, G. T. (March 1995). My career as a radioisotope hunter. Journal of the American Medical Association. 273. pp. 961–964. doi:10.1001/jama.273.12.961. PMID 7884957. 

Notes[edit]

^ "SCI Perkin Medal". Science History Institute. Retrieved 24 March 2018.  ^ a b Hoffman, D. C. (2007). "Glenn Theodore Seaborg. 19 April 1912 -- 25 February 1999". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 53: 327. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2007.0021. JSTOR 20461382.  ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1951". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved August 26, 2012.  ^ "Past Chancellors Office of the Chancellor". Chancellor.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2015-12-24.  ^ a b Hoffman 2007, p. 330. ^ Hoffman 2007, p. 336. ^ Seaborg & Seaborg 2001, pp. 13–14. ^ Seaborg & Seaborg 2001, pp. 15, 29. ^ Seaborg & Seaborg 2001, p. 40. ^ a b "Scientific and Luminary Biography - Glenn Seaborg". Argonne National Laboratory. Retrieved June 16, 2013.  ^ Lewis, G. N.; Seaborg, Glenn T. (July 1939). "Primary and secondary acids and bases". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 61 (7): 1886–1894. doi:10.1021/ja01876a068. ISSN 0002-7863.  ^ Lewis, G. N.; Seaborg, Glenn T. (July 1939). "Trinitrotriphenylmethide ion as a secondary and primary base". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 61 (7): 1894–1900. doi:10.1021/ja01876a069. ISSN 0002-7863.  ^ Lewis, G. N.; Seaborg, Glenn T. (August 1940). "The acidity of aromatic nitro compounds toward amines. The effect of double chelation". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 62 (8): 2122–2124. doi:10.1021/ja01865a057. ISSN 0002-7863.  ^ Seaborg & Seaborg 2001, pp. 57–59. ^ Seaborg & Seaborg 2001, p. 26. ^ Heilbron, J. L.; Seidel, R. W. (1989), Lawrence and His Laboratory: A History of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
– Volume I, University of California Press, pp. 355–6, ISBN 978-0520064263  ^ "National Award of Nuclear Science & History". National Museum of Nuclear Science & History. Archived from the original on August 17, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2012.  ^ "Seaborg Timeline: A Lifetime of Differences". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 5 March 1999. Retrieved 2012-08-26.  ^ Jackson, D. J.; Panofsky, W. K. H. (1996). Edwin Mattison McMillan (PDF). Biographical Memoirs. 69. National Academies Press.  ^ a b Farmer, Delphine (2001). "An Elementary Problem". Berkeley Science Review. 1 (1): 32–37. ISSN 1538-6449.  ^ Seaborg & Seaborg 2001, pp. 77–79. ^ Seaborg, Glenn T. "Nuclear Milestones: 307 Gilman Hall". Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Retrieved June 16, 2013.  ^ "Glenn Seaborg's Greatest Hits". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Archived from the original on October 15, 2004. Retrieved August 26, 2012.  ^ Rhodes 1986, pp. 320, 340–43, 348, 354, 369, 377, 395. ^ Hoffman 2007, pp. 333-334. ^ a b Seaborg & Seaborg 2001, pp. 174–179. ^ House, P. (April 1999). "Glenn T. Seaborg: Citizen-Scholar". The Seaborg Center Bulletin. Retrieved May 23, 2011.  ^ Seaborg, G. T.; Colvig, R. (1994). Chancellor at Berkeley. University of California. ISBN 978-0-87772-343-1.  ^ a b Yarris, Lynn (March 5, 1999). "Glenn Seaborg: A Sporting Life". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Retrieved June 17, 2013.  ^ "Glenn Seaborg Biography". Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on May 13, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2013.  ^ "National Service". Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Retrieved July 23, 2013.  ^ "Space Sciences Laboratory". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved June 16, 2013.  ^ Seaborg & Seaborg 2001, p. 181. ^ "Glenn Seaborg Diary Entry, 2 January 1962". National Security Archive. 30 August 2017.  ^ ""Clean" Nukes and the Ecology of Nuclear War". National Security Archive. 30 August 2017.  ^ "Meet Glenn Seaborg". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Archived from the original on October 14, 2004. Retrieved August 26, 2012.  ^ Seaborg & Seaborg 2001, pp. 200-206. ^ Seaborg & Seaborg 2001, pp. 218-221. ^ Seaborg, G. T. (1969). "Prospects for further considerable extension of the periodic table". Journal of Chemical Education. 46 (10): 626. Bibcode:1969JChEd..46..626S. doi:10.1021/ed046p626.  ^ "Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg". Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. March 30, 2006. Archived from the original on September 29, 2006.  ^ a b "Meet Glenn Seaborg". Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Retrieved July 23, 2013.  ^ "Glenn Seaborg's Works". Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Retrieved 2012-08-26.  ^ "ACS President: Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
(1912-1999)". American Chemical Society. Retrieved June 16, 2013.  ^ Aleklett, K.; Morrissey, D.; Loveland, W.; McGaughey, P.; Seaborg, G. (1981). "Energy dependence of 209Bi fragmentation in relativistic nuclear collisions". Physical Review C. 23 (3): 1044. Bibcode:1981PhRvC..23.1044A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.23.1044.  ^ Matthews, Robert (December 2, 2001). "The Philosopher's Stone". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved July 23, 2013.  ^ "About Us". World Cultural Council. Retrieved November 8, 2016.  ^ Yarris, L. (5 March 1999). "Glenn Seaborg, Teacher and Educator". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Retrieved 2012-08-26.  ^ "A Nation at Risk' Turns 30: Where Did It Take Us?". National Education Association. April 25, 2013.  ^ Spellings, Margaret. "25 Years After A Nation at Risk". U.S. Department of Education.  ^ Seaborg & Seaborg 2001, pp. 193-194. ^ Seaborg & Seaborg 2001, pp. 79-85. ^ "Today at Berkeley Lab: Seaborg Family Remembers: Helen 'a Mixture of Efficiency and Diplomacy'". www2.lbl.gov. Retrieved 2016-12-02.  ^ Hoffman 2007, p. 332. ^ "Glenn Seaborg Trail". Department of Energy. Retrieved June 16, 2013.  ^ Hoffman 2007, p. 335. ^ Hoffman 2007, p. 337. ^ Hoffman 2007, p. 334. ^ " Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
No. 719 Vasa Order of America". Vasa Order of America. Retrieved June 16, 2013.  ^ Hoffman, D. C.; Ghiorso, A.; Seaborg, G. T. (2000). "The Transuranium People: The Inside Story". World Scientific Publishing: lxvii–lxviii. ISBN 1-86094-087-0.  ^ "Glenn Seaborg Tribute: A Man in Full". Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Retrieved June 16, 2013.  ^ a b c "Seaborgium: Element 106 Named in Honor of Glenn T. Seaborg, LBL's Associate Director At Large". LBL Research Review. August 1994. ISSN 0882-1305. Retrieved July 24, 2013.  ^ "The Pantheon of Skeptics". CSI. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.  ^ "Glenn Theodore Seaborg - A Register of His Papers in the Library of Congress" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved June 16, 2013.  ^ American Chemical Society
American Chemical Society
- Chicago Section ^ Winters, J. (1 January 1998). "What's in a Name?". Discover. 19. Retrieved October 17, 2006.  ^ Ghiorso, Albert (2003). " Einsteinium
Einsteinium
and Fermium". Chemical and Engineering News. 81 (36): 174. doi:10.1021/cen-v081n036.p174.  ^ "IUPAC is naming the four new elements nihonium, moscovium, tennessine, and oganesson - IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry". IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2016-06-08. Retrieved 2016-06-08. 

References[edit]

Hoffman, D. C. (2007). "Glenn Theodore Seaborg 19 April 1912 — 25 February 1999". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 53: 328–338. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2007.0021. JSTOR 20461382.  Rhodes, Richard (1986). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-44133-7. OCLC 13793436.  Seaborg, G. T.; Seaborg, E. (2001). Adventures in the Atomic Age: From Watts to Washington. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-29991-9. 

Further reading[edit]

Patrick Coffey, Cathedrals of Science: The Personalities and Rivalries That Made Modern Chemistry, Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-532134-0

External links[edit]

1965 Audio Interview with Glenn Seaborg by Stephane Groueff Voices of the Manhattan Project Biography and Bibliographic Resources, from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, United States Department of Energy National Academy of Sciences biography Annotated bibliography for Glenn Seaborg from the Alsos Digital Library Works by or about Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog) Nobel Institute Official Biography UC Berkeley Biography of Chancellor Glenn T. Seaborg Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
website American Association for the Advancement of Science, List of Presidents Glenn Seaborg Trail, at Department of Energy official site Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
Center at Northern Michigan University Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
Medal and Symposium at the University of California, Los Angeles Video interview with Glenn Seaborg from 1986 with transcript "Clean" Nukes and the Ecology of Nuclear War, published by the National Security Archive

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

1901–1925

1901 Jacobus van 't Hoff 1902 Emil Fischer 1903 Svante Arrhenius 1904 William Ramsay 1905 Adolf von Baeyer 1906 Henri Moissan 1907 Eduard Buchner 1908 Ernest Rutherford 1909 Wilhelm Ostwald 1910 Otto Wallach 1911 Marie Curie 1912 Victor Grignard
Victor Grignard
/ Paul Sabatier 1913 Alfred Werner 1914 Theodore Richards 1915 Richard Willstätter 1916 1917 1918 Fritz Haber 1919 1920 Walther Nernst 1921 Frederick Soddy 1922 Francis Aston 1923 Fritz Pregl 1924 1925 Richard Zsigmondy

1926–1950

1926 Theodor Svedberg 1927 Heinrich Wieland 1928 Adolf Windaus 1929 Arthur Harden
Arthur Harden
/ Hans von Euler-Chelpin 1930 Hans Fischer 1931 Carl Bosch
Carl Bosch
/ Friedrich Bergius 1932 Irving Langmuir 1933 1934 Harold Urey 1935 Frédéric Joliot-Curie
Frédéric Joliot-Curie
/ Irène Joliot-Curie 1936 Peter Debye 1937 Norman Haworth
Norman Haworth
/ Paul Karrer 1938 Richard Kuhn 1939 Adolf Butenandt
Adolf Butenandt
/ Leopold Ružička 1940 1941 1942 1943 George de Hevesy 1944 Otto Hahn 1945 Artturi Virtanen 1946 James B. Sumner
James B. Sumner
/ John Northrop / Wendell Meredith Stanley 1947 Robert Robinson 1948 Arne Tiselius 1949 William Giauque 1950 Otto Diels
Otto Diels
/ Kurt Alder

1951–1975

1951 Edwin McMillan
Edwin McMillan
/ Glenn T. Seaborg 1952 Archer Martin
Archer Martin
/ Richard Synge 1953 Hermann Staudinger 1954 Linus Pauling 1955 Vincent du Vigneaud 1956 Cyril Hinshelwood / Nikolay Semyonov 1957 Alexander Todd 1958 Frederick Sanger 1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský 1960 Willard Libby 1961 Melvin Calvin 1962 Max Perutz
Max Perutz
/ John Kendrew 1963 Karl Ziegler
Karl Ziegler
/ Giulio Natta 1964 Dorothy Hodgkin 1965 Robert Woodward 1966 Robert S. Mulliken 1967 Manfred Eigen
Manfred Eigen
/ Ronald Norrish / George Porter 1968 Lars Onsager 1969 Derek Barton / Odd Hassel 1970 Luis Federico Leloir 1971 Gerhard Herzberg 1972 Christian B. Anfinsen
Christian B. Anfinsen
/ Stanford Moore / William Stein 1973 Ernst Otto Fischer
Ernst Otto Fischer
/ Geoffrey Wilkinson 1974 Paul Flory 1975 John Cornforth
John Cornforth
/ Vladimir Prelog

1976–2000

1976 William Lipscomb 1977 Ilya Prigogine 1978 Peter D. Mitchell 1979 Herbert C. Brown
Herbert C. Brown
/ Georg Wittig 1980 Paul Berg
Paul Berg
/ Walter Gilbert
Walter Gilbert
/ Frederick Sanger 1981 Kenichi Fukui
Kenichi Fukui
/ Roald Hoffmann 1982 Aaron Klug 1983 Henry Taube 1984 Robert Merrifield 1985 Herbert A. Hauptman
Herbert A. Hauptman
/ Jerome Karle 1986 Dudley R. Herschbach
Dudley R. Herschbach
/ Yuan T. Lee
Yuan T. Lee
/ John Polanyi 1987 Donald J. Cram
Donald J. Cram
/ Jean-Marie Lehn
Jean-Marie Lehn
/ Charles J. Pedersen 1988 Johann Deisenhofer
Johann Deisenhofer
/ Robert Huber
Robert Huber
/ Hartmut Michel 1989 Sidney Altman / Thomas Cech 1990 Elias Corey 1991 Richard R. Ernst 1992 Rudolph A. Marcus 1993 Kary Mullis
Kary Mullis
/ Michael Smith 1994 George Olah 1995 Paul J. Crutzen
Paul J. Crutzen
/ Mario J. Molina
Mario J. Molina
/ Frank Rowland 1996 Robert Curl
Robert Curl
/ Harold Kroto / Richard Smalley 1997 Paul D. Boyer
Paul D. Boyer
/ John E. Walker / Jens Christian Skou 1998 Walter Kohn
Walter Kohn
/ John Pople 1999 Ahmed Zewail 2000 Alan J. Heeger / Alan MacDiarmid / Hideki Shirakawa

2001–present

2001 William Knowles / Ryoji Noyori / K. Barry Sharpless 2002 John B. Fenn / Koichi Tanaka
Koichi Tanaka
/ Kurt Wüthrich 2003 Peter Agre
Peter Agre
/ Roderick MacKinnon 2004 Aaron Ciechanover
Aaron Ciechanover
/ Avram Hershko
Avram Hershko
/ Irwin Rose 2005 Robert H. Grubbs
Robert H. Grubbs
/ Richard R. Schrock
Richard R. Schrock
/ Yves Chauvin 2006 Roger D. Kornberg 2007 Gerhard Ertl 2008 Osamu Shimomura
Osamu Shimomura
/ Martin Chalfie
Martin Chalfie
/ Roger Y. Tsien 2009 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
/ Thomas A. Steitz
Thomas A. Steitz
/ Ada E. Yonath 2010 Richard F. Heck
Richard F. Heck
/ Akira Suzuki / Ei-ichi Negishi 2011 Dan Shechtman 2012 Robert Lefkowitz
Robert Lefkowitz
/ Brian Kobilka 2013 Martin Karplus
Martin Karplus
/ Michael Levitt
Michael Levitt
/ Arieh Warshel 2014 Eric Betzig
Eric Betzig
/ Stefan Hell
Stefan Hell
/ William E. Moerner 2015 Tomas Lindahl
Tomas Lindahl
/ Paul L. Modrich
Paul L. Modrich
/ Aziz Sancar 2016 Jean-Pierre Sauvage
Jean-Pierre Sauvage
/ Fraser Stoddart
Fraser Stoddart
/ Ben Feringa 2017 Jacques Dubochet
Jacques Dubochet
/ Joachim Frank
Joachim Frank
/ Richard Henderson

v t e

United States Atomic Energy Commission
United States Atomic Energy Commission
Chairs

David E. Lilienthal
David E. Lilienthal
(1946) Gordon Dean (1950) Lewis Strauss
Lewis Strauss
(1953) John A. McCone (1958) Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
(1961) James R. Schlesinger
James R. Schlesinger
(1971) Dixy Lee Ray
Dixy Lee Ray
(1973)

v t e

Presidents and Chancellors of the University of California, Berkeley

Presidents

Durant (1870) Gilman (1872) Le Conte (1875) Reid (1881) Holden (1885) Davis (1888) Kellogg (1890) Wheeler (1899) Barrows (1919) Campbell (1923) Sproul (1930)

Chancellors

Clark Kerr
Clark Kerr
(1952) Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
(1958) Edward W. Strong (1961) Martin E. Meyerson
Martin E. Meyerson
(1965) Roger W. Heyns (1965) Albert H. Bowker (1971) Ira Michael Heyman
Ira Michael Heyman
(1980) Chang-Lin Tien (1990) Robert M. Berdahl (1997) Robert J. Birgeneau
Robert J. Birgeneau
(2004) Nicholas Dirks
Nicholas Dirks
(2013) Carol T. Christ (2017)

v t e

Presidents of the American Chemical Society

1876–1900

John W. Draper (1876) J. Lawrence Smith
J. Lawrence Smith
(1877) Samuel W. Johnson (1878) T. Sterry Hunt (1879) Frederick A. Genth (1880) Charles F. Chandler
Charles F. Chandler
(1881) John W. Mallet (1882) James C. Booth (1883) Albert B. Prescott (1886) Charles Anthony Goessmann
Charles Anthony Goessmann
(1887) T. Sterry Hunt (1888) Charles F. Chandler
Charles F. Chandler
(1889) Henry B. Nason (1890) George F. Barker (1891) George C. Caldwell (1892) Harvey W. Wiley (1893) Edgar Fahs Smith
Edgar Fahs Smith
(1895) Charles B. Dudley (1896) Charles E. Munroe (1898) Edward W. Morley (1899) William McMurtrie
William McMurtrie
(1900)

1901–1925

Frank W. Clarke (1901) Ira Remsen (1902) John H. Long (1903) Arthur Amos Noyes
Arthur Amos Noyes
(1904) Francis P. Venable (1905) William F. Hillebrand (1906) Marston T. Bogert (1907) Willis R. Whitney (1909) Wilder D. Bancroft (1910) Alexander Smith (1911) Arthur Dehon Little
Arthur Dehon Little
(1912) Theodore W. Richards (1914) Charles H. Herty (1915) Julius Stieglitz (1917) William H. Nichols
William H. Nichols
(1918) William A. Noyes (1920) Edgar Fahs Smith
Edgar Fahs Smith
(1921) Edward C. Franklin (1923) Leo H. Baekeland (1924) James Flack Norris (1925)

1926–1950

George D. Rosengarten (1927) Samuel W. Parr (1928) Irving Langmuir
Irving Langmuir
(1929) William McPherson (1930) Moses Gomberg
Moses Gomberg
(1931) L.V. Redman (1932) Arthur B. Lamb (1933) Charles L. Reese (1934) Roger Adams (1935) Edward Bartow
Edward Bartow
(1936) Edward R. Weidlein (1937) Frank C. Whitmore (1938) Charles A. Kraus (1939) Samuel C. Lind (1940) William Lloyd Evans (1941) Harry N. Holmes (1942) Per K. Frolich (1943) Thomas Midgley Jr.
Thomas Midgley Jr.
(1944) Carl S. Marvel (1945) Bradley Dewey (1946) W. Albert Noyes Jr. (1947) Charles A. Thomas (1948) Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
(1949) Ernest H. Volwiler (1950)

1951–1975

N. Howell Funnan (1951) Edgar C. Britton (1952) Farrington Daniels (1953) Harry L. Fisher (1954) Joel H. Hildebrand (1955) John C. Warner (1956) Roger J. Williams (1957) Clifford F. Rassweiler (1958) John C. Bailar Jr. (1959) Albert L. Elder (1960) Arthur C. Cope (1961) Karl Folkers (1962) Henry Eyring (1963) Maurice H. Arveson (1964) Charles C. Price
Charles C. Price
(1965) William J. Sparks (1966) Charles G. Overberger (1967) Robert W. Cairns (1968) Wallace R. Brode
Wallace R. Brode
(1969) Byron Riegel (1970) Melvin Calvin
Melvin Calvin
(1971) Max Tishler
Max Tishler
(1972) Alan C. Nixon (1973) Bernard S. Friedman (1974) William J. Bailey (1975)

1976–2000

Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
(1976) Henry A. Hill
Henry A. Hill
(1977) Anna J. Harrison
Anna J. Harrison
(1978) Gardner W. Stacy (1979) James D. D'Ianni (1980) Albert C. Zettlemoyer (1981) Robert W. Parry (1982) Fred Basolo (1983) Warren D. Niederhauser (1984) Ellis K. Fields (1985) George C. Pimentel (1986) Mary L. Good
Mary L. Good
(1987) Gordon L. Nelson (1988) Clayton F. Callis (1989) Paul G. Gassman (1990) S. Allen Heininger (1991) Ernest L. Eliel (1992) Helen M. Free (1993) Ned D. Heindel (1994) Brian M. Rushton (1995) Ronald Breslow
Ronald Breslow
(1996) Paul S. Anderson (1997) Paul H.L. Walter (1998) Edel Wasserman (1999) Daryle H. Busch (2000)

2001–present

Attila E. Pavlath (2001) Eli M. Pearce (2002) Elsa Reichmanis
Elsa Reichmanis
(2003) Charles P. Casey (2004) William F. Carroll Jr. (2005) Elizabeth Ann Nalley
Elizabeth Ann Nalley
(2006) Catherine T. Hunt
Catherine T. Hunt
(2007) Bruce E. Bursten (2008) Thomas H. Lane (2009) Joseph Francisco (2010) Nancy B. Jackson
Nancy B. Jackson
(2011) Bassam Z. Shakhashiri (2012) Marinda Li Wu (2013) Thomas J. Barton (2014) Diane Grob Schmidt
Diane Grob Schmidt
(2015) Donna J. Nelson (2016) Allison A. Campbell (2017)

v t e

United States National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
laureates

Behavioral and social science

1960s

1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller

1980s

1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman

1990s

1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow

2000s

2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin

2010s

2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura

Biological sciences

1960s

1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr

1970s

1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss

1980s

1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood

1990s

1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis

2000s

2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner

2010s

2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin

Chemistry

1980s

1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell

1990s

1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon

2000s

2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox

2010s

2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering sciences

1960s

1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby

1970s

1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo

1980s

1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier

1990s

1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens

2000s

2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv

2010s

2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences

1960s

1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller

1970s

1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth

1980s

1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer

1990s

1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman

2000s

2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford

2010s

2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences

1960s

1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky

1970s

1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf

1980s

1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel

1990s

1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff

2000s

2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington

2010s

2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

v t e

Manhattan Project

Timeline

Sites

Ames Berkeley Chicago Dayton Hanford Inyokern Los Alamos Montreal New York Oak Ridge Trinity Wendover Heavy water sites

Administrators

Vannevar Bush Arthur Compton James Conant Priscilla Duffield Thomas Farrell Leslie Groves John Lansdale Ernest Lawrence James Marshall Franklin Matthias Dorothy McKibbin Kenneth Nichols Robert Oppenheimer Deak Parsons William Purnell Frank Spedding Charles Thomas Paul Tibbets Bud Uanna Harold Urey Stafford Warren Ed Westcott Roscoe Wilson

Scientists

Luis Alvarez Robert Bacher Hans Bethe Aage Bohr Niels Bohr Norris Bradbury James Chadwick John Cockcroft Harry Daghlian Enrico Fermi Richard Feynman Val Fitch James Franck Klaus Fuchs Maria Goeppert-Mayer George Kistiakowsky George Koval Willard Libby Edwin McMillan Mark Oliphant Norman Ramsey Isidor Isaac Rabi James Rainwater Bruno Rossi Glenn Seaborg Emilio Segrè Louis Slotin Henry DeWolf Smyth Leo Szilard Edward Teller Stanisław Ulam John von Neumann John Wheeler Eugene Wigner Robert Wilson Leona Woods

Operations

Alsos Mission Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Operation Crossroads Operation Peppermint Project Alberta Silverplate 509th Composite Group Enola Gay Bockscar The Great Artiste

Weapons

Fat Man Little Boy Pumpkin bomb Thin Man

Related topics

Atomic Energy Act of 1946 British contribution Chicago Pile-1 Demon core Einstein–Szilárd letter Interim Committee Oppenheimer security hearing Plutonium Quebec Agreement RaLa Experiment S-1 Executive Committee S-50 Project Smyth Report Uranium X-10 Graphite Reactor

Manhattan Project

v t e

Founding members of the World Cultural Council

Christian B. Anfinsen Werner Arber James Baddiley M. Balasegaram Frank Barnaby Christiaan Barnard Colin Blakemore Aage N. Bohr Norman Borlaug Harold G. Callan André Frédéric Cournand William J. Darby Eduardo de Robertis Cornelis de Jager Guy Blaudin de Thé Jean-François Denisse Venancio Deulofeu Frank J. Dixon Richard S. Doll Audouin Dollfus Jacques-Émile Dubois Gerald Durrell Francisco J. Dy John C. Eccles Paul Ehrlich Manfred Eigen Mohammed El Fasi Ernest L. Eliel Kenneth O. Emergy José Rafael Estrada Hans J. Eysenck Don W. Fawcett David J. Finney Val L. Fitch Carl G. Gahmberg Alfred D. Hershey Gerhard Herzberg David H. Hubel Osmo H. Järvi Reginald V. Jones Adrian Kantrowitz Nathan O. Kaplan Leo A. Kaprio Vasso Karageorghis Peter E. Kent Donald W. Kerst Seymour S. Kety Prem N. Kirpal Georges B. Koelle Walther Manshard Georges Mathé William D. McElroy Henry McIlwain John McMichael Jerrold Meinwald Harry Melville Desmond J. Morris Giuseppe Moruzzi Nevill Mott Vernon B. Mountcastle Robert S. Mulliken Walter H. Munk Ilie G. Murgulescu Jayant V. Narlikar Louis E. F. Néel Yuval Ne'eman Bernhard H. Neumann William A. Nierenberg Marshall W. Nirenberg George E. Palade Arthur B. Pardee David Phillips Jacques Piccard Jens J. Pindborg Comlan A. A. Quenum Hermann Rahn G. N. Ramachandran Gunnar Randers Chintamani N. R. Rao Rex Richards Jean Rösch Abraham J. A. Roux Stanley K. Runcorn Donald H. Sadler Hakim Muhammad Saeed Nobufusa Saito Abdus Salam Stuart J. Saunders Menahem Max Schiffer William G. Schneider Glenn T. Seaborg Ernest R. Sears Frederick Seitz Leonard T. Skeggs Stefan Ślopek George J. Smets George D. Snell Leonard Sosnowky Roger W. Sperry Lyman Spitzer Frederick Stewart Heikki Suomalainen Pol Swings Charles Tanford Henry Taube John M. Tedder Edward Teller Howard Temin Harold Thompson Peter C. Thonemann Phillip V. Tobias Alexander R. Todd Jan Peter Toennies Andrzej Trautman Jean L. F. Tricart Ioan Ursu Constantin Vago Eugene van Tamelen Ulf S. von Euler Alan Walsh William J. Whelan Karel F. Wiesner Rosalyn S. Yalow John Z. Young

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WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 98197926 LCCN: n50004895 ISNI: 0000 0001 1453 0609 GND: 119206927 SUDOC: 028872231 BNF: cb120617643 (data) BIBSYS: 90137028 MGP: 128054 NLA: 35486873 NDL: 00455958 NKC: skuk0005183 BNE: XX1170

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