Giza (/ˈɡiːzə/; sometimes spelled Gizah or Jizah; Arabic:
الجيزة al-Jīzah; Coptic: ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ, ⲅⲓⲍⲁ
Tiperses, Giza) is the third-largest city in
Egypt and the capital of
Giza Governorate. It is located on the west bank of the Nile,
5 km (3 mi) southwest of central Cairo. Along with Cairo
Governorate, Shubra El-Kheima, Helwan,
6th October City
6th October City and Obour, the
five form Greater
Giza lies less than 20 km (12.43 mi) north of "Mn Nefer"
(Memphis, in Greek), which means "the beautiful wall" in the ancient
Egyptian language, and which was the capital city of the first unified
Egyptian state since the days of
Giza is most famous as the location of the
Giza Plateau: the site of
some of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world, including
a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures,
including the Great Sphinx, the Great
Pyramid of Giza, and a number of
other large pyramids and temples.
Giza has always been a focal point
in Egypt's history due to its location close to Memphis, the ancient
Pharaonic capital of the Old Kingdom. Its St. George cathedral is the
episcopal see of the Coptic Catholic Eparchy of Giza.
1.2 Districts and neighbourhoods
2.1 Ancient era
2.2 Classical to medieval era
4.1 International access
7 Notable locals
8 Twin towns and sister cities
9 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
The city of
Giza is the capital of the
Giza Governorate, and is
located near the northeast border of this governorate in coordinates.
It is located right on the banks of the River Nile. The city's
population was 2,681,863 in the 2006 national census, while the
governorate had 6,272,571 at the same census. Its large population
made it the world's second largest suburb in 2006, tied with Incheon,
South Korea and Quezon City, Philippines, second only to Yokohama,
Giza's most famous land form and archaeological site, the Giza
Plateau, holds some major monuments of Egyptian history, and is home
to the Great Sphinx. Once thriving with the
Nile that flowed right
Giza Plateau, the pyramids of
Giza were built overlooking the
ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis, across the river from modern
day Cairo. The
Giza Plateau is also home to Egyptian monuments such as
the tomb of
Djet of the First Dynasty, as well as that of
Ninetjer of the Second Dynasty. The
Great Pyramid of Giza
Great Pyramid of Giza at
one time was advocated (1884) as the location for the Prime Meridian,
a reference point used for determining a base longitude.
Giza experiences a hot desert climate like arid climate (Köppen:
BWh). Its climate is similar to Cairo, owing to its proximity. Wind
storms can be frequent across
Egypt in spring, bringing Saharan dust
into the city during the months of March and April. High temperatures
in winter range from 16 °C (61 °F) to 20 °C
(68 °F), while nighttime lows drop to below 7 °C
(45 °F). In summer, the highs are 40 °C (104 °F),
and the lows can drop to about 20 °C (68 °F). Rain is
infrequent in Giza; snow and freezing temperatures are extremely rare.
Up to August 2013, the highest recorded temperature was 46 °C
(115 °F) on 13 June 1965, while the lowest recorded temperature
was 2 °C (36 °F) on 8 January 1966.
Climate data for Giza
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Source #1: Climate-Data.org
Source #2: Voodoo Skies for record temperatures
Districts and neighbourhoods
Dokki District: 93,660 93,025
Agouza District: 174,460 162,851
Giza District: 180,568 246,325, Kism Al Jizah 238,567 248,897
Bulaq ad Dakrur: 453,884 564,791
Imbabah: 287,357 389,049, Kism
Imbabah 523,265 597,160
Haram District: 200,076 295,704
The centre of the city is
The area in what is now
Giza served as the necropolis of several
pharaohs who ruled ancient Egypt, during the 2nd millennium BC. Three
of these tombs, in the form of giant pyramids, are what is now the
famed Three Pyramids of Giza.
Classical to medieval era
Egypt passed under several conquests under the Persians,
Greeks, Romans and Byzantines, so did the area in what is now Giza. A
Byzantine village named Teresa, located south of Giza, existed before
the Muslim conquest of the region.
Native Egyptians called the area Tiperses (also Tiperses Nbabylon
(which most likely refers to
Babylon Fortress but may as well refer to
Babylon in Mesopotamia) Tipersoi, Perso), which may correspond to
Persians (as the name may be literally translated as "Persians of/from
Babylon"), but the exact origin of this name remains unclear.
Muslims of the fledging
Islamic caliphate went on with their
Egypt from the Byzantine Empire beginning in 639 AD, three
years after their victory at the battle of Yarmouk in 636 AD, they
conquered all of the land by the time they have captured the city of
Alexandria in 641 AD. A year later in 642 AD (year 21 in Islamic
calendar), they founded the city of Giza. Its name, al-Jizzah in
Arabic, means "the valley" or "the plateau", pertaining to the area's
Giza has seen many changes over time. Changes in infrastructure during
the different occupations of
Egypt by various rulers, including the
British in the 18th and early 20th century, focused on the
construction of roads, streets, and buildings in the area.
Giza is a
thriving centre of Egyptian culture and is quite heavily populated,
with many facilities and buildings in the current area.
Giza saw much
attention in particular to its vast amount of ancient Egyptian
monuments found on the
Giza Plateau, and has astonished thousands of
visitors and tourists over the years. Giza's infrastructure saw much
attention from both the British government prior to the 1952 coup
d'état, as well as the current Egyptian government due to the city's
importance in tourism.
The city hosts the first zoo on the entire African continent and one
of the oldest in the
Mediterranean region, the
Giza Zoo. In addition,
there are several parks, the most famous among them is Orman Park,
which means "Forest Park" in the Turkish language.
Giza has advanced level of medical care just like its elder twin
A list of famous hospitals in Giza:
Al Salam in
Haram Hospital in Haram.
El Shoruk Hospital.
Cairo Medical Lab.
Giza hospital in Haram
Tabarak children Hospital in Haram
Nour El-oYoun Hospital in Haram
In addition to hospitals there are numerous medical facilities,
private clinics, medical check laboratories etc.
Giza comprises an extensive road network, rail
system, subway system, and maritime services. Road transport is
facilitated by personal vehicles, taxi cabs, privately owned public
buses and microbuses.
Giza shares with
Cairo a subway system, officially called the "Metro
(مترو)", a fast and efficient way of getting around. An extensive
road network connects
Giza with 6th of October City,
Cairo and other
cities. There are flyovers and bridges such as the 15th
is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded.
Uber (Available in
Giza since 2015)
Careem (Available in
Giza since 2015) 
Industries here include movies, chemicals, machinery and cigarettes.
Giza has many luxury apartment buildings along the Nile,
making it a popular place to live.
Access to the city of Giza, which has its own governorate adjacent to
Governorate of Cairo, is dependent on the
Airport. Another local airport is found in Giza, called the Imbaba
Airport, but recently the Egyptian government has decided to shut down
the area and turn it into a cultural or an athletic area.
Sphinx International Airport
Sphinx International Airport is scheduled to open in 2018.
Giza's learning institutions include
Cairo University, which was moved
Giza in 1924. The city is a hub of education and educational
services not only for
Egypt but also for the entire Mediterranean
Giza has numerous schools, kindergartens, and institutes of
Cairo Japanese School, a Japanese international school, is in
Giza. The Deutsche Evangelische Oberschule, a German international
school, is located in
Dokki in Giza. Previously the Pakistan
International School of
Cairo had its campus in Giza.
The city hosts the second most successful club in
Egypt and Africa, El
Zamalek, which is located in the
Meet Okba neighbourhood near the
Mohandesin neighbourhood. Beside
El Zamalek there are other clubs like
Tersana and Seid Shooting Club which is one of the elite clubs in
Ahmed Dowidar, football team player
Twin towns and sister cities
Los Angeles, United States
Rinkeby, Stockholm, Sweden
Bandar Seri Begawan,
Pyramids of Giza
List of Egyptian pyramids
List of megalithic sites
^ "The Canary Islands and the Question of the Prime Meridian: The
Search for Precision in the Measurement of the Earth", Wilcomb E.
Washburn. link Archived 29 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b "El-Giza, Egypt". Voodoo Skies. Archived from the original on 29
October 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
Giza – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table".
Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
^ موسوعة " القاموس الجغرافى للبلاد
المصرية " – محمد رمزى بك (قسم ثانى ج3 –
ص4): مركز وثائق وتاريخ مصر المعاصر
الهيئة المصرية العامةللكتاب ط 1994
^ جغرافية مصر في العصر القبطى –
الفرنسى أميلينو : الهيئة المصرية
العامة للكتاب2013 ترجمة ميخائيل مكسى
إسكندر – استدراكات العلامة محمد رمزى
على الكتاب في الجزء الثالث من ص 274: نشر
المعهد العلمى الفرنسى
^ Amélineau, Emile (1893). La géographie de l’Egypte à
l’époque copte. Paris: Imprimerie nationale. p. 190.
^ "Trismegistos". www.trismegistos.org. Retrieved 2017-11-22.
^ "Ya Om El Donia. Your Uber Has Just Arrived, Cairo! - Uber Blog".
Uber.com. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
^ "Ride or Drive with
Careem in Cairo,
Egypt - Careem". Careem.com.
Retrieved 16 October 2017.
^ Home (Archive).
Cairo Japanese School. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
"NAZLET EL BATRAN EL AHRAM GIZA, A.R.EGYPT"
^ "Kontakt." Deutsche Evangelische Oberschule. Retrieved on 18 January
2015. "6, El
Dokki / Giza"
^ "Contact Us." Pakistan International School Cairo. Retrieved on 21
April 2015. "12 Midan Tehran, Dokki, Cairo."
Library resources about
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Der Manuelian, Peter. 2017. Digital Giza: Visualizing the Pyramids.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hawass, Zahi A. 2010. Wonders of the Pyramids: The Sound and Light of
Giza. Cairo: Misr Company for Sound, Light, & Cinema.
--. 2011. Newly-Discovered Statues From Giza, 1990-2009. Cairo:
Ministry of State for Antiquities.
Magli, G. 2016. "The
Giza 'written' landscape and the double project
of King Khufu." Time & Mind-the Journal of Archaeology
Consciousness and Culture 9, no.1: 57–74.
Khattab, Hind A. S., Nabil Younis, and Huda Zurayk. 1999. Women,
Reproduction, and Health In Rural Egypt: The
Giza Study. Cairo, Egypt:
American University in
Kormysheva, Ė. E., Svetlana Malykh, and Sergey Vetokhov. 2010. Giza,
Eastern Necropolis: Russian Archaeological Mission In Giza. Moscow:
Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences.
Lawton, Ian, and Chris Ogilvie-Herald. 2000. Giza: The Truth: the
People, Politics and History Behind the World's Most Famous
Archaeological Site. Rev. ed. London: Virgin.
Lehner, Mark, and Zahi A. Hawass. 2017.
Giza and the Pyramids: The
Definitive History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Giza.
Giza travel guide from Wikivoyage
Giza with children travel guide from Wikivoyage
Egyptian cities and towns by population
1,000,000 and more
Shubra El Kheima
El Mahalla El Kubra
6th of October
Kafr El Dawwar
Kafr El Sheikh
New Borg El Arab
Shibin El Kom
Sharm El Sheikh
Governorates capitals of Egypt
Beni Suef (Beni Suef)
Kafr El Sheikh
Kafr El Sheikh (Kafr El Sheikh)
Matrouh (Mersa Matrouh)
New Valley (Kharga)
North Sinai (Arish)
Port Said (Port Said)
Red Sea (Hurghada)
South Sinai (El Tor)
Glossary of artifacts
Architecture (Egyptian Revival architecture)
Great Royal Wives