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GIZA (/ˈɡiːzə/ ; sometimes spelled Gizah or Jizah; Coptic : ⲅⲓⲍⲁ Giza; Egyptian Arabic : الجيزة‎‎ el-Gīza), is the third-largest city in Egypt. It is located on the west bank of the Nile
Nile
, 5 km (3 mi) southwest of central Cairo
Cairo
. Along with Cairo Governorate , Shubra El-Kheima , Helwan
Helwan
, 6th October City and Obour , the five form Greater Cairo
Cairo
metropolis.

The city of Giza
Giza
is the capital of the Giza Governorate , and is located near the northeast border of this governorate in coordinates. It is located right on the banks of the River Nile
Nile
. The city's population was 2,681,863 in the 2006 national census, while the governorate had 6,272,571 at the same census. Its large population made it the world\'s second largest suburb in 2006, tied with Incheon , South Korea and Quezon City
Quezon City
, Philippines, second only to Yokohama
Yokohama
, Japan.

Giza
Giza
is most famous as the location of the Giza Plateau
Giza Plateau
: the site of some of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world, including a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures, including the Great Sphinx , the Great Pyramid of Giza
Great Pyramid of Giza
, and a number of other large pyramids and temples. Giza
Giza
has always been a focal point in Egypt's history due to its location close to Memphis , the ancient Pharaonic capital of the Old Kingdom. Its St. George cathedral is the episcopal see of the Coptic Catholic Eparchy of Giza . The Great Pyramid of Giza
Great Pyramid of Giza
at one time was advocated (1884) as the location for the Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
, a reference point used for determining a base longitude.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview

* 2 History

* 2.1 Ancient era * 2.2 Classical to medieval era

* 3 Infrastructure

* 3.1 Health * 3.2 Transportation

* 4 Districts and neighbourhoods * 5 Climate

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 International access

* 7 Education * 8 Sports * 9 Notable locals * 10 Twin towns and sister cities * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links

OVERVIEW

"Mn Nefer " (Memphis, in Greek ), which means "the beautiful wall" in the ancient Egyptian language
Egyptian language
, the capital city of the first unified Egyptian state since the days of Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Narmer
Narmer
, lies nearly 20 km (12.43 mi) south of Giza. Giza's most famous archaeological site, the Giza Plateau
Giza Plateau
, holds some major monuments of Egyptian history . Once thriving with the Nile
Nile
that flowed right into the Giza
Giza
Plateau, the pyramids of Giza
Giza
were built overlooking the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis , across the river from modern day Cairo
Cairo
. The Giza Plateau is also home to Egyptian monuments such as the tomb of Pharaoh Djet of the First Dynasty , as well as that of Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Ninetjer
Ninetjer
of the Second Dynasty .

HISTORY

ANCIENT ERA

The area in what is now Giza
Giza
served as the necropolis of several pharaohs who ruled ancient Egypt
Egypt
, during the 2nd millennium BC. Three of these tombs, in the form of giant pyramids, are what is now the famed Three Pyramids of Giza .

CLASSICAL TO MEDIEVAL ERA

As ancient Egypt
Egypt
passed under several conquests under the Persians, Greeks, Romans and Byzantines, so did the area in what is now Giza. A Byzantine village named Teresa, located south of Giza, existed before the Muslim conquest of the region.

As Muslims
Muslims
of the fledging Islamic
Islamic
caliphate went on with their conquest of Egypt
Egypt
from the Byzantine Empire beginning in 639 AD, three years after their victory at the battle of Yarmouk in 636 AD, they conquered all of the land by the time they have captured the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
in 641 AD. A year later in 642 AD (year 21 in Islamic calendar), they founded the city of Giza. Its name, al-Jizzah in Arabic, means "the valley" or "the plateau", pertaining to the area's topography.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Giza
Giza
has seen many changes over time. Changes in infrastructure during the different occupations of Egypt
Egypt
by various rulers, including the British in the 18th and early 20th century, focused on the construction of roads , streets, and buildings in the area. Giza
Giza
is a thriving centre of Egyptian culture and is quite heavily populated, with many facilities and buildings in the current area. Giza
Giza
saw much attention in particular to its vast amount of ancient Egyptian monuments found on the Giza Plateau
Giza Plateau
, and has astonished thousands of visitors and tourists over the years. Giza's infrastructure saw much attention from both the British government prior to the 1952 coup d'état, as well as the current Egyptian government due to the city's importance in tourism.

The city hosts the first zoo on the entire African continent and one of the oldest in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region, the Giza Zoo . In addition, there are several parks, the most famous among them is Orman Park , which means "Forest Park" in the Turkish language
Turkish language
.

HEALTH

Giza
Giza
has advanced level of medical care just like its elder twin Cairo.

A list of famous hospitals in Giza:

* Agooza in Agouza
Agouza
district. * Al Salam in Mohandessin neighbourhood. * Badran in Dokki
Dokki
district. * El Safa. * Haram Hospital in Haram. * El Shoruk Hospital. * Cairo
Cairo
Medical Lab

In addition to hospitals there are numerous medical facilities, private clinics, medical check laboratories etc.

TRANSPORTATION

Transportation in Giza
Giza
comprises an extensive road network, rail system, subway system, and maritime services. Road transport is facilitated by personal vehicles, taxi cabs, privately owned public buses and microbuses.

Giza
Giza
shares with Cairo
Cairo
a subway system, officially called the "Metro (مترو)", a fast and efficient way of getting around. An extensive road network connects Giza
Giza
with 6th of October City , Cairo
Cairo
and other cities. There are flyovers and bridges such as the 15th Giza
Giza
traffic is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded.

* Cairo
Cairo
Taxi *

DISTRICTS AND NEIGHBOURHOODS

* Dokki
Dokki
District: 93,660 93,025 * Agouza
Agouza
District: 174,460 162,851 * Giza
Giza
District : 180,568 246,325, Kism Al Jizah 238,567 248,897 * Bulaq ad Dakrur : 453,884 564,791 * Imbabah : 287,357 389,049, Kism Imbabah 523,265 597,160 * Haram District : 200,076 295,704 * Omrania * Monib * Kafr Tuhurmus

The centre of the city is Giza
Giza
Square .

CLIMATE

Giza Pyramids .

Giza
Giza
experiences a hot desert climate like arid climate (Köppen : BWh). Its climate is similar to Cairo, owing to its proximity. Wind storms can be frequent across Egypt
Egypt
in spring, bringing Saharan dust into the city during the months of March and April. High temperatures in winter range from 16 °C (61 °F) to 20 °C (68 °F), while nighttime lows drop to below 7 °C (45 °F). In summer, the highs are 40 °C (104 °F), and the lows can drop to about 20 °C (68 °F). Rain is infrequent in Giza; snow and freezing temperatures are extremely rare.

Up to August 2013, the highest recorded temperature was 46 °C (115 °F) on 13 June 1965, while the lowest recorded temperature was 2 °C (36 °F) on 8 January 1966.

CLIMATE DATA FOR GIZA

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 28 (82) 30 (86) 36 (97) 41 (106) 43 (109) 46 (115) 41 (106) 43 (109) 39 (102) 40 (104) 36 (97) 30 (86) 46 (115)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 19.3 (66.7) 20.9 (69.6) 24.2 (75.6) 28.4 (83.1) 32 (90) 34.9 (94.8) 34.5 (94.1) 34.4 (93.9) 32.4 (90.3) 30.2 (86.4) 25.4 (77.7) 21.1 (70) 28.14 (82.68)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 13 (55) 14 (57) 17.2 (63) 20.5 (68.9) 24 (75) 27.1 (80.8) 27.5 (81.5) 27.5 (81.5) 25.6 (78.1) 23.5 (74.3) 19.2 (66.6) 15 (59) 21.18 (70.06)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 6.8 (44.2) 7.2 (45) 10.3 (50.5) 12.7 (54.9) 16.1 (61) 19.3 (66.7) 20.6 (69.1) 20.7 (69.3) 18.9 (66) 16.8 (62.2) 13 (55) 8.9 (48) 14.28 (57.66)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 2 (36) 4 (39) 5 (41) 8 (46) 11 (52) 16 (61) 17 (63) 17 (63) 16 (61) 11 (52) 4 (39) 4 (39) 2 (36)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 4 (0.16) 3 (0.12) 2 (0.08) 1 (0.04) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (0.12) 4 (0.16) 17 (0.68)

Source #1: Climate-Data.org

Source #2: Voodoo Skies for record temperatures

ECONOMY

Industries here include movies, chemicals , machinery and cigarettes. In addition, Giza
Giza
has many luxury apartment buildings along the Nile
Nile
, making it a popular place to live.

INTERNATIONAL ACCESS

Access to the city of Giza, which has its own governorate adjacent to the Governorate of Cairo
Cairo
, is dependent on the Cairo
Cairo
International Airport . Another local airport is found in Giza, called the Imbaba Airport , but recently the Egyptian government has decided to shut down the area and turn it into a cultural or an athletic area.

EDUCATION

Cairo
Cairo
University

Giza's learning institutions include Cairo
Cairo
University , which was moved to Giza
Giza
in 1924. The city is a hub of education and educational services not only for Egypt
Egypt
but also for the entire Mediterranean Region . Giza
Giza
has numerous schools, kindergartens, and institutes of higher learning.

The Cairo
Cairo
Japanese School , a Japanese international school, is in Giza. The Deutsche Evangelische Oberschule , a German international school, is located in Dokki
Dokki
in Giza. Previously the Pakistan International School of Cairo
Cairo
had its campus in Giza.

SPORTS

The city hosts the second most successful club in Egypt
Egypt
and Africa, El Zamalek , which is located in the Meet Okba neighbourhood near the Mohandesin
Mohandesin
neighbourhood. Beside El Zamalek there are other clubs like El Tersana and Seid Shooting Club which is one of the elite clubs in Egypt
Egypt

NOTABLE LOCALS

* Ahmed Dowidar , football team player

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

* Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, United States * Bergen
Bergen
, Norway * Rinkeby , Stockholm, Sweden * Bandar Seri Begawan , Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam

SEE ALSO

* Egypt
Egypt
portal

* Greater Cairo
Cairo
* Giza Governorate * Pyramids of Giza * Great Sphinx * List of Egyptian pyramids * List of megalithic sites

REFERENCES

* ^ "The Canary Islands and the Question of the Prime Meridian: The Search for Precision in the Measurement of the Earth", Wilcomb E. Washburn. link * ^ موسوعة " القاموس الجغرافى للبلاد المصرية " – محمد رمزى بك (قسم ثانى ج3 – ص4): مركز وثائق وتاريخ مصر المعاصر الهيئة المصرية العامةللكتاب ط 1994 * ^ جغرافية مصر في العصر القبطى – الفرنسى أميلينو : الهيئة المصرية العامة للكتاب2013 ترجمة ميخائيل مكسى إسكندر – استدراكات العلامة محمد رمزى على الكتاب في الجزء الثالث من ص 274: نشر المعهد العلمى الفرنسى * ^ A B "El-Giza, Egypt". Voodoo Skies. Retrieved 16 August 2013. * ^ "Climate: Giza
Giza
– Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 16 August 2013. * ^ Home (Archive). Cairo
Cairo
Japanese School . Retrieved on 2 January 2014. "NAZLET EL BATRAN EL AHRAM GIZA, A.R.EGYPT" * ^ "Kontakt." Deutsche Evangelische Oberschule . Retrieved on 18 January 2015. "6, El Dokki
Dokki
St. Dokki
Dokki
/ Giza" * ^ "Contact Us." Pakistan International School Cairo
Cairo
. Retrieved on 21 April 2015. "12 Midan Tehran, Dokki, Cairo."

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to GIZA .

* Giza
Giza
travel guide from Wikivoyage * Giza
Giza
with children travel guide from Wikivoyage

* v * t * e

Egyptian cities and towns by population

1,000,000 AND MORE

* Alexandria
Alexandria
* Cairo
Cairo
* Giza * Shubra El Kheima

.