parouse.com
 Parouse.com



GitHub
GitHub
Inc. is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git. It is mostly used for computer code. It offers all of the distributed version control and source code management (SCM) functionality of Git
Git
as well as adding its own features. It provides access control and several collaboration features such as bug tracking, feature requests, task management, and wikis for every project.[3] GitHub
GitHub
offers plans for both private repositories and free accounts[4] which are commonly used to host open-source software projects.[5] As of June 2018, GitHub
GitHub
reports having over 28 million users[6] and 57 million repositories[7] (including 28 million public repositories.[8]), making it the largest host of source code in the world.[9] On June 4, 2018, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced its intent to acquire GitHub
GitHub
for US$7.5 billion.

Contents

1 Company history

1.1 Acquisition by Microsoft

2 Company affairs

2.1 Organizational structure 2.2 Finance 2.3 Mascot 2.4 Harassment allegations

3 Services

3.1 GitHub

3.1.1 Scope 3.1.2 Licensing of repositories

3.2 GitHub
GitHub
Enterprise 3.3 Gists 3.4 Education program 3.5 GitHub
GitHub
Marketplace service

4 Developed projects 5 Censorship 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Company history[edit] GitHub
GitHub
was developed by Chris Wanstrath, PJ Hyett and Tom Preston-Werner using Ruby on Rails
Ruby on Rails
and Erlang, and started in February 2008. The company, GitHub, Inc., has existed since 2007 and is located in San Francisco.[10]

The shading of the map illustrates the number of users as a proportion of each country's Internet population. The circular charts surrounding the two hemispheres depict the total number of GitHub
GitHub
users (left) and commits (right) per country.

On March 1, 2008, Chris Wanstrath mentioned in a blog post[11] that GitHub
GitHub
had 2000 users. On February 24, 2009, GitHub
GitHub
team members announced, in a talk at Yahoo!
Yahoo!
headquarters, that within the first year of being online, GitHub
GitHub
had accumulated over 46,000 public repositories, 17,000 of which were formed in the previous month alone. At that time, about 6,200 repositories had been forked at least once and 4,600 had been merged. On July 5, 2009, GitHub
GitHub
announced that the site was now harnessed by over 100,000 users. On July 27, 2009, in another talk delivered at Yahoo!, Tom Preston-Werner
Tom Preston-Werner
announced that GitHub
GitHub
had grown to host 90,000 unique public repositories, 12,000 having been forked at least once, for a total of 135,000 repositories.[12] On July 25, 2010, GitHub
GitHub
announced that it was hosting 1 million repositories.[13] On April 20, 2011, GitHub
GitHub
announced that it was hosting 2 million repositories.[14] On June 2, 2011, ReadWriteWeb
ReadWriteWeb
reported that GitHub
GitHub
had surpassed SourceForge
SourceForge
and Google Code
Google Code
in total number of commits for the period of January to May 2011.[15] On July 9, 2012, Peter Levine, general partner at GitHub
GitHub
investor Andreessen Horowitz, stated that GitHub
GitHub
had been growing revenue at 300% annually since 2008 "profitably nearly the entire way".[16] On January 16, 2013, GitHub
GitHub
announced it had passed the 3 million users mark and was then hosting more than 5 million repositories.[17] On December 23, 2013, GitHub
GitHub
announced it had reached 10 million repositories.[18] In June 2015, GitHub
GitHub
opened an office in Japan that is its first office outside of the U.S.[19] On July 29, 2015, GitHub
GitHub
announced it had raised $250 million in funding in a round led by Sequoia Capital. The round valued the company at approximately $2 billion.[20] In 2016, GitHub
GitHub
was ranked No. 14 on the Forbes
Forbes
Cloud 100 list.[21] On February 28, 2018, GitHub
GitHub
fell victim to the largest distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack in history, with incoming traffic reaching a peak of about 1.35 terabits per second.[22] On June 19, 2018, GitHub
GitHub
expanded its GitHub
GitHub
Education by offering free education bundles to all schools.[23][24] Acquisition by Microsoft[edit] On June 4, 2018, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced its intent to acquire GitHub
GitHub
for US$7.5 billion. Under Microsoft, the service will be led by Xamarin's Nat Friedman, reporting to Scott Guthrie, executive vice president of Microsoft
Microsoft
Cloud and AI. Current CEO Chris Wanstrath will be retained as a "technical fellow", also reporting to Guthrie. Microsoft
Microsoft
had become a significant user of GitHub, using it to host open source projects and development tools such as Chakra Core, PowerShell, and Visual Studio Code, and has backed other open source projects such as Linux, and developed Git
Git
Virtual File
File
System—a Git
Git
extension for managing large-scale repositories (and itself has been adopted by GitHub).[25][26][27] There have been concerns from developers over Microsoft's purchase, citing uneasiness over Microsoft's handling of previous acquisitions, such as Nokia's handset business, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
and Skype. Some saw this as a culmination of Microsoft's recent changes in business strategy under CEO Satya Nadella, which has seen a larger focus on the sale of cloud computing services as its main line of business, alongside development of and contributions to open source software (such as Linux), as opposed to the Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows operating system.[28][26][27] Harvard Business Review argued that Microsoft
Microsoft
was intending to acquire GitHub to get access to its userbase, so it can be used as a loss leader to encourage use of its other development products and services.[29] Concerns over the sale bolstered interest in competitors; both Bitbucket
Bitbucket
(owned by Atlassian), GitLab
GitLab
(a commercial open source product that also runs a hosted service version) and SourceForge (owned by BIZX, LLC) reported that they had seen spikes in new users intending to migrate projects from GitHub
GitHub
to their respective services.[30][31][32] Company affairs[edit] Organizational structure[edit] GitHub, Inc. was originally a flat organization with no middle managers; in other words, "everyone is a manager" (self-management).[33] Employees can choose to work on projects that interest them (open allocation). However, salaries are set by the chief executive.[34][needs update] In 2014, GitHub, Inc. introduced a layer of middle management.[35] Finance[edit] GitHub.com was a start-up business, which in its first years provided enough revenue to be funded solely by its three founders and start taking on employees.[36] In July 2012, four years after the company was founded, Andreessen Horowitz
Andreessen Horowitz
invested $100 million in venture capital.[3] In July 2015 GitHub
GitHub
raised another $250 million of venture capital in a series B round. Investors were Sequoia Capital, Andreessen Horowitz, Thrive Capital and other venture capital funds.[37] As of August 2016, GitHub
GitHub
was making $140 million in Annual Recurring Revenue.[38] Mascot[edit] GitHub's mascot is an anthropomorphized "octocat" with five octopus-like arms.[39][40] The character was created by graphic designer Simon Oxley as clip art to sell on iStock,[41] a website that enables designers to market royalty-free digital images. GitHub
GitHub
became interested in Oxley's work after Twitter selected a bird that he designed for their own logo.[42] The illustration GitHub
GitHub
chose was a character that Oxley had named Octopuss.[41] Since GitHub
GitHub
wanted Octopuss for their logo (a use that the iStock license disallows), they negotiated with Oxley to buy exclusive rights to the image.[41] GitHub
GitHub
renamed Octopuss to Octocat,[41] and trademarked the character along with the new name.[39] Later, GitHub
GitHub
hired illustrator Cameron McEfee to adapt Octocat for different purposes on the website and promotional materials; McEfee and various GitHub
GitHub
users have since created hundreds of variations of the character.[43] Harassment allegations[edit] In March 2014, GitHub
GitHub
programmer Julie Ann Horvath alleged that founder and CEO Tom Preston-Werner
Tom Preston-Werner
and his wife Theresa engaged in a pattern of harassment against her that led to her leaving the company.[44] In April 2014, GitHub
GitHub
released a statement denying Horvath's allegations.[45][46] However, following an internal investigation, GitHub
GitHub
confirmed the claims. GitHub's CEO Chris Wanstrath wrote on the company blog, "The investigation found Tom Preston-Werner in his capacity as GitHub's CEO acted inappropriately, including confrontational conduct, disregard of workplace complaints, insensitivity to the impact of his spouse's presence in the workplace, and failure to enforce an agreement that his spouse should not work in the office."[47] Preston-Werner then resigned from the company. In 2017 more allegations were made of discriminatory and unsupportive behavior at GitHub
GitHub
by a developer who had been recruited following a commitment by GitHub
GitHub
to improve its diversity and inclusivity.[48] Services[edit] GitHub[edit] Development of the GitHub
GitHub
platform began on October 19, 2007.[49][50][51] The site was launched in April 2008 by Tom Preston-Werner, Chris Wanstrath, and PJ Hyett after it had been made available for a few months prior as a beta release.[52] Projects on GitHub
GitHub
can be accessed and manipulated using the standard Git
Git
command-line interface and all of the standard Git
Git
commands work with it. GitHub
GitHub
also allows registered and non-registered users to browse public repositories on the site. Multiple desktop clients and Git
Git
plugins have also been created by GitHub
GitHub
and other third parties that integrate with the platform. The site provides social networking-like functions such as feeds, followers, wikis (using wiki software called Gollum) and a social network graph to display how developers work on their versions ("forks") of a repository and what fork (and branch within that fork) is newest. A user must create an account in order to contribute content to the site, but public repositories can be browsed and downloaded by anyone. With a registered user account, users are able to have discussions, manage repositories, submit contributions to others' repositories, and review changes to code. The software that runs GitHub
GitHub
was written using Ruby on Rails
Ruby on Rails
and Erlang by GitHub, Inc. developers Chris Wanstrath,[53] PJ Hyett, and Tom Preston-Werner. Scope[edit] GitHub
GitHub
is mostly used for code. In addition to source code, GitHub
GitHub
supports the following formats and features:

Documentation, including automatically rendered README
README
files in a variety of Markdown-like file formats (see README
README
files on GitHub) Issue tracking (including feature requests) with labels, milestones, assignees and a search engine Wikis Pull requests with code review and comments Commits history Graphs: pulse, contributors, commits, code frequency, punch card, network, members Integrations Directory[54] Unified and split diffs Email notifications Option to subscribe someone to notifications by @ mentioning them.[55] Emojis[56] GitHub
GitHub
Pages: small websites can be hosted from public repositories on GitHub. The URL format is https://username.github.io.[57] Nested task-lists within files Visualization of geospatial data 3D render files that can be previewed using a new integrated STL file viewer that displays the files on a "3D canvas".[58] The viewer is powered by WebGL
WebGL
and Three.js. Photoshop's native PSD format can be previewed and compared to previous versions of the same file. PDF document viewer Security Alerts of known Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures in different packages

Licensing of repositories[edit] GitHub's Terms of Service do not require public software projects hosted on GitHub
GitHub
to meet the Open Source Definition. For that reason, it is essential for users and developers intending to use a piece of software found on GitHub
GitHub
to read the software license in the repository (usually found in a top-level file called "LICENSE", "LICENSE.txt", or similar) to determine if it meets their needs[citation needed]. The Terms of Service state, "By setting your repositories to be viewed publicly, you agree to allow others to view and fork your repositories."[59] GitHub
GitHub
Enterprise[edit] GitHub
GitHub
Enterprise is similar to GitHub's public service but is designed for use by large-scale enterprise software development teams where the enterprise wishes to host their repositories behind a corporate firewall.[60] Gists[edit] GitHub
GitHub
also operates other services: a pastebin-style site called Gist[52] that is for hosting code snippets ( GitHub
GitHub
proper is for hosting larger projects), and a slide hosting service called Speaker Deck. Tom Preston-Werner
Tom Preston-Werner
presented the then-new Gist feature at a punk rock Ruby conference in 2008.[61] Gist builds on the traditional simple concept of a pastebin by adding version control for code snippets, easy forking, and SSL encryption for private pastes. Because each "gist" has its own Git
Git
repository, multiple code snippets can be contained in a single paste and they can be pushed and pulled using Git. Further, forked code can be pushed back to the original author in the form of a patch, so gists (pastes) can become more like mini-projects. Education program[edit] GitHub
GitHub
launched a new program called the GitHub
GitHub
Student Developer Pack to give students free access to popular development tools and services. GitHub
GitHub
partnered with Bitnami, Crowdflower, DigitalOcean, DNSimple, HackHands, Namecheap, Orchestrate, Screenhero, SendGrid, Stripe, Travis CI and Unreal Engine
Unreal Engine
to launch the program.[62] GitHub
GitHub
Marketplace service[edit] GitHub
GitHub
also provides some software as a service integrations for adding extra features to projects. Those services include:

Waffle.io: Project management for software teams. Automatically see pull requests, automated builds, reviews, and deployments across all of your repositories in GitHub. Rollbar: Integrate with GitHub
GitHub
to provide real time debugging tools and full-stack exception reporting. It is compatible with all well used code languages, such as JavaScript, Python, .NET, Ruby, PHP, Node.js, Android, iOS, Go, Java, and C#. Codebeat: For automated code analysis specialized in web and mobile developers. The supported languages for this software are: Elixir, Go, Java, Swift, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, Kotlin, Objective-C, and TypeScript. Travis CI: To provide confidence for your apps while doing test and ship. Also gives full control over the build environment, to adapt it to the code. Supported languages: Go, Java, JavaScript, Objective-C, Python, PHP, Ruby, and Swift. GitLocalize: Developed for teams that are translating their content from one point to another. GitLocalize automatically syncs with your repository so you can keep your workflow on GitHub. It also keeps you updated on what needs to be translated.

Developed projects[edit]

Atom, a free and open-source text and source code editor Electron, an open-source framework to use javascript-based websites as desktop applications.

Censorship[edit] Main article: Censorship of GitHub On December 3, 2014, GitHub
GitHub
was blacklisted in Russia because GitHub initially refused to take down user-posted suicide manuals. After a day, Russia withdrew its block.[63][64] On December 31, 2014, GitHub
GitHub
was blocked in India (along with 31 other websites) over pro- ISIS
ISIS
content posted by users.[65] On January 10, 2015, GitHub
GitHub
was unblocked. On March 26, 2015, GitHub
GitHub
fell victim to a massive DDoS attack that lasted for more than 118 hours.[66] The attack, which appeared to originate from China, primarily targeted GitHub-hosted user content describing methods of circumventing Internet censorship.[67][68][69] On October 8, 2016, GitHub
GitHub
access was blocked by the Turkish government to prevent email leakage of a hacked account belonging to the country's Energy Minister.[70] See also[edit]

Collaborative innovation network Collaborative intelligence Commons-based peer production Comparison of source code hosting facilities

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Official website Media related to GitHub
GitHub
at Wikimedia Commons

Computer programming portal Free and open-source sof