GitHub (originally known as Logical Awesome LLC) is a web-based
hosting service for version control using git. It is mostly used for
computer code. It offers all of the distributed version control and
source code management (SCM) functionality of
Git as well as adding
its own features. It provides access control and several collaboration
features such as bug tracking, feature requests, task management, and
wikis for every project.
GitHub offers plans for both private repositories and free accounts
which are commonly used to host open-source software projects. As
of April 2017,
GitHub reports having almost 20 million users and
57 million repositories, making it the largest host of source
code in the world.
1 Company history
1.2 Harassment allegations
1.4 Organizational structure
2.1.2 Licensing of repositories
2.4 Education program
GitHub Marketplace service
3 See also
5 External links
The shading of the map illustrates the number of users as a proportion
of each country's Internet population. The circular charts surrounding
the two hemispheres depict the total number of
GitHub users (left) and
commits (right) per country.
On 1st March 2008,
Chris Wanstrath mentioned in a blog post that
Github had 2000 users.
On 24 February 2009,
GitHub team members announced, in a talk at
Yahoo! headquarters, that within the first year of being online,
GitHub had accumulated over 46,000 public repositories, 17,000 of
which were formed in the previous month alone. At that time, about
6,200 repositories had been forked at least once and 4,600 had been
On 5 July 2009,
GitHub announced that the site was now harnessed by
over 100,000 users. On 27 July 2009, in another talk delivered at
Tom Preston-Werner announced that
GitHub had grown to host
90,000 unique public repositories, 12,000 having been forked at least
once, for a total of 135,000 repositories.
On 25 July 2010,
GitHub announced that it hosts 1 million
repositories. On 20 April 2011,
GitHub announced that it is
hosting 2 million repositories.
On 2 June 2011,
ReadWriteWeb reported that
GitHub had surpassed
Google Code in total number of commits for the period
January to May 2011.
On 9 July 2012, Peter Levine, general partner at GitHub's investor
Andreessen Horowitz, stated that
GitHub had been growing revenue at
300% annually since 2008 "profitably nearly the entire way".
On 16 January 2013,
GitHub announced it had passed the 3 million users
mark and was then hosting more than 5 million repositories.
On 23 December 2013,
GitHub announced it had reached 10 million
In June 2015,
GitHub opened an office in Japan that is its first
office outside of the U.S.
On 29 July 2015,
GitHub announced it had raised $250 million in
funding in a round led by Sequoia Capital. The round valued the
company at approximately $2 billion.
GitHub was ranked No. 14 on the
Forbes Cloud 100 list.
With the first release on July 21, 2017, Brave web browser features
Github as one of its default search engines.
On 28 February 2018,
GitHub fell victim to the largest distributed
denial-of-service (DDoS) attack in history, reaching a peak of about
1.35 terabits per second. 
Main article: Censorship of GitHub
On 3 December 2014,
GitHub was blocked in Russia for a few days over
user-posted suicide manuals.
On 31 December 2014,
GitHub was blocked in India (along with 31 other
Websites) over pro-
ISIS content posted by users. On 10 January
GitHub was unblocked. Again, on 12 Sep 2015,
GitHub was blocked
all over India. The site was unblocked soon after.
On 26 March 2015,
GitHub fell victim to a massive distributed
denial-of-service (DDoS) attack that lasted for more than 118
hours. The attack, which appeared to originate from China,
primarily targeted GitHub-hosted user content describing methods of
circumventing Internet censorship.
On 8 October 2016,
GitHub access was blocked by the Turkish government
to prevent email leakage of a hacked account belonging to the
country's Energy Minister.
In March 2014,
GitHub programmer Julie Ann Horvath alleged that
founder and CEO
Tom Preston-Werner and his wife Theresa engaged in a
pattern of harassment against her that led to her leaving the
company. In April 2014,
GitHub released a statement denying
Horvath's allegations. However, following an internal
GitHub confirmed the claims. GitHub's CEO Chris
Wanstrath wrote on the company blog, "The investigation found Tom
Preston-Werner in his capacity as GitHub's CEO acted inappropriately,
including confrontational conduct, disregard of workplace complaints,
insensitivity to the impact of his spouse's presence in the workplace,
and failure to enforce an agreement that his spouse should not work in
the office." Preston-Werner then resigned from the company. In
2017 more allegations were made of discriminatory and unsupportive
behavior at Github by a developer, who had been recruited following a
commitment by Github to improve its diversity and inclusivity.
GitHub's mascot, Mona, is a female anthropomorphized "octocat" with
five octopus-like arms. The character was created by graphic
Simon Oxley as clip art to sell on iStock, a website that
enables designers to market royalty-free digital images.
GitHub became interested in Oxley's work after Twitter selected a bird
that he designed for their own logo. The illustration
was a character that Oxley had named Octopuss. Since
Octopuss for their logo (a use that the iStock license disallows),
they negotiated with Oxley to buy exclusive rights to the image.
GitHub renamed Octopuss to Octocat, and trademarked the character
along with the new name. Later,
GitHub hired illustrator Cameron
McEfee to adapt Octocat for different purposes on the website and
promotional materials; McEfee and various
GitHub users have since
created hundreds of variations of the character.
GitHub, Inc. was originally a flat organization with no middle
managers; in other words, "everyone is a manager"
(self-management). Employees can choose to work on projects that
interest them (open allocation). However, salaries are set by the
chief executive.[needs update]
In 2014, GitHub, Inc. introduced a layer of middle management.
GitHub.com was a start-up business, which in its first years provided
enough revenue to be funded solely by its three founders and start
taking on employees. In July 2012, four years after the company
Andreessen Horowitz invested $100M in venture capital.
In July 2015
GitHub raised another $250M of venture capital in a
series B round. Investors were Sequoia Capital, Andreessen Horowitz,
Thrive Capital and other venture capital funds. As of August 2016,
GitHub was making $140M in Annual Recurring Revenue.
Development of the
GitHub platform began on 19 October
2007. The site was launched in April 2008 by Tom
Preston-Werner, Chris Wanstrath, and PJ Hyett after it had been made
available for a few months prior as a beta release.
GitHub can be accessed and manipulated using the standard
Git command-line interface and all of the standard
Git commands work
GitHub also allows registered and non-registered users to
browse public repositories on the site. Multiple desktop clients and
Git plugins have also been created by
GitHub and other third parties
that integrate with the platform.
The site provides social networking-like functions such as feeds,
followers, wikis (using wiki software called Gollum) and a social
network graph to display how developers work on their versions
("forks") of a repository and what fork (and branch within that fork)
A user must create an account in order to contribute content to the
site, but public repositories can be browsed and downloaded by anyone.
With a registered user account, users are able to discuss, manage
repositories, submit contributions to others' repositories, and review
changes to code.
The software that runs
GitHub was written using
Ruby on Rails
Ruby on Rails and
Erlang by GitHub, Inc. developers Chris Wanstrath, PJ Hyett, and
GitHub is mostly used for code.
In addition to source code,
GitHub supports the following formats and
Documentation, including automatically rendered
README files in a
variety of Markdown-like file formats (see
README files on GitHub)
Issue tracking (including feature requests) with labels, milestones,
assignees and a search engine
Pull requests with code review and comments
Graphs: pulse, contributors, commits, code frequency, punch card,
Unified and split diffs
Option to subscribe someone to notifications by @ mentioning them.
GitHub Pages: small websites can be hosted from public repositories on
GitHub. The URL format is https://username.github.io.
Nested task-lists within files
Visualization of geospatial data
3D render files that can be previewed using a new integrated STL file
viewer that displays the files on a "3D canvas". The viewer is
WebGL and Three.js.
Photoshop's native PSD format can be previewed and compared to
previous versions of the same file.
PDF document viewer
Licensing of repositories
Terms of Service do not require public software projects
GitHub to meet the Open Source Definition. For that reason,
it is essential for users and developers intending to use a piece of
software found on
GitHub to read the software license in the
repository (usually found in a top-level file called "LICENSE",
"LICENSE.txt", or similar) to determine if it meets their
needs. The
Terms of Service state, "By setting your
repositories to be viewed publicly, you agree to allow others to view
and fork your repositories."
GitHub Enterprise is similar to GitHub's public service but is
designed for use by large-scale enterprise software development teams
where the enterprise wishes to host their repositories behind a
GitHub also operates other services: a pastebin-style site called
Gist that is for hosting code snippets (
GitHub proper is for
hosting larger projects), and a slide hosting service called Speaker
Tom Preston-Werner presented the then-new Gist feature at a punk rock
Ruby conference in 2008. Gist builds on the traditional simple
concept of a pastebin by adding version control for code snippets,
easy forking, and SSL encryption for private pastes. Because each
"gist" has its own
Git repository, multiple code snippets can be
contained in a single paste and they can be pushed and pulled using
Git. Further, forked code can be pushed back to the original author in
the form of a patch, so gists (pastes) can become more like
GitHub launched a new program called the
GitHub Student Developer Pack
to give students free access to popular development tools and
GitHub partnered with Bitnami, Crowdflower, DigitalOcean,
DNSimple, HackHands, Namecheap, Orchestrate, Screenhero, SendGrid,
Travis CI and
Unreal Engine to launch the program.
GitHub Marketplace service
GitHub also provides some software as a service integrations for
adding extra features to projects. Those services include:
Waffle.io: Project management for software teams. Automatically see
pull requests, automated builds, reviews, and deployments across all
of your repositories in GitHub.
Rollbar: Integrate with
GitHub to provide real time debugging tools
and full-stack exception reporting. It is compatible with all well
Node.js, Android, iOS, Go, Java and C#.
Codebeat: For automated code analysis specialized in web and mobile
developers. The supported languages for this software are: Elixir, Go,
Travis CI: To provide confidence for your apps while doing test and
ship. Also gives full control over the build environment, to adapt it
Python, PHP, Ruby and Swift.
GitLocalize: Developed for teams that are translating their content
from one point to another. GitLocalize automatically syncs with your
repository so you can keep your workflow on GitHub. It also keeps you
updated on what needs to be translated.
Collaborative innovation network
Commons-based peer production
Comparison of source code hosting facilities
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