GITHUB is a web-based
Git or version control repository and Internet
hosting service . It is mostly used for code. It offers all of the
distributed version control and source code management (SCM)
Git as well as adding its own features. It provides
access control and several collaboration features such as bug tracking
, feature requests , task management , and wikis for every project.
GitHub offers both plans for private and free repositories on the
same account which are commonly used to host open-source software
projects. As of April 2017,
GitHub reports having almost 20 million
users and 57 million repositories, making it the largest host of
source code in the world.
GitHub has a mascot called Octocat, a cat with five tentacles and a
* 1 Services
* 1.1.1 Scope
* 1.1.2 Licensing of repositories
* 1.3 Gists
* 1.4 Education program
* 2 History
* 2.1 Censorship
* 2.2 Harassment allegations
* 3 Company
* 3.1 Organizational structure
* 3.2 Finance
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 External links
Development of the
GitHub platform began on 1 October 2007. The
site was launched in April 2008 by
Tom Preston-Werner , Chris
Wanstrath , and PJ Hyett after it had been made available for a few
months prior as a beta release.
GitHub can be accessed and manipulated using the standard
Git command-line interface and all of the standard
Git commands work
GitHub also allows registered and non-registered users to
browse public repositories on the site. Multiple desktop clients and
Git plugins have also been created by
GitHub and other third parties
that integrate with the platform.
The site provides social networking -like functions such as feeds,
followers, wikis (using wiki software called Gollum ) and a social
network graph to display how developers work on their versions ("forks
") of a repository and what fork (and branch within that fork) is
A user must create an account in order to contribute content to the
site, but public repositories can be browsed and downloaded by anyone.
With a registered user account, users are able to discuss, manage,
create repositories, submit contributions to others' repositories, and
review changes to code .
The software that runs
GitHub was written using
Ruby on Rails
Ruby on Rails and
Erlang by GitHub, Inc. developers Chris Wanstrath, PJ Hyett, and Tom
GitHub is mostly used for code.
In addition to source code ,
GitHub supports the following formats
* Documentation, including automatically rendered
README files in a
Markdown -like file formats (see
README files on
Issue tracking (including feature requests) with labels,
milestones, assignees and a search engine
* Pull requests with code review and comments
* Commits history
* Graphs: pulse, contributors, commits, code frequency, punch card,
* Integrations Directory
* Unified and split diffs
* Email notifications
* Option to subscribe someone to notifications by @ mentioning them.
GitHub Pages : small websites can be hosted from public
repositories on GitHub. The URL format is http://username.github.io.
* Nested task-lists within files
* Visualization of geospatial data
* 3D render files that can be previewed using a new integrated STL
file viewer that displays the files on a "3D canvas". The viewer is
Photoshop 's native PSD format can be previewed and compared to
previous versions of the same file.
PDF document viewer
Licensing Of Repositories
Terms of Service do not require public software projects
GitHub to meet the
Open Source Definition . For that reason,
it is essential for users and developers intending to use a piece of
software found on
GitHub to read the software license in the
repository (usually found in a top-level file called "LICENSE",
"LICENSE.txt", or similar) to determine if it meets their needs. The
Terms of Service state, "By setting your repositories to be viewed
publicly, you agree to allow others to view and fork your
GitHub Enterprise is similar to GitHub's public service but is
designed for use by large-scale enterprise software development teams
where the enterprise wishes to host their repositories behind a
corporate firewall .
GitHub also operates other services: a pastebin -style site called
GIST that is for hosting code snippets (
GitHub proper is for hosting
larger projects), and a slide hosting service called Speaker Deck.
Tom Preston-Werner presented the then-new Gist feature at a punk rock
Ruby conference in 2008. Gist builds on the traditional simple
concept of a pastebin by adding version control for code snippets,
easy forking, and SSL encryption for private pastes. Because each
"gist" has its own
Git repository, multiple code snippets can be
contained in a single paste and they can be pushed and pulled using
Git. Further, forked code can be pushed back to the original author in
the form of a patch, so gists (pastes) can become more like
GitHub launched a new program called the
GitHub Student Developer
Pack to give students free access to popular development tools and
GitHub partnered with
Namecheap , Orchestrate, Screenhero,
Travis CI and
Unreal Engine to launch the program.
The shading of the map illustrates the number of users as a
proportion of each country’s Internet population. The circular
charts surrounding the two hemispheres depict the total number of
GitHub users (left) and commits (right) per country.
On 24 February 2009,
GitHub team members announced, in a talk at
Yahoo! headquarters, that within the first year of being online,
GitHub had accumulated over 46,000 public repositories, 17,000 of
which were formed in the previous month alone. At that time, about
6,200 repositories had been forked at least once and 4,600 had been
On 5 July 2009,
GitHub announced that the site was now harnessed by
over 100,000 users. On 27 July 2009, In another talk delivered at
Tom Preston-Werner announced that
GitHub had grown to host
90,000 unique public repositories, 12,000 having been forked at least
once, for a total of 135,000 repositories.
On 25 July 2010,
GitHub announced that it hosts 1 million
repositories. On 20 April 2011,
GitHub announced that it is hosting 2
On 2 June 2011,
ReadWriteWeb reported that
GitHub had surpassed
Google Code in total number of commits for the period
January to May 2011.
On 9 July 2012, Peter Levine , general partner at GitHub's investor
Andreessen Horowitz , stated that
GitHub had been growing revenue at
300% annually since 2008 "profitably nearly the entire way".
On 16 January 2013,
GitHub announced it had passed the 3 million
users mark and was then hosting more than 5 million repositories. On
23 December 2013,
GitHub announced it had reached 10 million
In June 2015,
GitHub opened an office in Japan that is its first
office outside of the U.S.
On 29 July 2015,
GitHub announced it had raised $250 million in
funding in a round led by
Sequoia Capital . The round valued the
company at approximately $2 billion.
GitHub was ranked #14 on the
Forbes Cloud 100 list.
With the first release on July 21, 2017, Brave web browser features
Github as one of its default search engines.
Censorship of GitHub
Censorship of GitHub
On 3 December 2014,
GitHub was blocked in Russia for a few days over
user-posted suicide manuals.
On 31 December 2014,
GitHub was blocked in India (along with 31 other
Websites) over pro-
ISIS content posted by users. On 10 January 2015,
GitHub was unblocked. Again, on 12 Sep 2015,
GitHub was blocked all
over India. The site was unblocked soon after.
On 26 March 2015,
GitHub fell victim to a massive distributed
denial-of-service (DDOS) attack that lasted for more than 118 hours.
The attack, which appeared to originate from
China , primarily
targeted GitHub-hosted user content describing methods of
circumventing Internet censorship .
On 8 October 2016,
GitHub access was blocked by the Turkish
government to prevent email leakage of a hacked account belonging to
the country's Energy Minister.
In March 2014,
GitHub programmer Julie Ann Horvath alleged that
founder and CEO
Tom Preston-Werner and his wife Theresa engaged in a
pattern of harassment against her that led to her leaving the company.
In April 2014,
GitHub released a statement denying Horvath's
allegations. However, following an internal investigation, GitHub
confirmed the claims. GitHub's CEO
Chris Wanstrath wrote on the
company blog , "The investigation found
Tom Preston-Werner in his
capacity as GitHub’s CEO acted inappropriately, including
confrontational conduct, disregard of workplace complaints,
insensitivity to the impact of his spouse's presence in the workplace,
and failure to enforce an agreement that his spouse should not work in
the office." Preston-Werner then resigned from the company. In 2017
more allegations were made of discriminatory and unsupportive behavior
at Github by a developer, who had been recruited following a
commitment by Github to improve its diversity and inclusivity. .
GitHub's mascot , Octocat, is an anthropomorphized female cat with
five octopus-like tentacles . The character was created by graphic
Simon Oxley as clip art to sell on iStock , a website that
enables designers to market royalty-free digital images .
GitHub became interested in Oxley's work after
Twitter selected a
bird that he designed for their own logo. The illustration GitHub
chose was a character that Oxley had named Octopuss. Since GitHub
wanted Octopuss for their logo (a use that the iStock license
disallows), they negotiated with Oxley to buy exclusive rights to the
GitHub renamed Octopuss to Octocat, and trademarked the character
along with the new name. Later,
GitHub hired illustrator Cameron
McEfee to adapt Octocat for different purposes on the website and
promotional materials; McEfee and various
GitHub users have since made
hundreds of variations of the character.
GitHub, Inc. was originally known as Logical Awesome LLC.
As of December 2012 , GitHub, Inc. was a flat organization with no
middle managers; in other words, "everyone is a manager"
(self-management ). Employees can choose to work on projects that
interest them (open allocation ). However, salaries are set by the
In 2014, GitHub, Inc. introduced a layer of middle management.
GitHub.com is a start-up business , which in its first years provided
enough revenue to be funded solely by its three founders and start
taking on employees. In July 2012, four years after the company was
Andreessen Horowitz invested $100M in venture capital . In
GitHub raised another $250M of venture capital in a series B
round . Investors were
Sequoia Capital ,
Andreessen Horowitz , Thrive
Capital and other venture capital funds. As of August 2016, GitHub
was making $140M in Annual Recurring Revenue.
Collaborative innovation network
Commons-based peer production
Comparison of source code hosting facilities
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