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The Girondins
Girondins
(French: [ʒiʁɔ̃dɛ̃]) or Girondists were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution. From 1791 to 1793, the Girondins
Girondins
were active in the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention. Together with the Montagnards, they initially were part of the Jacobin
Jacobin
movement. They campaigned for the end of the monarchy, but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution, which caused a conflict with the more radical Montagnards. They dominated the movement until their fall in the insurrection of 31 May – 2 June 1793, which resulted in the domination of the Montagnards and the purge and mass execution of the Girondins. This event is considered to mark the start of the Reign of Terror. The Girondins
Girondins
were a group of loosely affiliated individuals rather than an organized political party and the name was at first informally applied because the most prominent exponents of their point of view were deputies to the Legislative Assembly from the département of Gironde
Gironde
in southwest France. Girondin leader Jacques-Pierre Brissot
Jacques-Pierre Brissot
proposed an ambitious military plan to spread the Revolution internationally, thus the Girondins
Girondins
were the war party in 1792–1793. Other prominent Girondins
Girondins
included Jean Marie Roland and his wife Madame Roland. They had an ally in the English-born American activist Thomas Paine. Brissot and Madame Roland were executed and Jean Roland (who had gone into hiding) committed suicide when he learned about the execution. Paine was imprisoned, but narrowly escaped execution. The famous painting Death of Marat
Death of Marat
depicts the killing of the fiery radical journalist (and denouncer of the Girondins) Jean-Paul Marat
Jean-Paul Marat
by the Girondin sympathizer Charlotte Corday, who was executed. Although the revolution abolished Three Estate voting (Royals and Nobles voting against the peasantry), factions made impossible any Republican country wide representation.

Contents

1 Identity 2 History

2.1 Rise 2.2 Foreign policy 2.3 Montagnards versus Girondins 2.4 Decline and fall 2.5 Reign of Terror 2.6 Trial of Girondins
Girondins
(1793) 2.7 Girondins
Girondins
as martyrs

3 Ideology 4 Prominent members 5 Electoral results 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Identity[edit] The collective name "Girondins" is used to describe a "a loosely knit group of French deputies who contested the Montagnards for control of the National Convention".[5] They were never an official organization or political party.[6] The name itself was bestowed not by any of its alleged members but from the Montagnards, "who claimed as early as April 1792 that a counterrevolutionary faction had coalesced around deputies of the department of the Gironde".[5] Jacques-Pierre Brissot, Jean Marie Roland and François Buzot
François Buzot
were among the most prominent of such deputies and contemporaries called their supporters Brissotins, Rolandins, or Buzotins, depending on which politician was being blamed for their leadership.[5] Other names were employed at the time too, but "Girondins" ultimately became the term favored by historians.[5] The term became standard with Alphonse de Lamartine's History of the Girondists in 1847.[7] History[edit] Rise[edit]

Madame Roland

Twelve deputies represented the département of the Gironde
Gironde
and there were six who sat for this département in both the Legislative Assembly of 1791–1792 and the National Convention
National Convention
of 1792–1795. Five were lawyers: Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud, Marguerite Élie Guadet, Armand Gensonné, Jean Antoine Laffargue de Grangeneuve and Jean Jay (who was also a Protestant pastor). The other, Jean François Ducos, was a tradesman. In the Legislative Assembly, they represented a compact body of opinion which, though not as yet definitely republican (i.e. against the monarchy), was considerably more "advanced" than the moderate royalism of the majority of the Parisian deputies. A group of deputies from elsewhere became associated with these views, most notably the Marquis de Condorcet, Claude Fauchet, Marc David Lasource, Maximin Isnard, the Comte de Kersaint, Henri Larivière and above all Jacques Pierre Brissot, Jean Marie Roland and Jérôme Pétion, who was elected mayor of Paris
Paris
in succession to Jean Sylvain Bailly on 16 November 1791. Madame Roland, whose salon became their gathering place, had a powerful influence on the spirit and policy of the Girondins. The party cohesion they possessed was connected to the energy of Brissot, who came to be regarded as their mouthpiece in the Assembly and in the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club, hence the name "Brissotins" for his followers. The group was identified by its enemies at the start of the National Convention (20 September 1792). "Brissotins" and "Girondins" were terms of opprobrium used by their enemies in a separate faction of the Jacobin Club, who freely denounced them as enemies of democracy. Foreign policy[edit] In the Legislative Assembly, the Girondins
Girondins
represented the principle of democratic revolution within France
France
and patriotic defiance to the European powers. They supported an aggressive foreign policy and constituted the war party in the period 1792–1793, when revolutionary France
France
initiated a long series of revolutionary wars with other European powers. Brissot proposed an ambitious military plan to spread the Revolution internationally, one that Napoleon
Napoleon
later pursued aggressively.[8] Brissot called on the National Convention
National Convention
to dominate Western Europe by conquering the Rhineland, Poland
Poland
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
with a goal of creating a protective ring of satellite republics in Great Britain, Spain
Spain
and Italy
Italy
by 1795. The Girondins also called for war against Austria, arguing it would rally patriots around the Revolution, liberate oppressed peoples from despotism, and test the loyalty of King Louis XVI.[9] Montagnards versus Girondins[edit]

The Girondins
Girondins
in the La Force Prison
La Force Prison
after their arrest, a woodcut from 1845

Girondins
Girondins
at first dominated the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club, where Brissot's influence had not yet been ousted by Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
and they did not hesitate to use this advantage to stir up popular passion and intimidate those who sought to stay the progress of the Revolution. They compelled the king in 1792 to choose a ministry composed of their partisans, among them Roland, Charles François Dumouriez,[9] Étienne Clavière and Joseph Marie Servan de Gerbey; and they forced a declaration of war against Habsburg Austria
Austria
the same year. In all of this activity, there was no apparent line of cleavage between La Gironde
Gironde
and The Mountain. Montagnards and Girondins
Girondins
alike were fundamentally opposed to the monarchy; both were democrats as well as republicans; and both were prepared to appeal to force in order to realise their ideals. Despite being accused of wanting to weaken the central government ("federalism"), the Girondins
Girondins
desired as little as the Montagnards to break up the unity of France.[10] From the first, the leaders of the two parties stood in avowed opposition, in the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club as in the Assembly. Temperament largely accounts for the dividing line between the parties. The Girondins
Girondins
were doctrinaires and theorists rather than men of action. They initially encouraged armed petitions, but then were dismayed when this led to the émeute (riot) of 20 June 1792. Jean-Marie Roland was typical of their spirit, turning the Ministry of the Exterior into a publishing office for tracts on civic virtues while riotous mobs were burning the châteaux unchecked in the provinces. Girondins
Girondins
did not share the ferocious fanaticism or the ruthless opportunism of the future Montagnard organisers of the Reign of Terror. As the Revolution developed, the Girondins
Girondins
often found themselves opposing its results; the overthrow of the monarchy on 10 August 1792 and the September Massacres
September Massacres
of 1792 occurred while they still nominally controlled the government, but the Girondins
Girondins
tried to distance themselves from the results of the September Massacres. When the National Convention
National Convention
first met on 22 September 1792, the core of like-minded deputies from the Gironde
Gironde
expanded as Jean-Baptiste Boyer-Fonfrède, Jacques Lacaze and François Bergoeing joined five of the six stalwarts of the Legislative Assembly (Jean Jay, the Protestant pastor, drifted toward the Montagnard faction). Their numbers were increased by the return to national politics by former National Constituent Assembly deputies such as Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Étienne, Pétion and Kervélégan, as well as some newcomers as the writer Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
and popular journalist Jean Louis Carra. Decline and fall[edit] See also: Days of 31 May and 2 June 1793 The Girondins
Girondins
proposed suspending the king and summoning of the National Convention, but they agreed not to overthrow the monarchy until Louis XVI became impervious to their counsels. Once the king was overthrown in 1792 and a republic was established, they were anxious to stop the revolutionary movement that they had helped to set in motion. Girondins
Girondins
and historian Pierre Claude François Daunou
Pierre Claude François Daunou
argues in his Mémoires that the Girondins
Girondins
were too cultivated and too polished to retain their popularity for long in times of disturbance, and so they were more inclined to work for the establishment of order, which would mean the guarantee of their own power. The Girondins, who had been the radicals of the Legislative Assembly (1791–1792), became the conservatives of the Convention (1792–1795).[11] The Revolution failed to deliver the immediate gains that had been promised and this made it difficult for the Girondins
Girondins
to draw it to a close easily in the minds of the public. Moreover, the Septembriseurs (the supporters of the September Massacres
September Massacres
such as Robespierre, Danton, Marat and their lesser allies) realised that not only their influence but their safety depended on keeping the Revolution alive. Robespierre, who hated the Girondins, had proposed to include them in the proscription lists of September 1792: The Mountain
The Mountain
Club to a man who desired their overthrow. A group including some Girondins
Girondins
prepared a draft constitution known as the Girondin constitutional project, which was presented to the National Convention
National Convention
in early 1793. Thomas Paine was one of the signers of this proposal. The crisis came in March 1793. The Girondins, who had a majority in the Convention, controlled the executive council and filled the ministries, believed themselves invincible. Their orators had no serious rivals in the hostile camp—their system was established in the purest reason, but the Montagnards made up for what they lacked in talent or in numbers through their boldness and fanatical energy.[citation needed] This was especially fruitful since uncommitted delegates accounted for almost half the total number, even though the Jacobins and Brissotins formed the largest groups. The more radical rhetoric of the Jacobins attracted the support of the revolutionary Paris
Paris
Commune, the Revolutionary Sections (mass assemblies in districts) and the National Guard of Paris
Paris
and they had gained control of the Jacobin
Jacobin
club, where Brissot, absorbed in departmental work, had been superseded by Robespierre. At the Trial of Louis XVI in 1792, most Girondins
Girondins
had voted for the "appeal to the people" and so laid themselves open to the charge of "royalism". They denounced the domination of Paris
Paris
and summoned provincial levies to their aid and so fell under suspicion of "federalism". They strengthened the revolutionary Commune by first decreeing its abolition but withdrawing the decree at the first sign of popular opposition. In the suspicious temper of the times, their vacillation was fatal. Marat never ceased his denunciations of the faction by which France was being betrayed to her ruin and his cry of Nous sommes trahis! ("We are betrayed!") was echoed from group to group in the streets of Paris.[12] The growing hostility of Paris
Paris
to the Girondins
Girondins
received a fateful demonstration by the election on 15 February 1793 of the bitter ex-Girondin Jean-Nicolas Pache
Jean-Nicolas Pache
to the mayoralty. Pache had twice been minister of war in the Girondins
Girondins
government, but his incompetence had laid him open to strong criticism and on 4 February 1793 he had been replaced as minister of war by a vote of the Convention. This was enough to secure him the votes of the Paris electors when he was elected mayor ten days later. The Mountain
The Mountain
was strengthened by the accession of a significant ally whose one idea was to use his new power to avenge himself on his former colleagues. Mayor Pache, with procureur of the Commune Pierre Gaspard Chaumette
Pierre Gaspard Chaumette
and deputy procureur Jacques René Hébert, controlled the armed militias of the 48 revolutionary Sections of Paris
Paris
and prepared to turn this weapon against the Convention.[13] The abortive émeute of 10 March warned the Girondins
Girondins
of their danger and they responded with defensive moves, including the appointment of the Commission of Twelve on 18 May, the arrest of Marat and Hébert and other precautionary measures.[14] They unintentionally increased the prestige of their most vocal and bitter critic Marat by prosecuting him before the Revolutionary Tribunal, where his acquittal in April 1793 was a foregone conclusion. The ominous threat by Girondin leader Maximin Isnard, uttered on 25 May, to "march France
France
upon Paris" was instead met by Paris
Paris
marching hastily upon the Convention. The Girondin role in the government was undermined by the popular uprisings of 27 and 31 May and finally on 2 June 1793, when François Hanriot, head of the Paris
Paris
National Guards, purged the Convention of the Girondins
Girondins
(see Insurrection of 31 May – 2 June 1793). Reign of Terror[edit] Main article: Reign of Terror A list drawn up by the Commandant-General of the Parisian National Guard François Hanriot
François Hanriot
(with help from Marat) and endorsed by a decree of the intimidated Convention, included 22 Girondin deputies and 10 of the 12 members of the Commission of Twelve, who were ordered to be detained at their lodgings "under the safeguard of the people". Some submitted, among them Gensonné, Guadet, Vergniaud, Pétion, Birotteau and Boyer-Fonfrède. Others, including Brissot, Louvet, Buzot, Lasource, Grangeneuve, Larivière and Bergoeing, escaped from Paris
Paris
and, joined later by Guadet, Pétion and Birotteau, set to work to organise a movement of the provinces against the capital. This attempt to stir up civil war made the wavering and frightened Convention suddenly determined. On 13 June 1793, it voted that the city of Paris
Paris
deserved well of the country and ordered the imprisonment of the detained deputies, the filling up of their places in the Assembly by their suppléants and the initiation of vigorous measures against the movement in the provinces. The assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday
on 13 July 1793 only served to increase the unpopularity of the Girondins
Girondins
and seal their fate.[15] The excuse for the Terror that followed was the imminent peril of France, menaced on the east by the advance of the armies of the First Coalition (Austria, Prussia and Great Britain) on the west by the Royalist
Royalist
Revolt in the Vendée
Revolt in the Vendée
and the need for preventing at all costs the outbreak of another civil war. On 28 July 1793, a decree of the Convention proscribed 21 deputies, five of whom were from the Gironde, as traitors and enemies of their country (Antiboul, Boilleau the younger, Boyer-Fonfrêde, Brissot, Carra, Duchastel, the younger Ducos, Dufriche de Valazé, Duprat, Fauchet, Gardien, Gensonné, Lacaze, Lasource, Lauze-Deperret, Lehardi, Lesterpt-Beauvais, the elder Minvielle, Sillery, Vergniaud and Viger). Those were sent to trial. Another 39 were included in the final acte d'accusation, accepted by the Convention on 24 October 1793, which stated the crimes for which they were to be tried as their perfidious ambition, their hatred of Paris, their "federalism" and above all their responsibility for the attempt of their escaped colleagues to provoke civil war.[16][17] Trial of Girondins
Girondins
(1793)[edit]

Execution of the Girondins, woodcut from 1862

The trial of the 22 began before the Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
on 24 October 1793. The verdict was a foregone conclusion. On 31 October, they were borne to the guillotine. It took 36 minutes to cut off 22 heads.[18] Of those who escaped to the provinces, after wandering about singly or in groups most were either captured and executed or committed suicide. They included Barbaroux, Buzot, Condorcet, Grangeneuve, Guadet, Kersaint, Pétion, Rabaut de Saint-Etienne and Rebecqui. Roland killed himself at Rouen
Rouen
on 15 November 1793, a week after the execution of his wife. A very few escaped, including Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvrai, whose Mémoires give a detailed picture of the sufferings of the fugitives.[19] Girondins
Girondins
as martyrs[edit] The survivors of the party made an effort to re-enter the Convention after the fall of Robespierre on 27 July 1794, but it was not until 5 March 1795 that they were formally re-instated. On 3 October of that same year (11 Vendémiaire, year IV), a solemn fête in honour of the Girondins, "martyrs of liberty", was celebrated in the Convention.[20] In her autobiography, Madame Roland
Madame Roland
reshapes her historical image by stressing the popular connection between sacrifice and female virtue. Her Mémoires de Madame Roland
Madame Roland
(1795) was written from prison where she was held as a Girondin sympathizer. It covers her work for the Girondins
Girondins
while her husband Jean-Marie Roland was Interior Minister. The book echoes such popular novels as Rousseau's Julie or the New Héloise by linking her feminine virtue and motherhood to her sacrifice in a cycle of suffering and consolation. Roland says her mother's death was the impetus for her "odyssey from virtuous daughter to revolutionary heroine" as it introduced her to death and sacrifice – with the ultimate sacrifice of her own life for her political beliefs. She helped her husband escape, but she was executed on 8 November 1793. A week later he committed suicide.[21] A monument to the Girondins
Girondins
was erected in Bordeaux
Bordeaux
between 1894 and 1902 dedicated to the memory of the Girondin deputies who were victims of the Terror. Ideology[edit]

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The Gironde
Gironde
was the expression of the lesser nobility, landowners and the bourgeoisie. Because its members were mainly from Bordeaux, in the Gironde, the group had a federalist inspiration. Influenced by liberalism (and the concept of liberal democracy, human rights and Montesquieu's separation of powers), the Girondins initially supported the constitutional monarchy, but after the "Flight to Varennes", when Louis XVI tried to flee Paris
Paris
in order to start a counter-revolution, the Girondins
Girondins
became mostly republicans, with a royalist minority. In its early times of government, the Gironde
Gironde
supported a free market and aggressive foreign policies as well as Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte's wars. The Gironde
Gironde
was also one of the first supporters of abolitionism in France. On the political spectrum, the Girondins
Girondins
can be placed in the centre-left because there were no right-wing groups in the National Convention of the French First Republic, but as the politics of the Convention moved to the left, they came to represent the right.[citation needed] Prominent members[edit]

Jacques Pierre Brissot
Jacques Pierre Brissot
(leader) Jean-Marie Roland Madame Roland Maximin Isnard Jacques Guillaume Thouret Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Armand Gensonné Marquis de Condorcet Pierre Claude François Daunou Marguerite-Élie Guadet Jacques Claude Beugnot Louis Gustave le Doulcet Claude Fauchet François Buzot Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux François Aubry Charles-Louis Antiboul Léger-Félicité Sonthonax

Electoral results[edit]

Legislative Assembly

Election year No. of overall votes % of overall vote No. of overall seats won +/– Leader

National Convention

1792 705,600 (3) 21.4

160 / 749

Jacques Pierre Brissot

See also[edit]

Historiography of the French Revolution Liberalism
Liberalism
and radicalism in France

References[edit]

^ David Barry Gaspar; David Patrick Geggus (1997). A Turbulent Time: The French Revolution
French Revolution
and the Greater Caribbean. Indiana University Press. p. 262.  ^ "Girondin". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Jennifer Llewellyn; Steve Thompson (2015). "The Girondins
Girondins
and Montagnards". Alpha History.  ^ Fremont-Barnes, p. 867. ^ a b c d Fremont-Barnes, p. 306. ^ Furet & Ozouf, p. 351. ^ Bosher, pp. 185–191. ^ Thomas Lalevée, « National Pride and Republican grandezza: Brissot’s New Language for International Politics in the French Revolution », French History and Civilisation (Vol. 6), 2015, pp. 66-82. ^ a b Brace, Richard Munthe (April 1951). "General Dumouriez and the Girondins
Girondins
1792–1793". The American Historical Review. 56 (3): 493–509. doi:10.2307/1848434. JSTOR 1848434.  ^ Bill Edmonds, "'Federalism' and Urban Revolt in France
France
in 1793," Journal of Modern History (1983) 55#1 pp 22-53, ^ Alderson, p. 9. ^ Jack Fruchtman, Jr. (1996). Thomas Paine: Apostle of Freedom. p. 303.  ^ Oliver, pp. 55–56. ^ "History of the Girondists" Page 27, 1848 ^ Linton, pp. 174–175. ^ D.M.G. Sutherland, France
France
1789–1815. Revolution and Counter-Revolution (2nd ed. 2003) ch. 5. ^ Schama, ch. 18. ^ Schama, pp. 803–805. ^ Oliver, pp. 83–89. ^ Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (2005). Recollections of a Provincial Past. Oxford UP. p. 274.  ^ Lesley H. Walker, "Sweet and Consoling Virtue: The Memoirs of Madame Roland," Eighteenth-Century Studies (2001) 34#3 pp 403-19

Bibliography

Alderson, Robert J. (2008). This Bright Era of Happy Revolutions: French Consul Michel-Ange-Bernard Mangourit and International Republicanism
Republicanism
in Charleston, 1792–1794. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 9781570037450.  Bosher, John F. (1989) [1988]. The French Revolution. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 039395997X.  Fremont-Barnes, Gregory, ed. (2007). Encyclopedia of the Age of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies, 1760–1815. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313049513.  Furet, François; Ozouf, Mona, eds. (1989). A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-17728-2.  Linton, Marisa (2013). Choosing Terror: Virtue, Friendship, and Authenticity in the French Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199576302.  Oliver, Bette W. (2009). Orphans on the Earth: Girondin Fugitives from the Terror, 1793-94. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739140680.  Schama, Simon (1989). Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Vintage. ISBN 0679726101. 

Further reading[edit]

The article was originally a copy of the 1911 article.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Girondists". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Brace, Richard Munthe. "General Dumouriez and the Girondins 1792–1793", American Historical Review (1951) 56#3 pp. 493–509 in JSTOR. de Luna, Frederick A. "The 'Girondins' Were Girondins, After All," French Historical Studies (1988) 15: 506-18. in JSTOR. DiPadova, Theodore A. "The Girondins
Girondins
and the Question of Revolutionary Government", French Historical Studies (1976) 9#3 pp. 432–450 in JSTOR. Ellery, Eloise. Brissot De Warville: A Study in the History of the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1915) excerpt and text search. François Furet and Mona Ozouf. eds. La Gironde
Gironde
et les Girondins. Paris: éditions Payot, 1991. Higonnet, Patrice. "The Social and Cultural Antecedents of Revolutionary Discontinuity: Montagnards and Girondins," English Historical Review (1985): 100#396 pp. 513–544 in JSTOR. Thomas Lalevée, "National Pride and Republican grandezza: Brissot’s New Language for International Politics in the French Revolution", French History and Civilisation (Vol. 6), 2015, pp. 66–82. Lamartine, Alphonse de. History of the Girondists, Volume I Personal Memoirs of the Patriots of the French Revolution
French Revolution
(1847) online free in Kindle edition; Volume 1, Volume 2 Volume 3. Lewis-Beck, Michael S., Anne Hildreth, and Alan B. Spitzer. "Was there a Girondist
Girondist
faction in the National Convention, 1792–1793?" French Historical Studies (1988) 11#4 pp: 519-36. in JSTOR. Linton, Marisa, Choosing Terror: Virtue, Friendship and Authenticity in the French Revolution
French Revolution
(Oxford University Press, 2013). Loomis, Stanley, Paris
Paris
in the Terror. (1964). Patrick, Alison. "Political Divisions in the French National Convention, 1792-93," Journal of Modern History(1969) 41#4 pp: 422-474. in JSTOR; rejects Sydenham's argument & says Girondins were a real faction. Patrick, Alison. The Men of the First French Republic: Political Alignments in the National Convention
National Convention
of 1792 (1972), comprehensive study of the group's role. Scott, Samuel F. and Barry Rothaus. Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution
French Revolution
1789–1799 (1985) Vol. 1 pp 433–36 online. Sutherland, D.M.G. France
France
1789–1815. Revolution and Counter-Revolution (2nd ed. 2003) ch 5. Sydenham, Michael J. "The Montagnards and Their Opponents: Some Considerations on a Recent Reassessment of the Conflicts in the French National Convention, 1792-93," Journal of Modern History (1971) 43#2 pp. 287–293 in JSTOR; argues that the Girondins
Girondins
faction was mostly a myth created by Jacobins. Whaley, Leigh Ann. Radicals: Politics and Republicanism
Republicanism
in the French Revolution. Gloucestershire, England: Sutton Publishing, 2000.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Girondists.

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French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility
Nobility
(19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris
Paris
Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist
Royalist
Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

Authority control

.