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Girnar, also known as Girinagar ('city-on-the-hill') or Revatak Parvata, is a group of mountains in the Junagadh
Junagadh
District of Gujarat, India, situated near Junagadh. Is considered older than the Himalayas,[1] Girnar, the mountain and its range are considered sacred. It is an important pilgrimage site for both Jains and Hindus, who gather here during the Girnar
Girnar
Parikrama festival. Girnar
Girnar
is one of the five major 'tirthas' attributed to the 'panch kalyanakas' of various ' Jain
Jain
tirthankaras'. Girnar
Girnar
is also significant among Shiva
Shiva
devotees for the so-called "mystic space-time" of the mountain range, with the presence and turnover of different sects of Sadhu
Sadhu
Babas, Nath
Nath
sect and others. Flora and fauna fairs are also held at the mountains, such as the Maha Shivratri
Maha Shivratri
fair. Different Jain
Jain
Tirthankaras and monks have in the past visited and practiced severe penance at the peaks of Girnar. It hosts a number of temples and some historical spots across its range. Amidst the lush green Gir Forest, the mountain range serves as the hub of religious activity. For Jains this place is considered holy as Nirvana Kshetra and Nirvan bhumi of 22nd Tirthankara
Tirthankara
Neminath & For Hindus this place is considered holy as Dattatreya
Dattatreya
stayed there. Also as per mythology, this place is associated with the death of the mighty Yavana
Yavana
warrior Kalayavana
Kalayavana
in Dwaparyug. Lord Shri Krishna
Krishna
lured Kalayavana
Kalayavana
into the cave where the great king of Tretayug, Muchukunda, one of the forefathers of Lord Shri Rama was in an deep slumber of an thousands of years after helping Devas in an epic war with Asuras. Contemplating an absolutely undisturbed sleep he was given a boon that anyone who dared to disturb his sleep would get burnt to ashes immediately. Fast forward to Dwaparyug, in the darkness deep inside the cave, Kalayavan mistakenly wakes up Muchukunda
Muchukunda
from his sleep, and sure to his boon Kalayavan was decimated into ashes instantaneously. Then Muchukunda
Muchukunda
was delighted to see Lord Shri Krisha there, who was none other than the Lord Vishnu. This story is very popular in Srimad Bhagavata. Lord Damodar here is considered as Adhipati of Girnar Kshetra. This place is very holy for Vaishnavaits. Notwithstanding the story though, today Mount Girnar
Girnar
is even more popular as a Shaiva and Siddha Kshetra. This mountain was considered holy to Buddhists as well.[2] According to tradition, Pavhari Baba, who had an immense influence on Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
was first initiated into the mysteries of practical yoga on the top of mount Girnar.

Contents

1 Geology 2 History

2.1 Girnar's Initial trek 2.2 Jain
Jain
temples 2.3 Further trek

3 Festivals 4 See also 5 References

Geology[edit] Mount Girnar
Girnar
is a major igneous plutonic complex which intruded into the basalts towards the close of the Deccan Trap
Deccan Trap
period. The rock types identified in this complex are gabbros (tholeiitic and alkalic), diorites, lamprophyres, alkali-syenites and rhyolites. The parent gabbroic magma is shown to have given rise in sequence to diorites, lamprophyres and alkali-syenites. The rhyolite, though earlier considered a product of differentiation, is now believed to be an independent magma without any genetic link with the gabbro and its variants.[3][4] History[edit] The mountain Girnar
Girnar
is older than the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Jain
Jain
temples upon it are amongst the most ancient in the country; it is the Nirvan bhumi of 22nd Tirthankara
Tirthankara
Neminath. It is 3666 feet high, and is one of the most remarkable mountains in India. From the city of Junagarh, which is at an altitude of barely 351 feet only the top of Mount Girnar
Girnar
can be seen, as it has in front of it lower hills, of which Jogniya, or Laso Pawadi, 2527 feet; Lakhshman Tekri, Bensla, 2290 feet high; and Datar, 2779 feet high, are the principals.[5]

Girnar's Initial trek[edit]

Ashoka's Rock Edict

Bhavnath
Bhavnath
Mahadev Temple at Bhavnath

The base of the mountain, known as Girnar
Girnar
Taleti, is about 4 km east of the center of Junagadh. There are temples and other sacred places all along this stretch. The traveller, in order to reach Girnar
Girnar
Taleti from Junagadh
Junagadh
city, will pass through the Wagheshwari or Vagheshwari Gate [Girnar Darwaza], which is close to the Uparkot
Uparkot
fort area, Easterly. At about 200 metres from the gate, to the right of the road, is the Temple of Wagheshwari (Upale Vagheshwari maa), which is joined to the road by a causeway about 150 yards long. An ancient Verai Mata mandir and a modern Gayatri Shakti Peeth mandir are nearby. About a furlong beyond this is a stone bridge, and just beyond it on the right are the Ashoka's Major Rock Edicts.[5] The edicts are inscribed high up on a large, domed mass of black granite measuring roughly 20 feet x 30 feet. The inscription is in Brahmi script.[6] On the same rock can be found an inscription of the Western Satrap
Western Satrap
ruler Rudradaman, the Junagadh
Junagadh
rock inscription of Rudradaman. On leaving Ashoka's edicts, the route crosses the handsome bridge over the Sona-rekha, which here forms a fine sheet of water over golden sand, then passes a number of temples, at first on the left bank of the river and then on the right, to the largest of the temples. This is dedicated to Damodar, a name of Krishna, from Dam, a rope, because by tradition his mother in vain attempted to confine him with a rope when a child. The reservoir, Damodar Kund, at this place is accounted very sacred.[5] Next is an old shrine of Bhavnath, a form of Shiva, close to Girnar Taleti; Mrigi kund and Sudharshan lake are nearby. Most persons who are not active climbers will probably proceed up the mountain in a swing doli from Taleti. A long ridge runs up from the west, and culminates in a rugged scarped rock, on the top of which are the temples. Close to the old shrine is a well called the Chadani vav.[5] The paved way begins just beyond this and continues for two-thirds of the ascent. The first resthouse, Chadia Parab, is reached, 480 feet, above the plain; and the second halting-place at Dholi-deri, 1000 feet above the plain. From here the ascent becomes more difficult, winding under the face of the precipice to the third resthouse, 1400 feet up. The path turns to the right along the edge of a precipice, which is very narrow, so that the doli almost grazes the scarp, which rises perpendicularly 200 feet above the traveller. On the right is seen the lofty mountain of Datar, covered with low jungle. At about 1500 feet there is a stone dharmsala, and from this there is a fine view of the rock called the Bhairav-Thampa, "the terrific leap," because devotees used to cast themselves from its top, falling 1000 feet or more.[5] At 2370 feet above Junagadh
Junagadh
the gate of the enclosure known as the Deva Kota, or Ra Khengar's Palace, is reached.[5] Jain
Jain
temples[edit] Main article: Girnar
Girnar
Jain
Jain
temples

Girnar
Girnar
mountain is highest mountain of Gujarat
Gujarat
state, India. On the mountain there are many temples of Hindu
Hindu
and Jain
Jain
religion. Some of them are in this photo. Photo is captured from much above than these temples during summit of Girnar
Girnar
mountain. In this photo main Jain temple on Girnar
Girnar
mountain - Neminath Derasar is also featured.

Neminatha
Neminatha
temple

On entering the gate, the large enclosure of the temples is on the left, while to the right is the old granite temple of Man Singh, Bhoja Raja of Kutch, and farther on the much larger one of Vastupala. Built into the wall on the left of the entrance is an inscription in Sanskrit. Some 16 Jain
Jain
temples here form a sort of fort on the ledge at the top of the great cliff, but still 600 feet below the summit. The largest temple is the Neminath temple, standing in a quadrangular court 195 x 130 feet. It was built from 1128 to 1159.[citation needed] It consists of two halls (with two porches, called by the Hindus mandapams), and a shrine, which contains a large black image of Neminath, the 22d Tirthankar. Around the shrine is a passage with many images in white marble. Between the outer and inner halls are two shrines. The outer hall has two small raised platforms paved with slabs of yellow stone, covered with representations of feet in pairs called padukas, which represent the 2452 feet of the Gandharas, first disciples of Tirthankaras. On the west of this is a porch overhanging the perpendicular scarp. On two of the pillars of the mandapam are inscriptions dated 1275, 1281, and 1278—dates of restoration. The enclosure is nearly surrounded inside by 70 cells, each enshrining a marble image, with a covered passage in front of them lighted by a perforated stone screen. The principal entrance was originally on the east side of the court, but it is now closed, and the entrance from the court in Khengar's Palace is that now used. There is a passage leading into a low dark temple, with granite pillars in lines. Opposite the entrance is a recess containing two large black images; in the back of the recess is a lion rampant, and over it a crocodile in bas-relief. Behind these figures is a room from which is a descent into a cave, with a large white marble image which is mostly concealed by priests. It has a slight hollow in the shoulder, said to be caused by water dropping from the ear, whence it was called Amijhara, "nectar drop."[5] Neminath is said to have attained Moksha
Moksha
from Girnar
Girnar
so this place is frequently noted in Jain
Jain
literature.[7] In the North porch are inscriptions which state that in Samwat 1215 certain Thakurs completed the shrine, and built the Temple of Ambika. After leaving this there are three temples to the left that on the south side contain a colossal image of Rishabha Deva, the first Tirthankar, exactly like that at Palitana temples, called Bhim-Padam. On the throne of this image is a slab of yellow stone carved in 1442, with figures of the 24 Tirthankars.[5] Opposite this temple is a modern one to Panchabai. West of it is a large temple called Malakavisi or Meravasi, sacred to Parshwanath, built in the 15th century.[citation needed] North of this is another temple of Parshwanath, which contains a large white marble image canopied by a cobra, whence it is called Sheshphani, an arrangement frequently found in the South India but uncommon in the North India. It bears a date of 1803. The last temple to the north is Kumarpal's temple, built by Chaulukya king Kumarapala, which has a long open portico on the west. It appears to have been destroyed by the Muslims, and restored in 1824 by Hansraja Jetha. These temples are along the west face of the hill, and are all enclosed.[5] Outside to the north is the Bhima Kunda, a tank 70 feet by 50 feet, in which Hindus bathe. Immediately behind the temple of Neminath is the triple one temple, Vastupala-Tejpala temple, erected by the brothers Tejapala and Vastupala (built in 1177), who also built the Dilwara Temples on Mount Abu. The plan is that of three temples joined together. The shrine has a blue black image of Mallinath, the 19th Tirthankar. Farther north is the temple of Samprati
Samprati
Raja, This temple is probably one of the oldest on the hill, dating to 1158. Samprati
Samprati
is said to have ruled at Ujjain in the end of the third century BCE, and to have been the son of Kunala, Ashoka's third son.[5] Further trek[edit]

Trek

Neminath Footprint 5th Tonk & Dattatreya
Dattatreya
Temple on the topmost peak

Shambhunath Footprint 3rd Tonk & Gorakhnath shrine 5th Tonk in background

South of this, and 200 feet above the Jain
Jain
temples, is the Gaumukhi Shrine, near a plentiful spring of water.[5] From it the crest of the mountain (3330 feet) is reached by a steep flight of stairs. Here is an ancient temple of Amba Mata, which is much resorted to by newly married couples (2nd / 3rd tonk of Jains). The bride and bridegroom have their clothes tied together, and attended by their male and female relations, adore the goddess and present cocoa-nuts and other offerings. This pilgrimage is supposed to procure for the couple along continuance of wedded bliss.[5] To the east not far off, are the three rocky spires of the Gorakhnath, 5th tonk of Jains Top most peak is Guru Dattatreya
Dattatreya
Paduka formally jain claim that it's Neminath Paduka but they loose legal case in gujrat high court n it's officially it's Bhagwan Dattatraya Paduka where lord Dattatraya had tappsya for 12500years and then Kalika Peaks.[5] The paduka, the footprints, of Guru Dattartreya Bhagwaan is the topmost shrine. On the summit of the Datar Peak (2779 feet) is a small shrine, and from it a very beautiful view. The hill is held sacred by Muslims and Hindus alike.[5] Festivals[edit]

Entrance to Girnar
Girnar
Parikrama

As it is holy place as Siddha Kshetra of Jains, for the moksha of Shri Neminath Bhagwaan (22th tirthanker), Jains celebrate Moksha
Moksha
Kalyanak of Neminath Bhagwaan on Ashad Shukla satam (7). Moksha
Moksha
Sthali of Shri Neminath Bhagwaan is 5th tonk (presently known as dattratraya as per Hindu
Hindu
monks). The main event for Hindus is the Maha Shivaratri
Maha Shivaratri
fair held every year on the 14th day of the Hindu
Hindu
calendar month of Magha. At least 1 million pilgrims visit the fair to participate in pooja and parikrama of Girnar
Girnar
hill. The procession begins at Bhavnath
Bhavnath
Mahadev Temple at Bhavnath. It then proceeds onwards to various akharas of various sects of sadhus, which are in Girnar
Girnar
hill from ancient times. The procession of sadhus and pilgrims ends again at Bhavnath
Bhavnath
temple after visiting Madhi, Malavela and Bara Devi temple. The fair begins with hoisting of fifty-two Gaja long flag at Bhavnath
Bhavnath
Mahadev temple. This fair is the backbone of the economy of Junagadh, as more than ten lakh pilgrims who visit the fair generate a revenue of 250 million in only five days.[8][9][10][11] See also[edit]

Stepwell

References[edit]

^ Ibrahim, Farhana. "The Region and Its Margins Re-appropriations of the_Border from Maha Gujarat
Gujarat
to Swarnim Gujarat". Academia.edu. Academia.edu. Retrieved 10 March 2013.  ^ "Sketch of the life of Pavhari Baba". www.advaitaashrama.org.  ^ R. N. Sukheswala (January 1982). "Igneous Complex of Mount Girnar, Saurashtra, Gujarat
Gujarat
- A Reappraisal". Journal of the Geological Society of India. 23 (1). CS1 maint: Date and year (link) ^ Mihir K. Bose (January 1973). "Petrology and geochemistry of the igneous complex of Mount Girnar, Gujarat, India". Bose, M.K. Contr. Mineral. and Petrol. (1973) 39: 247. Springer-Verlag. doi:10.1007/BF00383107. ISSN 0010-7999.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Murray, John (1911). "A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon". Internet Archive. pp. 155–157. Retrieved 28 January 2016.  ^ Keay, John (2000). India, a History. New York, United States: Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 129–131. ISBN 0-00-638784-5.  ^ M A Dhaky, Jitendra B Shah, સાહિત્ય શિલ્પ અને સ્થાપત્યમાં ગીરનાર, L D Indology, 2010 ^ "બાવન ગજની ધ્વજાનાં આરોહણ સાથે આજથી મહાશિવરાત્રિ મેળો Shivaratri fair begins today with hoisting of 52 gaja dwaja". Sandesh. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ "ગિરનાર ઃ લીલી પરિક્રમા ઃ પરકમ્મા Girnar
Girnar
- Lili Parikrama". Gujarat
Gujarat
Samachar. 4 August 2012. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.  ^ "જૂનાગઢની આર્થિક કરોડરજજુ શિવરાત્રિનો મેળો : પાંચ દિવસમાં રૂ.રપ કરોડનો લાભ Junagadh's economic backbone - Girnar Shivaratri fair - generates income of 25 crores in five days". Sandesh. 18 February 2012. Archived from the original on 2007-12-23. Retrieved 22 August 2012.  ^ "My Experience of Girnar
Girnar
Parikrama
Parikrama
2011 - SpeakBindas". www.speakbindas.com. 

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