Girnar, also known as Girinagar ('city-on-the-hill') or Revatak
Parvata, is a group of mountains in the
Junagadh District of Gujarat,
India, situated near Junagadh.
Is considered older than the Himalayas, Girnar, the mountain and
its range are considered sacred. It is an important pilgrimage site
for both Jains and Hindus, who gather here during the
Girnar is one of the five major 'tirthas' attributed to the
'panch kalyanakas' of various '
Girnar is also
Shiva devotees for the so-called "mystic space-time"
of the mountain range, with the presence and turnover of different
Nath sect and others. Flora and fauna fairs are
also held at the mountains, such as the
Maha Shivratri fair. Different
Jain Tirthankaras and monks have in the past visited and practiced
severe penance at the peaks of Girnar. It hosts a number of temples
and some historical spots across its range. Amidst the lush green Gir
Forest, the mountain range serves as the hub of religious activity.
For Jains this place is considered holy as Nirvana Kshetra and Nirvan
bhumi of 22nd
Tirthankara Neminath & For Hindus this place is
considered holy as
Dattatreya stayed there.
Also as per mythology, this place is associated with the death of the
Kalayavana in Dwaparyug. Lord Shri
Kalayavana into the cave where the great king of Tretayug, Muchukunda,
one of the forefathers of Lord Shri Rama was in an deep slumber of an
thousands of years after helping Devas in an epic war with Asuras.
Contemplating an absolutely undisturbed sleep he was given a boon that
anyone who dared to disturb his sleep would get burnt to ashes
immediately. Fast forward to Dwaparyug, in the darkness deep inside
the cave, Kalayavan mistakenly wakes up
Muchukunda from his sleep, and
sure to his boon Kalayavan was decimated into ashes instantaneously.
Muchukunda was delighted to see Lord Shri Krisha there, who was
none other than the Lord Vishnu. This story is very popular in Srimad
Bhagavata. Lord Damodar here is considered as Adhipati of Girnar
Kshetra. This place is very holy for Vaishnavaits. Notwithstanding the
story though, today Mount
Girnar is even more popular as a Shaiva and
This mountain was considered holy to Buddhists as well.
According to tradition, Pavhari Baba, who had an immense influence on
Swami Vivekananda was first initiated into the mysteries of practical
yoga on the top of mount Girnar.
2.1 Girnar's Initial trek
2.3 Further trek
4 See also
Girnar is a major igneous plutonic complex which intruded into
the basalts towards the close of the
Deccan Trap period. The rock
types identified in this complex are gabbros (tholeiitic and alkalic),
diorites, lamprophyres, alkali-syenites and rhyolites. The parent
gabbroic magma is shown to have given rise in sequence to diorites,
lamprophyres and alkali-syenites. The rhyolite, though earlier
considered a product of differentiation, is now believed to be an
independent magma without any genetic link with the gabbro and its
Girnar is older than the
Himalayas and the
upon it are amongst the most ancient in the country; it is the Nirvan
bhumi of 22nd
Tirthankara Neminath. It is 3666 feet high, and is one
of the most remarkable mountains in India. From the city of Junagarh,
which is at an altitude of barely 351 feet only the top of Mount
Girnar can be seen, as it has in front of it lower hills, of which
Jogniya, or Laso Pawadi, 2527 feet; Lakhshman Tekri, Bensla, 2290 feet
high; and Datar, 2779 feet high, are the principals.
Girnar's Initial trek
Ashoka's Rock Edict
Bhavnath Mahadev Temple at Bhavnath
The base of the mountain, known as
Girnar Taleti, is about 4 km
east of the center of Junagadh. There are temples and other sacred
places all along this stretch.
The traveller, in order to reach
Girnar Taleti from
will pass through the Wagheshwari or Vagheshwari Gate [Girnar
Darwaza], which is close to the
Uparkot fort area, Easterly.
At about 200 metres from the gate, to the right of the road, is the
Temple of Wagheshwari (Upale Vagheshwari maa), which is joined to the
road by a causeway about 150 yards long. An ancient Verai Mata mandir
and a modern Gayatri Shakti Peeth mandir are nearby.
About a furlong beyond this is a stone bridge, and just beyond it on
the right are the Ashoka's Major Rock Edicts. The edicts are
inscribed high up on a large, domed mass of black granite measuring
roughly 20 feet x 30 feet. The inscription is in Brahmi script. On
the same rock can be found an inscription of the
Western Satrap ruler
Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman.
On leaving Ashoka's edicts, the route crosses the handsome bridge over
the Sona-rekha, which here forms a fine sheet of water over golden
sand, then passes a number of temples, at first on the left bank of
the river and then on the right, to the largest of the temples. This
is dedicated to Damodar, a name of Krishna, from Dam, a rope, because
by tradition his mother in vain attempted to confine him with a rope
when a child. The reservoir, Damodar Kund, at this place is accounted
Next is an old shrine of Bhavnath, a form of Shiva, close to Girnar
Taleti; Mrigi kund and Sudharshan lake are nearby.
Most persons who are not active climbers will probably proceed up the
mountain in a swing doli from Taleti. A long ridge runs up from the
west, and culminates in a rugged scarped rock, on the top of which are
the temples. Close to the old shrine is a well called the Chadani
The paved way begins just beyond this and continues for two-thirds of
the ascent. The first resthouse, Chadia Parab, is reached, 480 feet,
above the plain; and the second halting-place at Dholi-deri, 1000 feet
above the plain. From here the ascent becomes more difficult, winding
under the face of the precipice to the third resthouse, 1400 feet up.
The path turns to the right along the edge of a precipice, which is
very narrow, so that the doli almost grazes the scarp, which rises
perpendicularly 200 feet above the traveller. On the right is seen the
lofty mountain of Datar, covered with low jungle. At about 1500 feet
there is a stone dharmsala, and from this there is a fine view of the
rock called the Bhairav-Thampa, "the terrific leap," because devotees
used to cast themselves from its top, falling 1000 feet or more.
At 2370 feet above
Junagadh the gate of the enclosure known as the
Deva Kota, or Ra Khengar's Palace, is reached.
Girnar mountain is highest mountain of
Gujarat state, India. On the
mountain there are many temples of
Jain religion. Some of
them are in this photo. Photo is captured from much above than these
temples during summit of
Girnar mountain. In this photo main Jain
Girnar mountain - Neminath Derasar is also featured.
On entering the gate, the large enclosure of the temples is on the
left, while to the right is the old granite temple of Man Singh, Bhoja
Raja of Kutch, and farther on the much larger one of Vastupala. Built
into the wall on the left of the entrance is an inscription in
Sanskrit. Some 16
Jain temples here form a sort of fort on the ledge
at the top of the great cliff, but still 600 feet below the summit.
The largest temple is the Neminath temple, standing in a quadrangular
court 195 x 130 feet. It was built from 1128 to 1159.
It consists of two halls (with two porches, called by the Hindus
mandapams), and a shrine, which contains a large black image of
Neminath, the 22d Tirthankar. Around the shrine is a passage with many
images in white marble. Between the outer and inner halls are two
shrines. The outer hall has two small raised platforms paved with
slabs of yellow stone, covered with representations of feet in pairs
called padukas, which represent the 2452 feet of the Gandharas, first
disciples of Tirthankaras. On the west of this is a porch overhanging
the perpendicular scarp. On two of the pillars of the mandapam are
inscriptions dated 1275, 1281, and 1278—dates of restoration. The
enclosure is nearly surrounded inside by 70 cells, each enshrining a
marble image, with a covered passage in front of them lighted by a
perforated stone screen.
The principal entrance was originally on the east side of the court,
but it is now closed, and the entrance from the court in Khengar's
Palace is that now used. There is a passage leading into a low dark
temple, with granite pillars in lines. Opposite the entrance is a
recess containing two large black images; in the back of the recess is
a lion rampant, and over it a crocodile in bas-relief. Behind these
figures is a room from which is a descent into a cave, with a large
white marble image which is mostly concealed by priests. It has a
slight hollow in the shoulder, said to be caused by water dropping
from the ear, whence it was called Amijhara, "nectar drop."
Neminath is said to have attained
Girnar so this place is
frequently noted in
In the North porch are inscriptions which state that in Samwat 1215
certain Thakurs completed the shrine, and built the Temple of Ambika.
After leaving this there are three temples to the left that on the
south side contain a colossal image of Rishabha Deva, the first
Tirthankar, exactly like that at Palitana temples, called Bhim-Padam.
On the throne of this image is a slab of yellow stone carved in 1442,
with figures of the 24 Tirthankars.
Opposite this temple is a modern one to Panchabai. West of it is a
large temple called Malakavisi or Meravasi, sacred to Parshwanath,
built in the 15th century. North of this is another
temple of Parshwanath, which contains a large white marble image
canopied by a cobra, whence it is called Sheshphani, an arrangement
frequently found in the South India but uncommon in the North India.
It bears a date of 1803. The last temple to the north is Kumarpal's
temple, built by Chaulukya king Kumarapala, which has a long open
portico on the west. It appears to have been destroyed by the Muslims,
and restored in 1824 by Hansraja Jetha. These temples are along the
west face of the hill, and are all enclosed.
Outside to the north is the Bhima Kunda, a tank 70 feet by 50 feet, in
which Hindus bathe. Immediately behind the temple of Neminath is the
triple one temple, Vastupala-Tejpala temple, erected by the brothers
Tejapala and Vastupala (built in 1177), who also built the Dilwara
Temples on Mount Abu. The plan is that of three temples joined
together. The shrine has a blue black image of Mallinath, the 19th
Tirthankar. Farther north is the temple of
Samprati Raja, This temple
is probably one of the oldest on the hill, dating to 1158.
said to have ruled at Ujjain in the end of the third century BCE, and
to have been the son of Kunala, Ashoka's third son.
Neminath Footprint 5th Tonk &
Dattatreya Temple on the topmost
Shambhunath Footprint 3rd Tonk & Gorakhnath shrine 5th Tonk in
South of this, and 200 feet above the
Jain temples, is the Gaumukhi
Shrine, near a plentiful spring of water.
From it the crest of the mountain (3330 feet) is reached by a steep
flight of stairs. Here is an ancient temple of Amba Mata, which is
much resorted to by newly married couples (2nd / 3rd tonk of Jains).
The bride and bridegroom have their clothes tied together, and
attended by their male and female relations, adore the goddess and
present cocoa-nuts and other offerings. This pilgrimage is supposed to
procure for the couple along continuance of wedded bliss.
To the east not far off, are the three rocky spires of the Gorakhnath,
5th tonk of Jains Top most peak is Guru
Dattatreya Paduka formally
jain claim that it's Neminath Paduka but they loose legal case in
gujrat high court n it's officially it's Bhagwan Dattatraya Paduka
where lord Dattatraya had tappsya for 12500years and then Kalika
Peaks. The paduka, the footprints, of Guru Dattartreya Bhagwaan is
the topmost shrine.
On the summit of the Datar Peak (2779 feet) is a small shrine, and
from it a very beautiful view. The hill is held sacred by Muslims and
As it is holy place as Siddha Kshetra of Jains, for the moksha of Shri
Neminath Bhagwaan (22th tirthanker), Jains celebrate
of Neminath Bhagwaan on Ashad Shukla satam (7).
Moksha Sthali of Shri
Neminath Bhagwaan is 5th tonk (presently known as dattratraya as per
The main event for Hindus is the
Maha Shivaratri fair held every year
on the 14th day of the
Hindu calendar month of Magha. At least
1 million pilgrims visit the fair to participate in pooja and
Girnar hill. The procession begins at
Temple at Bhavnath. It then proceeds onwards to various akharas of
various sects of sadhus, which are in
Girnar hill from ancient times.
The procession of sadhus and pilgrims ends again at
after visiting Madhi, Malavela and Bara Devi temple. The fair begins
with hoisting of fifty-two Gaja long flag at
Bhavnath Mahadev temple.
This fair is the backbone of the economy of Junagadh, as more than ten
lakh pilgrims who visit the fair generate a revenue of
250 million in only five days.
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અને સ્થાપત્યમાં ગીરનાર, L D
^ "બાવન ગજની ધ્વજાનાં આરોહણ
સાથે આજથી મહાશિવરાત્રિ
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કરોડનો લાભ Junagadh's economic backbone - Girnar
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State of Gujarat
National parks and sanctuaries
Regions of Gujarat
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests
Northwestern thorn scrub forests
Rann of Kutch
Ahmedabad Bus Rapid Transit System
Gujarat International Finance Tec-City
Sardar Sarovar Dam
Power stations and power organisations
Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation